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Natural Resources 

The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 



From June until the fifth of Septem- 
ber, 1922, when the road to Camp Aliee 
on the State Park of Mt. Mitchell was 
opened, there were represented among 
the thousands of visitors who followed 
the trail no less than thirty-five states 
and eight foreign countries. This year 
the travel has now begun and by the time 
the season closes tourists, literally by the 
scores of thousands, will have visited the 
highest peak east of the Rockies ; heard 
the story of Elisha Mitchell, bis ill-fated 
journey and the search that ended when 
Big Tom Wilson found the crushed body 
of the man whose measurements and 
pioneer exploration gave the park its 
authentic fame. They will have gazed 
upon the monument marking his resting 
place and from Lookout Tower thrilled 
at the spread panorama of the giant hills 
that keep counsel with their master. 

In that view the march of vision in- 
cludes Black Brothers and Balsam Cone, 
within the park itself; Cattail, Deer 
Mountain and Cello ; Roan Mountain 
and the Unakas of Tennessee in the dis- 
tance. There bulks Grandfather; yonder 
lie Toe River, the Mount Mitchell Na- 
tional Forest, the Linville Mountain, and 
the distant foothills merging map-like 
and tiny into the Piedmont. Again the 
eye encounters Clingman's, the Pinnacle, 
Blackstock's Knob, the Craggies, the Pis- 
gab range. Yates' Knob — historic spot 
from which Mitchell made his calcula- 
tions — the Oreat Smoky Mountains 
across Buncombe county. 

A clear day and the "top of the world !" 
In such a vision is a value that trans- 
cends the idea of private ownership. 
This pageant of grandeur and beauty is, 
like sea and sky, the common heritage. 
Nowhere could one get more impressively 
the idea of a peak as a part of the sov- 
ereignty of the State in which all people 
are sharers. Yet in the very realization 
that this park was inevitable is born the 
thought that inevitably it is but the first 
promise of performance of the larger 

Meeting the Holiday Spirit 

Mount Mitchell, first of the State 
(Continued on Page Three) 


At the root of the problem of the vast yearly loss through destruction of 
timber by fires is the habit inherited from a day when the prevalence and 
lavishness of forests rendered their owners indifferent to carelessness and 
depredations on the part of the public. 

Private individuals, corporations, and all thoughtful governmental agen- 
cies are now deeply impressed with the value of timber and the need of con- 
serving it, but it is difficult to rid the public mind of the tradition that the 
large tract of forest is a thing not only for the use of whoever enters it. but 
for abuse at will. 

While governmental and private systems of fire protection do much in 
the way of preventing fires and more in that of stopping them before they 
have caused great loss, the first need is to impress upon the mind of the man 
who would not think of touching or injuring other goods of his neighbor the 
truth that when he injures or recklessly exposes his woods to peril of de- 
struction his act, whatever its lack of motive, is as essentially wrongful as 
if he removed his crop, entered his house, or burned his barn. 

One of the greatest agencies for the preservation of property in general 
is that of insurance. With the issue of a policy the insurer has the vital 
interest of its protection as means of holding down the ratio of loss ; the 
insured has the no less practical concern of establishing a record of safety 
that will secure him a lower premium for protection. 

Insurance of timber in the United States is practically unknown be- 
cause of the prohibitive rate that would be required on account of the popular 
carelessness with fire in the other man's woods. The task, then, is fir>t to 
emphasize by protective laws and activity against the results of carelessness 
the fact of ownership and property and so establish a basis of safety to 
support a workable insurance rate. Once it is generally known that timber 
is insured, it will be generally comprehended that it is something to be re- 
spected as any other property. When that time comes, the forest fire will 
be brought to a minimum occurrence. 

How to work out a plan of economic insurance for timber is a com- 
plicated question. It must be solved, however, before even the best system 
of law.s can approximately approach the end at which it aims. 


The several plants on Deep River, all 
of which are forced to maintain dupli- 
cate steam systems, are now cooperating 
with the N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey in a comprehensive investigation 
looking to the possibility of the removal 
of the silt which now accumulates in the 
ponds to such an extent as to cost a loss 
of approximately one-half of the power 
that should be obtainable. Not only does 
the silt carried down by the stream from 
(Continued on Page Four"! 



Almost every member of the numerous 
clubs that attempt to provide the sport 
of bass fishing knows the phenomenon of 
the sluni]i that follows an exceptionally 
good season. 

For one or two years after fishing has 
commenced, the particular pond or lake 
seems to be an angler's paradise. The 
happy members revel in the excitement 
of the singing reel. The bass are avid for 
the bait and game to the gasp after thev 
(Continued on Page Two) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free on 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Drainage and the Human Element 

The recent drainage convention was 
wise in recognizing in its resolutions that 
reclamation as a first step needs to he 
followed by constant and intelligent en- 
couragement of the settlers for agricul- 
tural purposes on whose presence de- 
pends the larger economic value of the 

Sad experiences in other States and 
many mistakes made in attempts at farm 
settlement work in North Carolina have 
shown the folly of thinking that the land 
and its sale is all that is necessary. It is 
comparatively easy to sell land, through 
advertising, to speculators, to the class of 
roving individuals always ready to snatch 
at the bait of the new thing. It is a 
vastly different matter to see the re- 
claimed and cut-over swamp put in the 
possession of home-owners who will 
have a reasonable hope of putting their 
investment on its feet and seeing their 
dreams come true. 

For this to be accomplished to the 
benefit of the State as well as the set- 
tler, there is crying need of a land set- 
tlement law so drawn as to meet eco- 
nomic requirements and at the same time 
give ample opportunity by long credits 
and reasonable facilities for the new- 
comer to create of the land reclaimed the 
productive farm it is fitted to become. 

In this cause it is to be hoped there 
will shortly be enlisted the State and Fed- 
eral government in cooperation. Not 
only the land and its soil deserve study 
and classification but also the man who 
wishes to make use of them. The exten- 
sion of credit should be allowed only in 
cases in which it is reasonably clear that 
the potential settler and the land on 
which he is to live are mutually suited. 
Research work by the College of Agri- 
culture and the Agricultural Department 
for the classification of reclaimed lands 
and the efficient utilization of their soils 
would be a valuable preliminary to State 
and National aid to the home-seeker and 
home-maker in these redeemed areas. 

Map Reading and It's Revelations 

In addition to the revision of the base 
map of North Carolina showing the na- 
tional forests established in the State, 
the more important drainage canals in 
Eastern North Carolina, railroads, moun- 

tain peaks and ranges and drainage bas- 
ins, the Survey is far advanced on the 
new geologic map, the first revision since 
1888, when Dr. Holmes brought up to 
date the pioneer work of Professor Kerr, 
published in 1882. It is to be hoped that 
these two new maps will serve to fix 
better in the public mind the utilitarian 
value of maps in general, especially those 
dealing with topography and soil. 

At present a map is apt to be the per- 
functory thing of the common school 
class in geography, or connected in the 
thought of the average man with the 
vague and mysterious tools with which 
scientist and expert achieve their won- 
ders. As a matter of fact a very little 
primary knowledge would serve to put 
the topographical and soil maps into 
common use as business and vocational 
adjuncts. Map-reading, indeed, is not 
very much more complicated than the 
first step of letter reading in elemental 
education. Yet to the citizen-in-ordji- 
nary a map might as well be written in 
Sanskrit for all that it conveys to his 

On the topographical map, for instance, 
the understanding eye discerns at a 
glance tbe relief of the land, its slope, its 
chief characteristic formations, its 
streams and forests. Its "culture" of 
railroads, bridges, dams, etc., speak their 
details to the instant apprehension of 
vision. The reader of such a map can 
strike into strange territory and pick his 
way through it with more comprehensive 
knowledge than that possessed by the 
average native. Or the road builder can 
map his highway in the office without 
preliminary survey, knowing the advan- 
tages of grade and route and fixing his 
project definitely without touching the 
thing in the field. In the map of the 
soil owner or prospective purchaser may 
know certainly in advance the uses for 
which the land is fitted, its possibilities 
and potentialities. 

In time the Government undoubtedly 
will see to it that the United States as a 
whole is topographically mapped. Enor- 
mous as such a work will be, its cost 
will amount to scarcely more than that 
of one first-class battleship; and as a 
military asset the outbreak of war would 
give it a value equal to the largest fleet 
or the most perfectly equipped army. 
But at least twenty years will be re- 
quired for the completion of this work 
nationally and in the meanwhile the 
State as a whole is suffering from the 
lack of a primarily important means of 
self-revelation. To interest the Govern- 
ment the State must act, and action on 
its part is so manifestly to its own in- 
terest that it should act of its own motion 
without reference to Federal aid, al- 
though it is the settled policy of the 

Government to refuse to use any of the 
appropriation except in those states that 
show a willingness to aid materially in 
the work. 

One of the strangest limitation s of 
public school instruction is the want of 
provision of means whereby the citizen 
may learn to translate the surroundings 
among which he lives. He is taught the 
history of events ; he is left to walk with 
astonishing blindness among things with 
which life enfolds him ! Not only should 
the State provide for the topographical 
mapping of its territory, as a means of 
conserving and utilizing natural re- 
sources, but should aid the process by 
providing that the schools — certainly the 
high schools — have as a part of their 
duty to the future citizen that of teach- 
ing his eye not only to see but to trans- 
late and really to know the land it is his 
task to develop. 



(Continued from page one) 

have taken it. Their average size is en- 
tirely satisfying. It seems as if there 
will be scarcely a reasonable limit to 
which they will not attain. "Fish lies'' 
are difficult in the face of established 

Then comes the slump. Apparently 
the big fellows have all been taken. 
Either there is an absolute dearth of fish 
or the species seems to have been 
stunted. For several seasons the water 
seems hopeless, but there follows a par- 
tial recovery. The era of angler's 
heaven does not return ; but neither does 
the condition of apparent fish depopula- 
tion continue. The water reaches and 
with care maintains a piscatorial norm. 

In an interesting survey of the bio- 
logical and plant life conditions of Lake 
James, the fine body of water in Burke 
and McDowell counties formed by the 
dams on the Catawba River, Paddy's 
Creek and Linville River, Professor 
R. E. Coker of the Department of Bi- 
ology of the University, offers an inter- 
esting hypothesis of the cause of this al- 
most standard experience. It is a ques- 
tion of the fish commissariat. As the size 
of an army in the field is limited by the 
quantity of its supplies and the speed 
and efficiency with which they are deliv- 
ered, so the equation between fish and 
what they feed on soon reaches the point 
where there are more fish than food, 
and the consequence is the speedy decima- 
tion of the fish population. In the copy 
of the investigation furnished the N. C. 
Geological and Economic Survey, the 
following paragraph states clearly Pro- 
fessor Coker's conclusion: 

"The new pond has a limited fish 



population and a large supply of raw ma- 
terials ready to be worked into the form 
of fish food by the insects, crustaces, and 
other small organisms that are the food 
of fish. Such organisms have unusual 
opportunities to grow and multiply. 
Though preyed upon by fish, they can 
readily keep ahead of their predators, 
which are not yet present in maximum 
abundance. Soon, however, the fond 
organisms, whatever they may he in any 
social case, attain the maximum abun- 
dance permitted by the basic food supply, 
while predatory fish are still increasing 
as permitted by the abundance of their 
food supply. The race between fish and 
their prey becomes an even one. hut noi 
for long." 

The lesson, as shown in the case of 
Lake James, is the necessity of abundant 
and proper plant life with special relation 
to its use as a food for and protection of 
the varieties of small fish which are the 
natural and necessary food of large bass. 
In the use of lakes as reservoirs for 
power, not only are they cleared of 
brush, logs, etc., but the variation of the 
water level at different seasons greatly 
limits the variety of aquatic plants which 
can be grown in them. Without food 
and protection for breeding purposes, 
the minnow vanishes, as has been the 
case at Lake James, and with the min- 
now gone the bass of a size to he es- 
teemed as game diminishes to the van- 
ishing point. 

The wise policy of all power companies 
maintaining bodies of water is to encour- 
age their reasonable use by anglers. But 
a beautiful lake is not enough. The 
engineering science that creates it should 
be supplemented by a care to see that it 
contains the fish proper for its use as 
fishing ground and resort, and that the 
fish themselves are scientifically provided 
with the natural means of sustenance. 




(Continued from Page One) 

parks, has been saved. In due course the 
private one-way road that now gives ac- 
cess to the historic peak will be swamped 
by a traffic it cannot handle, will yield to 
the public highway that must replace it 
in pursuance of authority to construct 
roads to State parks duly granted by act 
of the General Assembly. In time many 
more acres will be added to its extent. 
In years to come, under the fostering 
care of the Forest Service of the Survey. 
new growths of balsam will cover the 

* scars of old fires. Not only all the 
states, but every civilized land will send 
increasing numbers of visitors among the 
multiplied thousands on thousands who 

will make the journey that the world 
ever wishes to take to those favored 
spots which are preeminent in Nature. 
A few years ago scarcely one in a thou 
sand North Carolinians had so much as 
seen Ml. Mitchell on the sky-line; a few 
years hence, when as a prosperous people 
we have better learned the grace of heal- 
ing holidays, there will not be one in a 
thousand who will not know the story of 
Mitchell by the first-hand method of 
musing from its summit. 

Grand Canyon Transplanted 

And the eye that travels the magic 
perspective to which Mt. Mitchell is im- 
pressario marks in the green of Linville 
Mountain what should speedily he made 
the complement of the first of several 
mountain areas that cannot be set apart 
too quickly as nuclei for the State-wide 
system of parks destined to keep for the 
public use the spots and localities that 
either in themselves or the association of 
the events that worked about them de- 
mand a popular possession. 

It is with good cause that Linville 
Gorge has been called a transplanted bit 
of the Grand Canyon. In its mixture 
of the wild and fantastic; its diversity of 
surprise ; its startling tableaux ; its appeal 
to the subtle emotions in sombre shadow, 
in picturesque color, in the miracles of 
sunlight stabbing its depths; in its falls 
and rapids and the quick-silver of its 
river, flowing, falling, glinting like a 
gleaming knife in the bowels of the hills, 
— in all of these things it carries, in crag 
and cliff, in scar and dizzy ledge, in half- 
naked rock shawled in the flame and 
purple of laurel and azalea, everything 
of wonder that the more famous painted 
walls of the great Yellowstone can offer. 
The Grand Canyon in miniature — Nature 
in the style of luxurious beauty as con- 
trasted with the same master artist justi- 
fying in lavish pigmentation everything 
the most ardent impressionist ever 
dreamed. That is Linville Gorge! 

A gentle and placid stream in the val- 
ley of its upper course, Linville River 
plunges into the gorge that bears its name 
through a narrow channel cut through 
massive blocks of hard sandstone, for a 
tempestuous journey of twenty miles. 
From the falls, through cascade, rapid 
and swirling eddy, before its emergence 
into the peace of a new valley, it has 
fallen a full thousand feet. Its bed lies a 
quarter mile beneath the crest of the giant 
rocky hills through which it has sliced 
through the ages the slit for its exit. 

The eastern wall of this show-place 
par excellence is composed of Shortoff 
Mountain, I lawksbill. Table Rock, and 
Gingercake; the western wall is formed 
by Linville Mountain and ends in Dodson 
Mountain at its southern end. From the 
crests on either side fall sheer chasms to 

the far river and its distant tumult; west- 
ward there is the vista of the hroad 
Catawba Valley with the Black Moun- 
tains on the sky-line; eastward the view 
follows the lower mountains, shortening 
their Steps to the hill- of the Piedmont 
and the distant plain-. 

Wild — lit i A< < essible 
The wonder is that all this primeval 
magnificance i- accessible. It is at the 
very doors of cities. It is in reach of 
every Tom and Jane that owns a Lizzie. 
One railroad skirt- its western flank and 
Marion, on another railroad, is less than 
an hour distant on an easy automobile 
road. Asheville is within easy reach and 
the road of the lirid^ewater reservoir 
passes almost at the foot of Dodson 
Mountain. There is an easily negotiated 
road up the mountain and an automobile 
can travel the crest of Linville Mountain 
for its twenty-mile length. By circling 
the bases of Table Rock and Hawksbill 
an excellent scenic road can be cheaply 
constructed along the prevailing flattened 
crest of the eastern wall, and crossing 
just above the falls such a road would 
pass entirely around the gorge. 

In addition to its incomparahle appeal 
of unique scenic qualities to tourists. Lin- 
ville Gorge has the park assets of abun- 
dant springs and ideal camp sites, pecu- 
liar freedom from insect pests, unrivaled 
fishing facilities, and the presence of a 
variety of wild life and game that is 
there making a last stand against destruc- 
tion. It lends itself admirably to develop- 
ment as a game preserve, which would 
keep many species from extinction and 
serve as breeding grounds from which 
the overflow would tend to stock sur- 
rounding territorv. 

Delay a Perilous Gamble 

Until the State steps in to make it- 
salvation certain, Linville Gorge, like 
every other natural phenomenon, is at 
the mercy of commercial caprice or acci- 
dent of fire. Once subjected to ruthless 
and greedy lumbering operations: once 
a fire got its head in it- mighty groves, 
what is now a natural gem beyond price. 
would be spoiled for all time. To keep 
its priceless timber standing; to secure 
its wild life: to prevent the exploiting of 
its joyously bounding waters, and to hold 
it as a natural epic for the enjoyment of 
coming generations are things the State 
will prove itself a reckless gambler to 
postpone in the doing. 

Elsewhere in the mountain, the ( irand- 
father and other areas are worthy of 
preservation, hut Linville is the obvious 
next step to holding in State hands the 
land- that musl satisfy the growing and 
sane demand for popular playgrounds. 
The same obligation that commands the 
preservation of the Linville phenomenon 



in the west applies with equal force to 
numerous sharply contrasting but equally 
important and interesting areas along the 


Fort Macon on the Market 

In Fort Macon, guarding the Beaufort 
bar, there is not only one of the most 
significant historic sites of the Civil War 
but the only fortification of an earlier 
age that is in a condition of preservation 
in the State. Despite the passage of 
time Macon, with its ramparts, its em- 
placements, its defenses, remains prac- 
tically intact as an example of the engi- 
neering problems faced and met by the 
needs of national defense in the pre-war 
era. Almost within rifle shot of two re- 
sorts famous for their advantages of sea- 
shore sport and pleasure, situated on 
what is perhaps the ideal bathing beach 
of the entire Atlantic Coast, Fort Macon 
cries out for rescue from oblivion. 
Owned by the Federal government and 
marked as obsolete, it is to be sold, but 
the State will have an opportunity of be- 
coming a preferred customer. So soon 
as the appraisal is made, steps should be 
taken to secure for gift to the State or 
to acquire in its name this venerable relic 
whose value in private ownership would 
in any event be negligible compared to 
that it would have as a place set apart 
for the public enjoyment. 

What applies to Fort Macon, holds for 
like reasons in the case of Fort Fisher 
near the mouth of the Cape Fear. The 
desperate defense that held it as a bul- 
wark for the Confederacy until within 
two months of Appomattox should be 
appropriately commemorated, and how 
more fittingly than by keeping sacred the 
spot on which the decisive battle and 
hand-to-hand conflict of January 14. 
1865, was fought? 

As imperative is it that there come into 
the hands of the State adequate portions 
of Roanoke Island, famous in history 
and foundation for lasting romance as the 
place on which the Lost Colony set foot 
in the initial effort permanently to col- 
onize America ; the place where Virginia 
Dare had her prophetic birth ; the spot 
where it is important to remember Sir 
Walter Raleigh did not land but where 
his expedition did, establishing a fort, 
raising a church, giving formal challenge 
in the name of all the adventurous blood 
of England, only to vanish like mist be- 
fore the sun ! 

These places, together with at least 
some examples of the characteristic 
North Carolina "banks," with their re- 
sort and tourist possibilities, wealth in 
game and adaptability to sport should by 
all means follow as park sites, readily 
and cheaply acquired now but ever be- 
coming more expensive and fewer in 

Patriotism Plus Investment 
In the case of Fort Macon, there is 
something of immediacy in the answer 
to the problem. It the State must not 
lose, but as with Mt. Mitchell, must take 
it as the nucleus about which to build. 

In the creation of a State system of 
parks, there is a rich investment feature. 
Tourist travel alone would bring in 
wealth to the State and profitable oc- 
cupation to thousands many times the 
cost in dollars and cents. In the moun- 
tain area the preservation of forests and 
reforestration alone would pay in the 
course of time magnificent dividends. 
On the coast there would be similar op- 
portunity for development. But more 
important would be the serving of the 
healthy desire of the people to travel in 
and know their own land ; to use and en- 
joy their own blessings ; to realize that 
the beauty that touches tears is not for 
sale, but is a patrimony to be kept intact 
through all time, for their children and 
their children's children to the far gen- 

This is what a system of State parks 
really means — that by those who come 
after we shall be remembered for a wis- 
dom and foresight which past and pres- 
ent follies are ever more deeply impres- 
sing as we realize what has been lost to 
us forever. In so far as we know what 
is good of what is left should we pas- 
sionately move to hold it safe. 



(Continued from Page One) 

the bare territory of its headwaters rap- 
idly fill up the ponds, but by so doing 
prevents the storage of water during the 
fourteen idle hours of the mills. In ad- 
dition to the added cost of operation 
from the use of steam and the depreci- 
ation to be charged to plant when water 
power is being used, the situation is com- 
plicated in the important group of mills 
by the fact that they are generally not 
in touch with the railroad, so that there 
is involved a haul of from one to five 
miles in securing the necessary fuel. 

The important work of investigating 
and finding a means of amelioration of 
this industrial drawback is being carried 
out under the direction of the hydraulic 
engineer of the Survey, assisted by stu- 
dents of the Engineering Department of 
the University, who while of course 
guided by economic considerations is aim- 
ing first at the increase of power by the 
removal of the silt and second at its pre- 
vention in the future. The first must be 
accomplished by dredging operations ; 
the second could be accomplished effec- 
tively only by reforestration of the lands 

in which are located the head-waters of 
the stream. 

In its investigations, the hydraulic de- 
partment is proceeding to consider the 
Deep River as a unit to be developed 
into a self-sustaining and coordinating 
power area unique in industrial North 
Carolina. In this connection the head- 
waters are being studied in connection 
with the establishment of storage reser- 
voirs and undeveloped sites which would 
be of benefit to the power needs of the 
river as a whole. Plans are also being 
considered for erection of transmission 
lines between the plants and the erection 
of a central steam plant as a means of 
economically supplementing the _ water 
power when necessary. Gauging stations 
have been installed at Ramseur and 
Jamestown on the headwaters and a pro- 
file made from Jamestown to Chilton to 
guard against interference with existing 
plants by back-water from projected de- 
velopments. During the summer, when 
the student corps again takes the field, 
the profile will be extended from Chilton 
to the mouth of the stream at its junction 
with the Cape Fear near Moncure. 

Among the interesting possibilities in 
connection with the task of clearing these 
ponds of silt is that of justifying the 
work economically, by the use of the 
washed sand for concrete making and 
the application of the rich fine soil to the 
land in the shape of fertilizer. As the 
river water enters the dams, the coarser 
sand accumulates at the head and the 
silt is carried further toward the foot of 
the pond. The separation is thus natur- 
ally achieved in the first instance, leaving 
the material ready for application to the 
two utterly dissimilar purposes. Specu- 
lative as this procedure is at present, its 
projection as an economic study is a fine 
example of the passion for conservation 
which has come to be the distinguishing 
sign of modern science in practically 
every department of its effort. 


. The National Lumber Manufacturers 
Association estimates that there will be 
a decline in the cut of Southern pine of 
seven billion feet by the year 1930. 

In these seven years it is estimated 
that there will be an increase of a billion 
and a half feet in local requirements in 
the South, making a net shortage of 
8,500,000,000 feet. 

This situation is only characteristic of 
that in the country at large, in which 
since 1911 there has been an increase in 
cut over and devasted timber lands of 
70,000,000 acres, the total of such lands 
rendered unproductive now reaching 
213,000,000 acres. 

Natural Resources 

A Bi- Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. MAY 19, 1923 

No. 2 


Drainage districts in Eastern North Carolina, 
created under what is concededly one of the 
most efficient reclamation laws in force in the 
country, are rapidly producing a literal new 
empire within the State that calls aloud for 
scientific development. 

Of these lands 600,000 acres already have 
been drained and are either in cultivation for 
agricultural purposes or are ready to be so 

The total acreage of lands in the State — 
chiefly in the East — which can be classified as 
unreclaimed is 2,375.000 acres, of which at least 
500,000 would not be suitable at the present 
time for agricultural purposes, and 200,000 of 
which are peat lands, capable of great develop- 
ment as producers of fuel but not suited for 
the chief end of reclamation work, which is 
farm settlement. From this total must be de- 
ducted in considering the area that looks to 
reclamation and settlement in the future, the 
reservations for wooded lands which are, of 
course, an essential part of any scientific and 
workable scheme of reclamation. 

The problem of the new empire, therefore, 
is how to make it ready for practical use in agri- 
culture, including the clearing of cut-over 
ground, the equipment of the farms with suit- 
able buildings, machinery and stock, and the 
purchase of the land itself by a class of thrifty 
homeseekers who will be given an opportunity 
to buy and borrow at long terms and work 
out their own and the land's salvation. 

As to the land itself, it is, in the great 
majority of instances, potentially the richest 
type of soil. Not only has it been left to lie 
fallow throughout the ages, but has been en- 
riched constantly by the alluvial soils, the silt, 
the decayed vegetation of the streams and 
forests until it represents at the beginning the 
productive value of years of intensive fertiliz- 
ation. Once brought under cultivation the 
yield from these lands should exceed anything 
known in agricultural history in North Caro- 
lina. How the great amount of capital may be 
obtained to work this development and yet 
place it in the hands of the ambitious men of 
small means who must be depended upon to 
settle it to best advantage is one of the ques- 
tions which the Survey is now considering and 
working upon with the greatest interest. 

Incidents of Task 

The answer, however it may be worked out 
in detail, must include as incidents : 

Preparation of the land by cooperative action 
of the State and Federal governments and the 
extension of long term credits to settlers on 
such security as will furnish a good margin of 
economic safety ; 

Investigation of the lands to be offered for 
settlement so that before the construction of 
any project, there would be determined the size 

(Continued on Page Two) 



Among the factors and signs pointing to adaptation by the Federal Gov- 
ernment of the principle of reclamation to the large Southern areas of swamp 
and cut-over lands may be noted the following : 

The Republican platform of 1920 promised a national reclamation policy 
extended more widely than in the past. 

President Harding in his address to Congre^, December 6, 1921, called 
attention to the need of reclamation of 76,000,000 acres of such lands. 

In his address to the National Agricultural Congress on January 23, 
1922, he stated that every practical proposal for reclaiming cut-over forest 
areas should be given full encouragement by the Government. 

The Reclamation Act was passed with the aid of Southern votes against 
the determined opposition of Northern leaders. 

Representative Underwood and other Southern men were told that the 
South would have the help of the West when the time arrived for solving 
its problem of settlement of waste lands. He and his colleagues are now 
demanding consideration. 

Representative Bankhead, of the House Committee on Irrigation, called 
attention during his recent Western trip to the fact that for every acre re- 
claimable in the West, there are ten acres in the South. He and his colleagues 
intimate that any further appropriations for the West must be accompanied 
by some consideration of Southern needs. 

F. H. Newell, in his address at New Bern, N. C, on April 18, 1923, 
illustrated the conditions South and West and the results obtained in the 
West under the execution of Federal plans. 

Senator Simmons at a banquet the next day delivered a comprehensive 
address in which he announced to his constituents his belief that "it is the 
duty of the Federal Government to assist in providing opportunities for small, 
self-supporting farm homes for desirable white citizens.'' 

Representative Abernathy declared that, with the help of Bankhead and 
other Southern members of Congress, he proposed to have full consideration 
given to the needs and opportunities of the South with respect to reclamation 
and settlement. 


At a recent conference in Washington be- 
tween President Harding and representatives of 
numerous forest protection associations, indus- 
trial bodies and State organizations, it was 
agreed that there was a vital need for the 
extension of the Forest Reserve system in ac- 
cordance with the plan of the Weeks Law, by 
which appropriation was made by Congress of 
$2,000,000 annually for five years. The Presi- 
dent explained that he was in full sympathy 
with the development of the Reserves and that 
the recent reduction of the appropriation to a 
(Continued on Page Three) 



Somewhere in every county in Xorth Caro- 
lina are two solid granite post? weighing some- 
thing like four hundred pounds, on the top of 
which is the lettering. X. C G. S. -f U. S. C. S. 

Not infrequently disputing groups argue 
hotly as to the forgotten battles fought at 
these spots, historical events there commemor- 
ated, even the personality of the occupant of 
the supposititious grave. 

Although the stones in the case are called 

monuments, they are not commemorative, but 

instruments of practical science, the lettering 

indicating that they were established by the N. 

(Continued on Page Three) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free on 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

"Natural Resources" 

What are "Natural Resources?" 

First, of course, soils and their prod- 
ucts. Forests. Fruits. All things the 
land grows, holds, protects. All that 
pertains naturally to the land. Its fauna 
and flora. Game, for instance, is a nat- 
ural resource of prime value, though now 
imminently in danger of a destruction as 
ruthless as the foolish sacrifice of virgin 

Second, things that lie beneath the soil. 
Minerals, including coal and the clays. 

Third, products of the sea. Fish and 
shell-fish. Whatever in the prodigality 
of Nature the sea provides for men to 
eat or use. 

Fourth, water. The gift of sea to 
land. Condensed in the skies, poured out 
in the rains, rushing in the rivers, shining 
in the lakes, stored in subterranean pools 
and channels. The essential whose 
miracle is motion. The necessity unique 
in that it cannot be diminished in the use, 
but ever returns, purified, its strength re- 
newed, inexhaustible, everlasting! Muni- 
cipal water supplies, the artesian develop- 
ments in the East, hydro-electric plants — 
these are but a few of the modern 
adaptations of this, one of life's funda- 
mental requirements. 

Until two decades ago the popular at- 
titude toward these riches was that of 
the fatuous heir who considers his be- 
quest a thing from which to spend care- 
lessly as from an inexhaustible store. 

We are face to face with the realiza- 
tion that the principal has been depleted, 
and that what assets remain need to be 
conserved and utilized according to the 
principle of sound banking. In the case 
of natural resources the duty is to put 
them to work so far as possible at self- 
perpetuation; to use of them as little as 
may be beyond their natural increment ; 
to seek to discover ways in which to uti- 
lize surplus here and spare a scarcity 
there ; to bring to bear a more profound 
economy that will recognize in many in- 
stances the greater productivity of the 
natural resources when preserved rather 
than consumed. 

We need to preserve forests not only 
that the headwaters of streams may be 
guarded against the extremes of flood 
and drought ; not only that water powers 
may be conserved ; not only that we may 
provide an intelligent basis for the future 
restocking of our denuded forests — but, 

also, that the people may have a play- 
ground in which to palliate the artificial- 
ity of modern life, in which to savor the 
natural pleasures ; that they may attract 

Think of tourists and what they mean 
in the way of business, industry, employ- 
ment, wealth and the more intangible 
values of broader contacts with the world, 
and one gets an inkling of what natural 
resources involve in their development. 
Natural resources are active as well as 
passive. They are to be considered in 
the range of their attractions and com- 

Natural resources are, first, things ; 
but they are also ideas, impulses, phi- 
losophy. They are what in the last 
analysis we are given to work with and 
what we may fashion thereby. He is a 
sloppy workman who neglects his tools ! 

Tree or 'Possum? 

To avoid argument it may be conceded 
that the much discussed J. B. Duke pos- 
sesses the qualities to justify including 
him in the class of what a certain type 
of publicist calls "octopuses." 

It is true that the term is loosely de- 
scriptive, because the actual octopus 
reaches out blindly to crush and consume, 
while the figurative human of the species 
not only sees what he wishes to grasp, 
but sees it before it is created. His 
genius, in short, is a sense of values. 

When a recent General Assembly was 
in the throes of certain legislation vitally 
affecting the interests of "Octopus" Duke, 
that strangely democratic king of indus- 
try attended its sessions with the regu- 
larity of an old-fashioned school boy. 
No matter what was under discussion, 
he sat in his chair and listened to what 
the legislators were saying. On one 
occasion, when he had returned near 
midnight from a session of the Senate 
which had been given over to a heated 
debate on a local "possum bill," one of 
his associates protested that he was 
wearing himself out with matters that 
could not possibly be of any interest. 

"Interest!" exclaimed the former to- 
bacco and presently water-power king, 
"Did you hear that fellow telling about a 
gang of hunters that cut down a three 
hundred dollar tree to get a dinged 'pos- 
sum as big as your fist ! You may not 
call that interesting, but to me it was one 
of the most interesting things in the 
world !" 

Three hundred dollars worth of tree 
for fifteen cents worth of 'possum! 

For years on years the people of the 
State stood by unheeding while the 'pos- 
sum spirit carried on its madness of 
reckless waste. 

As a result we have our grave-yard 
pine barrens and scarified mountains 

rudely and crudely despoiled of virgin 
forests that might have been barbered 
for years. We have vast timbered areas 
centuries in the growing sacrificed to 
criminal carelessness with fire. Until 
Octopus Duke began to worry at the 
sight, we had scarcely begun to harness 
the tremendous water-powers running to 
waste, when they might have been creat- 
ing wealth and conserving natural re- 

We found 'possum hunting interesting 
for the sake of the 'possum. 

Men of the Duke type find it interest- 
ing as an example of folly rich in alter- 
native possibilities. 




(Continued from Page One) 

of the separate farms needed, methods of agri- 
culture, and the fitting of the settler in train- 
ing, capability and character to the particular 
uses for which the land itself is adaptable ; 

The sale of the lands to settlers on long 
terms at prices to be agreed upon in advance 
between the owners and the governmental 
agencies, so as to eliminate the speculative 
feature ; 

The issue of bonds based on the security of 
the project and collected in accordance with 
tax laws of the State or district in which the 
land is situated. 

National and State Aid 

Bills to these general intents already have 
been introduced in Congress looking to the 
utilization of the Federal Farm Loan banks as 
the fiscal agents through which the financing 
will be done. These laws, it will be noted, con- 
template no purchase of lands by the Federal 
Government but only the aid and advice of the 
government, in connection with the State or 
particular district in accomplishing a work of 
investigation and preparation which would 
necessarily be on such a scale as to preclude 
the possibility of its being done within any 
reasonable time by the small owners without 
whose presence the reclaimed lands cannot be 
realized upon. Acting with the State, this 
aid would be primarily a matter of farm cred- 
its, with investigation and preparation merely 
the determination and establishment of security 
for the loans to be made. Before either inves- 
tigation or the construction of any project in 
any reclaimed district, the interest of both the 
government and the prospective settler would 
be safeguarded by fixing in advance a maxi- 
mum price at which the lands should be sold 
when prepared for use as small farms, this to 
apply to eighty per cent of the total acreage, 
leaving the balance to the owners for use as 
they see fit, in speculation or otherwise. Under 
such a contract, there would be avoided the 
dangers which have ruined many development 
projects — dangers of extravagant advertising, 
ill-advised investment, reckless speculation that 
bring only loss and disappointment. On the 
other hand there would be assured to the small 
investor a certainty of value in his purchase 
and protection in realizing upon it after a 
small initial payment of twenty per cent and 
a loan on long time in which to complete the 
purchase by his labor and the development of 
his farm. The capital for making the loans 
would be secured by the issue of bonds based 
upon a conservative valuation of the lands in- 
volved and pledged as collateral with the Farm 


Loan hank or other selected credit agency. 
The bonds would doubtless be analogous to and 
issued under the same conditions as the bonds 
of the State drainage districts, principal and 
interest to be collected under State tax laws 
as other levies. 

Future in Agriculture 
In other words, the future of the drainage 
and reclamation of the swamp and cut-over 
lands of the East depends upon their realiza- 
tion in agriculture. Agriculture depends on the 
human element as expressed in the small 
farmer who is a potential home builder. The 
part of the State and Nation is to give the 
impulse and demonstration of materializing as 
quickly as possible this logical destiny. 

The feasibility of some such plan with re- 
spect to unreclaimed swamp and cut-over lands 
has been amply illustrated in the numerous and 
extensive irrigation projects in the West. In 
principle the problem is the same and the 
method of its treatment identical. It is sig- 
nificant, therefore, to note that while the Fed- 
eral Government set the example of reclaim- 
ing lands by irrigation in the West, private 
corporations were quick to follow its lead and 
adopt its plans. Much as governmental pro- 
jects in preparing these reclaimable lands are 
needed in North Carolina at present, the suc- 
cessful launching of only a few of them would 
be all needed to open a new and great field of 
corporate activity and place for capital that 
would be both profitable and in line with the 
deepening sense of unselfish cooperation which 
is coming to be the hall-mark of modern big 
business in its better manifestations. 



(Continued from page one) 

sum little better than nominal in consideration 
of the needs was due purely to an emergency 
demand for drastic economy. 

He made it clear to the members of the com- 
mittee, however, that the policy of the Govern- 
ment would more and more be influenced by 
the extent to which the several Southern Ap- 
palachian States would cooperate with it in 
the work of protection from fire, reforesta- 
tion and the acquisition of areas of forest lands 
to be held as State parks. 

It will be interesting and tend to stimulate 
realization of the public necessity to which the 
Forest Reserve plan is directed to note some 
facts about what has been accomplished since 
the Weeks Law was passed in 1911, and what 
remains to be done. 

Extent of Forest Reserves 
When the Forest Reserve Act became law 
all the unreserved lands in States East of the 
Mississippi had been taken up and all forest 
lands in the Appalachian and White Mountain 
regions were in the hands of private owners. 

Since then there have been acquired or are in 
the process of acquisition 2,142,000 acres in 19 
of 23 purchase units, of which 506,629 are in 
virgin timber, 1.051,776 cut over or heavily 
culled, 316,264 suitable for restocking, 39,970 
abandoned farm land, 227,673 classed as burned, 
barren or stocked with unmerchantable timber. 
Of these lands there have been acquired in 
North Carolina 323,110.82 acres, approved for 
purchase 349,870, and the total of the purchase 
units amounts to 2,143,000 acres. In the 23 
purchase units necessary to the completion of 
the Reserve system are 8,111,238 acres, of which 
there have been acquired only 2,142,476. This 
may be contrasted with an acreage »f 150,- 
000,000 included in the National Reserves in 
the Western States. 

Nucleus for Conservation 

Nevertheless these reserves, utterly inade- 
quate as they are to promise a supply of timber 
to meet the needs of the South, are the chief 
hope of preventing a definite calamity due to 
timber exhaustion. Although acquired with 
the direct purpose of protecting the headwaters 
of navigable streams, their even more import- 
ant indirect effect will be in stimulating States 
and private owners in developing and applying 
economic methods of management and reforest- 
ation to cut-over lands. Since 1911 the in- 
crease in such lands has been 70,000,000 acrev 
and the total now amounts to 213,000,000 acres, 
with only about 10,000,000 acres adequately 
protected and managed by public and private 


What these facts mean to the Nation and 
particularly to the South is graphically illus- 
trated by the story of the geographical shift of 
the center of timber operations in the last six- 
teen years — a shift due to exhaustion of a great 
natural resource that is moving rapidly to a 

Progressive Depletion 

In 1907, a year of maximum production of 
forty billion feet of saw timber, began the 
passing of the Northeastern States as the con 
trolling factor in the industry. The maximum 
in the Southeastern States came in 1909. Pre- 
cedence in production in these years has shifted 
from Maine to New York, to Pennsylvania, to 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, to the State of Washington. It is 
the last stand in the effort to keep the supply 
in step with the demands for consumption. 

Today the combined cut of timber in Maine, 
New York and Pennsylvania, all of which were 
of recent years centers of production, is in- 
sufficient to meet the demands for consumption 
of the State of Pennsylvania alone ; and the 
entire cut of Pennsylvania is now inadequate 
to meet the needs of the Pittsburgh district. 

In the South it is estimated that the decline 
in the cut of pine will amount to seven billion 
feet by the year 1930, and in the meantime the 
probable increase in requirements for South- 
ern needs will reach a billion and a half, mak- 
ing a shortage in the market of eight and ; 
half billion feet. 

What such a situation will do in complicating 
and adding to the costs of building, housing, 
industry and living is not to be calculated. 
Even now the cost of transporting timber from 
the Northwest to provide for the needs of the 
East is imposing a galling handicap on every 
kind of effort and development. When the 
Northwest is exhausted, as it inevitably will be 
within a relatively short period, the people of 
the East will be forced to depend in ever 
larger degree on second growth timber locally 

Although no harvesting of natural growth 
has yet been practiced in the National Forest 
Reserves, even such incidental cutting as was 
necessary for salvage and improvement has 
been of such commercial importance that the 
proceeds have for three years defrayed the 
expense of upkeep of all reserves. Within a 
few years not only will economic cutting of 
second growth afford material aid to a timber- 
hungry nation, but the profits will be sufficient 
to return a handsome dividend on the sums 
invested in the forests as a protection of water 

We have been bolting down our forests until 
a timber famine has become an immediate 
danger. Neither Nation, State nor private 
owner can afford longer to delay realization of 
the truth that the forests it has been the cus- 
tom to sacrifice are capable of being developed 
to contradict the adage that it is impossible 
to eat one's cake and have it. 



(Continued from page one) 
C. Geological and Economic Survey in cooper- 
ation with the United States Coa^t and Geod- 
ectic Survey. Their use as meridian monu- 
ments is the determination of the magnetic 
needle of the compass for a true north — fixed 
points by which all surveyors in the several 
counties are supposed, and indeed required In- 
law, to adjust and correct their instruments at 
least once each year. By Act of the General 
Assembly of 1899 it is made compulsory for 
every surveyor to test his needle and chain by 
the monuments in his county, making return of 
the tests under oath to the Register of Deeds. 
It i> made the duty of the Board of County 
Commissioners to maintain and protect them, 
and their defacement, removal or destruction 
is punishable as a misdemeanor. 

How important it is that these monument- 
be maintained is shown by the fact that there are 
few places on the earth's surface where the 
magnetic needle points due north. Where it 
does point north at any particular time, it will 
not long remain there. "As true as the needle 
to the pole" is a figure of speech that in literal 
acceptance means conviction of error. In the 
United States the needle changes its relation- 
ship to the true north from 21 degrees west of 
north, in the eastern part of Maine, to 23 de- 
grees east of north, in the extreme north- 
western part of Washington. In North Caro- 
lina the needle changes direction from 4 de- 
grees west of north in the extreme eastern part 
of the State to 2 degrees east of north in the 
extreme western region. In addition, there is 
what is called the "secular variation of the 
magnetic declination :" i. e., the needle does 
not have the same direction at the same place 
year after year, but changes its direction with 
the lapse of time. The variation is called 
"secular" for the reason that it may require 
several hundred years for the needle to return 
to the approximate position it had occupied at 
some previous time. In central North Caro- 
lina, a surveyor starting from a corner used 
in 1800 and retracing in 1900 a line one mile 
long according to the original compass bear- 
ing, would have found the corner at the other 
end of the line shifted 399 feet from its original 
position. In spite of the importance of the 
accuracy assured by the use of these monu- 
ments, in many counties in North Carolina, 
they have been rendered useless, in a few cases 
by removal or displacement, in many others by 
buildings, development, etc., which either ob- 
struct the view or impose artificial magnetic 
disturbance. Use of the posts on the campus 
at the University, for instance, has been rend- 
ered impossible by the planting of the arbore- 

In response to a letter from R. L. Faris. act- 
ing Director of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, the N. C. Survey has forwarded a 
report on the condition of these monuments in 
all the counties of the State, and during the 
coming summer they will in each instance be 
replaced or relocated to renew their efficiency 
as testing stations. It is to be hoped that a 
more widespread knowledge of their extreme 
value in surveying and in connection with titles 
will serve to reform the habit of neglect with 
which they have been too often treated. 

Watt Richardson, of Reidsville. and Charles 
E. Dickens, of Eldorado, Montgomery County, 
have been at the offices of the Survey regard- 
ing a concentrator for gold mining. 

P. K. Schuyler, assistant engineer of the 
Highway Commission, has been consulting the 
Survey in regard to the examination of mate- 
rials obtained in barings in connection with 
bridge foundations. 




Recent announcement by the Southern Power 
Company that it would for the present con- 
sider no new developments, by reason of ex- 
cessive costs of construction rendering it im- 
possible to furnish power at a profit, empha- 
sizes the necessity for such an association as 
the Southern Appalachian Water Power Con- 
ference and the wisdom of the policy upon 
which it is centering. 

Only the barest beginning has yet been made 
in developing power possibilities in the Appa- 
lachian States., in spite of the really notable 
progress that has been made. Yet it has be- 
come also an industrial axiom that coal must 
be displaced by hydro-electric power, if eco- 
nomic operation is to be had. This means a 
present demand, inevitably increased greatly 
with the passing years, for thorough and in- 
tensive use of these powers. The nature of 
water power properties, however, is such that 
in order to be made commercially available, 
they require capital in the largest amounts and 
the highest order of engineering skill, courage 
and even daring. 

Recognizing these facts and necessities, the 
Conference — which represents State Commis- 
sions, public utility companies, engineers, 
bankers, and industrial or commercial interests 
concerned with the development, operation, util- 
ization, and regulation of water power projects 
in the Southern Appalachian States — is to work 
especially toward effecting more harmonious 
relations between public utilities, public service 
regulatory bodies, and the general public. It 
is planned to establish a bureau which will 
prepare accurate information as to develop- 
ments, market supplies, availability of and re- 
strictions on the use of power, and other 
information. On request, it will probably act 
as mediator in disputes not relating to rates. 
In addition the Conference plans to provide a 
clearing house of information relative to the 
location of developed and potential water 
powers and to supply such information to in- 
dustrial and commercial organizations, engi- 
neers, bankers, etc. In addition would be a 
bureau of industrial development which would 
make a thorough investigation of water power 
and other natural resources of the region, on 
the basis of data already available from such 
sources as State Geological Surveys and other 
public and private agencies and provide, also, a 
means of compiling scientific facts through a 
bureau of research. 

The public, even industry, has so far re- 
ceived only a first impression of the water 
power problem. It is recognized for miracles 
it has performed, but there is so far little con- 
ception of the amount of work and the sum 
of capital necessary to bring these miracles 
into being. A Conference which should serve 
the practical ends of water power producers 
and consumers, and at the same time educate 
public agencies and law making bodies as to 
the policy to be pursued in order to bring it to 
the greatest degree of expansion would be an 
agency of the first magnitude for the public 


A bulletin to be issued by the Survey about 
July 1 will contain data of extreme value to 
engineers, giving tables and curves showing 
the stream flow at forty stations in North Caro- 
lina for each week since the respective stations 
were established, down to 1922. 

The completeness of the record may be gath- 

ered from the statement that in some instances 
it goes back to the year 1885. 

How important and significant this work is 
may be gathered from the large number of in- 
quiries received by the hydraulic engineer of 
the Survey, twenty-five of which, from engi- 
neers and municipalities planning public utility 
plants, are in very recent files. John F. Free- 
man, eminent authority who had occasion to 
use the records in the French Broad area, was 
enthusiastic in his appreciation of the service, 
stating that it was almost a unique aid by a 
State in assisting and providing essential in- 
formation for the practical engineer. 


The Stanly News-Herald is so enthusiastic 
concerning the booklet on common trees of the 
State, distribution of which was undertaken 
through the forestry department of the Survey, 
that it has begun its publication in successive 
issues, taking up the description of one tree 
in each installment. In part it says : 

' ' The News-Herald has decided that these 
71 brief descriptions of various North Carolina 
forest trees are of such interest that we shall 
run one in each issue of the paper until we 
publish the entire 71 descriptions. We are be- 
ginning in this issue with a description of the 
White Pine. We invite the attention of 
parents and teachers to this article, and we be- 
lieve that after it has been read, they will see 
that it is of sufficient importance to merit that 
the other articles be recommended. ' ' 

The Survey is particularly interested in plac- 
ing this booklet ultimately in the hands of 
every school child in North Carolina. The in- 
formation it contains about the familiar but 
anonymous friends of the forest, field and road- 
side is, however, of value to all citizens as 
encouraging a realization of what the trees 
mean, as forests and timber and in the way of 
pleasure and ornamentation. The plan of 
the News-Herald is one that could profitably 
be employed in the State press generally. 


Although the established commercial kaolin 
mines are confined to the counties of Western 
North Carolina, important deposits of clay are 
indicated in several Piedmont and Central lo- 
calities. Clays already constitute one of the 
most profitable mineral resources of the State 
and it is certain that their distribution and 
availability commercially is not yet determined 
in any final sense. Aware of the necessity of 
securing accurate data as to the locality and 
scope of these deposits and the availability of 
the product, the N. C. Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey is hampered by the inability to 
make the necessary analyses. 

In the case of other minerals any citizen can 
send samples and obtain free of charge an 
analysis and advice as to whether they justify 
further exploration. But for the lack of the 
necessary plant, samples of clays must be sent 
for analysis to a distant State at considerable 

A ceramic laboratory for the Survey at the 
University of North Carolina would serve the 
ends of giving valuable scientific instruction tc 
students in one of the products in the State 
which holds most promise of great development, 
and of aiding materially and as nothing else 
could do in the development itself. 

North Carolina clays already are being used 

on a large scale as the base of fine pottery 
mixtures and in some instances are being 
worked into china without any imported ad- 
dition to the domestic product. Pottery plants 
that have been established are in all probability 
pioneers in what will become in time another 
great industry devoted to the manufacture of 
the State's raw material. A ceramic laboratory 
at the University is one of the first and most 
practical steps toward the new development. 


Adoption of modern methods of farm drain- 
age by tiles has been greatly retarded in the 
State by reason of the high cost of the mate- 
rials, due to freight rates, as almost all of the 
tile must come from abroad. 

Eecent examinations of North Carolina clays 
have led the N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey to become interested in the question of 
the possibility of developing a supply of clay 
suitable for making this tile. Two deposits of 
clays suited for the purpose have been noted 
on the lands of W. J. Tavlor, at Hoboken, N. C, 
and of G. H. Hill, Cumnock, N. C. 

Manufacture of drain tile in different parts 
of the State would not only establish a new 
and profitable industry of considerable import- 
ance, but would be of immense agricultural 
value, as it would enable farmers to adopt 
approved methods in draining their lands. 


Among numerous samples of minerals re- 
ceived for examination by the Survey recently, 
the following were of particular interest : 

Good brick clay, Chamber of Commerce, 

Pyrite, found in North Carolina, from P. J. 
Harkins, Newport, Tenn. Interesting as a 
source of pyrite for the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid. 

A good grade kaolin, John W. Goodman, 
Jr., County Agent, Newland, N. C. ; also what 
is apparently a good grade of kaolin, T. P. 
Bumgardner, Albemarle, N. C. 

Sample, E. L. McLean, Ellerbe, composed 
principally of chalcopyrite, the chief ore of 
copper. If in quantity, would justify examina- 

Sample of metallic antimony, from J. H. Dil- 
lard, Murphy, N. C. If a natural specimen and 
occurring in some quantity, it has decided com- 
mercial value. The Survey also has had sam- 
ples of metallic antimony from near Caldwell 
County, but has never been able to secure the 
exact location. 

Mica schist carrying more or less of the 
mineral cyanite, from Jake Henry, Ellijay, 
N. C. If cyanite composes a considerable per- 
centage of the rock, it might be worth inves- 

Sample of pure quartz from R. W. S. Peg- 
ram, Canton, N. C. If in quantity would make 
good glass sand. 

Cyanite, from T. B. Williams, Box 302, 
Shelby. The pure transparent crystals of cy- 
anite (very rarely found) are used for gems. 

During the past several months there have . 
been several inquiries for the mineral cyanite. 
If this occurs in large quantity and nearly pure, 
the properties probably would be worth inves- 

Note. The N. C. Geological and Economic Survey, 
Chapel Hill N-. C, makes mineralogical examination 
of specimens, free of charge to citizens of the State. 
From such examinations it is able to identify the min- 
erals and report to the senders upon their commercial 
value. The Survey, however, has no facilities for 
making chemical assays or analyses. 

Natural Resources 

A Bi- Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. JUNE 2, 1923 

No. 3 


Following the closing down of twelve of the 
largest textile mills in Fall River, the famous 
manufacturing district, a high official of the 
mill owners' association expressed the case as 
follows : 

"Frankly, we are up against it. Conferences 
are useless. We can operate only at a loss, 
and if we are to remain in business, there is 
but one thing we can do, follow the general 
move to the South, to the Carolinas." 

This was but the verification of an old 
prophecy compelled by logic. To compete with 
an expanding and efficient textile industry lo- 
cated in the South, the New England manufac- 
turer must set up his plant where he may 
avail himself of the basic advantages of near- 
ness to the source of the raw material, better 
climate, equal if not better power facilities, and 
a more stable and contented supply of labor. 
New England for more than a decade has 
attempted to blink these facts ; they can be 
blinked no longer ; apparently it will be from 
now on a race among the New England mills 
to be the first to effect the shift to the new 
region of operation. 

By way of contrast pointing the necessity 
the New England mills are under is the fact 
that in the same papers in which it was an- 
nounced that 15,000 employes at Fall River had 
been thrown out of employment, textile mills 
in the Spartanburg district were reported as 
declaring dividends at a rate in no case less 
than eight and in some instances over one 
hundred per cent, on an annual basis. 

Notable as this decision must be to the South 
and particularly North and South Carolina, it 
involves fundamental problems differing from 
but in every way as difficult as any which have 
had to be dealt with in the past. It will mean 
the inflow of vast amounts of new capital. It 
will mean a great increase in taxable prop- 
erties. It will enhance land values. It will 
build up communities. With the natural in- 
crease of our own plants it will double and 
treble in the course of a relatively few years 
the importance and significance of what is to- 
day the largest and most important of our in- 
dustries. But it will demand as well as give, 
impose obligation as well as benefit, require 
for its proper and adequate reception in the 
South an intelligence and resource and faith in 
their own nowers of energy, industry and gov- 
ernmental foresight such as will constitute for 
our people a real economic test and crisis. 

Labor and Land 
First off, what of labor? 
In the State we already have over 550 cotton, 
woolen, cordage, silk and knitting mills that 
employ an army of approximately 100,000 
workers, upon whose wages are dependent prac- 
tically a half million people, or about one out 
of every five of the population. 

(Continued on Page Three) 



"The making of homes in North Carolina is largely dependent upon the 
development and use of the water power of the State," said F. H. Newell, 
consulting engineer of the Reclamation Service, in a recent discussion of the 
possible development and full use of the resources of North Carolina. 

"The stability of the Government and of various industries," he added, 
"is dependent upon the increase of the number of our small, self-supporting 
farm homes, of the type from which came so many of the men who are now 
leaders of the national life. 

"The connection between the production of power and the production of 
homes to provide the substantial citizenship of the country may not be ob- 
vious ; but if we recollect that this is the Age of Power, when all industry, in- 
cluding agriculture, is depending less and less upon the strength of men and 
animals and more and more upon mechanical devices, then we realize that the 
power factor must be considered, even in the making of homes. 

"In North Carolina, whenever an industry is established, its economical 
operation depends largely upon the question whether the mill or factory is 
surrounded by a stable population, and upon the availability of abundant and 
cheap foodstuffs. It is economically desirable, as well as important from the 
social or political aspect, that this stable population should be located near the 
mills on tracts of land easily cultivated, or that the factory be surrounded by 
well-tilled farms. These farms help the factory and the factory aids them — 
reducing the labor turn-over in the one case and keeping down the cost of 
transportation of perishable food in the other. 

"Even in the extreme Eastern part of the State, where drainage is nec- 
essary or desirable, the development of power in the distant hills has its 
distinct bearing on the creation of homes." 

Mr. Newell's opinion carries great weight by reason of his special ex- 
perience and study, which began in 1888. As Chief Hydrographer of the 
U. S. Geological Survey he instituted measurements of streams throughout the 
country. Later he made valuable personal examinations and studies of op- 
portunities for the reclamation of waste lands of the South and East, while 
conducting large reclamation operations in the West. 


To the list of minerals occurring in suffi- 
cient quantities in the State to justify classifi- 
cation as having commercial uses cyanite 
(kyanitc) now bids to be added. 

Precisely how the deposits of this mineral 
of wide distribution in many of the mica and 
hornblende schists of Macon, Haywood, Tran- 
sylvania, Yancey, Mitchell, Caldwell, Catawba. 
Gaston and other counties are to be utilized is 
not yet apparent; but the interest and inquiries 
of a number of large electric and steel making 
(Continued on Page Two) 


The man who knows the ways of the city 
restaurant and tips the waiter a wink with his 
order for squab, while prepared to pay almost 
any price in unreason for his quail on toast, is 
apt to recall with sadness a day not so remote 
when it was possible to buy birds at ten cents 
each, or a dozen for a dollar. 

The lime when venison was regularly offered 

at the butcher's was earlier. Inn within - - 

memory oi men who still feel themselves young 

enough to take the field for a hard day — al- 

(. Continued on Page Three) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free on 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

New England's Mill Hegira 

Recent practical admission by Fall 
River textile mills that they are unable 
longer to compete successfully with the 
South was an industrial sensation no less 
profound because it had long been dis- 
counted by the logic of conditions. Its 
effects will be tremendous, the adjust- 
ment of the problems it will create deli- 
cate and far reaching. To the South, 
especially the Carolinas, to which ulti- 
mately the New England mills must come, 
there will be brought a vast new invest- 
ment and the practical doubling of plant 
of its leading industry. 

Advantageous as such an industrial 
shift may be and notable as the competi- 
tive victory certainly is, the responsibili- 
ties involved render foolish in the extreme 
any tendency to accept the new distribu- 
tion as a mere gift of fortune from which 
to profit. Such a change will take sev- 
eral years in completion and the time is 
all too brief for what the South must do 
in the way of accommodation. No such 
benefit can be reasonably expected to be 
without its perplexing incidents. 

The question of labor. It is a miracle 
that the South should have been able to 
find in its own native white population, 
untrained for the work and unaided by 
tradition of employment, an element so 
adaptable as to make the Southern mill 
supreme, even with all its advantages of 
climate and nearness to the source of the 
raw material. When the New England 
mills come, they will be fleeing their own 
labor as well as their regional disad- 
vantages. Which means that the South 
must perform this labor miracle in double 
measure. For this to be possible, it will 
be required that in place of the additional 
white labor the new mills will draw from 
the farms there must be brought to the 
State immigration — not an indigestible 
mass such as the New England mills and 
the country at large are sick of — but 
energetic and ambitious small farmers to 
whom the State can look to make avail- 
able to agriculture and fit with homes the 
uncultivated areas and especially the re- 
claimed lands of the East. In addition 
there must be encouraged and intensively 
demonstrated the value of improved 
farm machinery, the utilization of power 
wherever possible, the doctrine of greater 
production per acre and per man. 

Another vital requirement will be the 
increase of power to serve the mills 

themselves. Important in the preemi- 
nence of the Southern mill is the recent 
development of hydro-electric power ; 
but, great as that has been, it is now in- 
adequate to meet the demand of existing, 
to say nothing of projected plants. 

When once the great hegira of the 
textile mills is under way, the South 
must be prepared to welcome and provide 
for its needs. It must be ready with 
labor and power. For the one, the State 
is under obligation to bend every energy 
toward attaining the maximum produc- 
tion from the land and filling it with a 
class adapted for its cultivation. For the 
other, there is necessary a prompt and 
thorough reform of the attitude of dis- 
trust between government and the great 
new power industry into a generous 
policy that will at once protect the public 
and encourage and make available the 
great capital investment its ultimate de- 
velopment demands. 

The decision of the New England mills 
spells for the South a triumphant op- 

It now awaits the genius of the South 
to exploit it sanely and triumphantly. 

Advertising Values 

Some North Carolinian visiting New 
York recently stumbled on a collection of 
gems in the Metropolitan Museum that 
bore the "Down Home" label. 

Afterwards he may have mentioned 
the incident to or in the hearing of some 
newspaper man who made a "story" of 
the facts. 

In sequence, the Associated Press con- 
sidered the facts of sufficient importance 
to send them out over its wires, so that 
the next morning the people of every 
State were informed of the natural re- 
sources in gems and precious minerals 
that North Carolinians are forever for- 
getting and having recalled to memory. 

The collection of North Carolina stones 
at the Metropolitan Museum is old and 
incomplete. It can give but a faint idea 
of the real mineral wealth of the State. 
Even so, it was sufficiently impressive to 
gain an advertisement to the hundred 
and ten millions which could not have 
been bought by millions in money. 

Yet there has never been a time when 
a few thousands were spent by the State 
for representation for its resources at 
some great exposition that a type of citi- 
zen extra solid above the eyes has not 
shrieked in anguish over the wanton 
waste of public funds ! 

Small Farm Stuff 

In the limited Chadbourne strawberry 
and trucking district, returns from the 
rather short crop of the early berry sea- 
son indicate the sale of 272,925 crates — 

8,733,650 quarts — for a return of $3,- 
500,000, spot cash on delivery for load- 
ing on the cars. Strawberries, of course, 
are but a small part and the Chadbourne 
district only one producer of the fruit 
and trucking industry. The record is 
specially interesting, however, on account 
of the locality of the district and the type 
of farmer who profits by the culture. In 
the sale of the crop, it is not unusual, for 
instance, for forty carloads to be made up 
of shipments from five hundred small 
growers, who contribute from five to fifty 
crates each to the shipment. 

Berries and truck make but one of the 
possibilities of wealth awaiting the estab- 
lishment of the small farm home on 
countless acres of reclaimed land in 
Eastern North Carolina. 




(Continued from Page One) 

corporations which are now active in securing 
information about North Carolina cyanite, its 
occurrence and quantity, indicate that it is 
sought for its refractory qualities; that is, its 
resistance to heat and fire, indicating its use in 
fire-brick manufacture, lining for furnaces and 
in the manufacture of high grade refractory 

If cyanite should find place as a recognized 
commodity, it would be following the precedent 
of a number of North Carolina minerals that 
for years were considered interesting but with- 
out special value or significance. Notable 
among them are zirconium oxide, used in the 
early Nearnst lamp as a heat-resisting mantle, 
and monazite, later utilized in obtaining nitrate 
of thorium as base for the improved gas burner, 
the latter found in large quantites in the sands 
of streams of the Southern Mountains in sev- 
eral North Carolina counties. 

If the large quantities of cyanite shall be 
commercially utilized, it will be but a repetition 
of what has sometimes seemed the uncanny 
facility of the State in providing the mineral 
product for the occurrence of which in quantity 
industry happens to be sending out its sum- 
mons. Again and again it has happened, not 
only that the mountains of the State held the 
required deposit, but where the mineral was 
particularly rare, demand resulted in its dis- 
covery in unsuspected amounts. It has fre- 
quently happened, also, that where a need de- 
veloped for a mineral not known to occur in 
the United States, the first search of North 
Carolina as the most likely spot has generally 
been successful. Chromite for steel making 
is one of the few exceptions to a rule that a 
mineral much wanted waits only on thorough 
examination of North Carolina resources. 

Although any commercial future it may have 
seems to be an industrial one, cyanite crystals 
produce gems of rare beauty, many of the most 
remarkable of which are found in a number of 
North Carolina localities. A subsilicate of 
alumina, it is very closely related to topaz, its 
name having been derived from the Greek, 
kuanos, blue, and called by old writers sappar, 
as a corruption of sapphire, which its fine, clear 
crystals sometimes resemble. These, however, 
vary greatly in color, ranging from shades of 
blue and blue-green to an occasional pure white. 

Crystals of cyanite are found at numerous 
points in North Carolina, notably at Chubb's 


and Crowder's Mountains, on the road to Coop- 
er's Gap, in Gaston and Rutherford counties, 
and at Swannanoa Gap. Very excellent speci- 
mens are found, also, in Mitchell county, where 
there occur fine isolated crystals that for 
perfection, depth of color and transparency 
rival those from St. Gothard, in Switzerland. 
In another locality in the same vicinity (Yel- 
low Mountain) other fine specimens are found, 
frequently of a mossy green color, sometimes 
perfectly transparent and sometimes blue along 
the center with grass-green margins. 




(Continued from Page One) 

This body of labor has been created slowly 
and with infinite pains through more than a 
generation of the development of the industry. 
It is almost entirely white and native born, li 
it growing constantly in skill and establishing 
the traditions of a craft. How will it be 
doubled or trebled to keep pace with the ex- 
pansion that is promised, probably within the 
next lustrum, almost certainly within the next 
decade? How will this new body of workers 
be created, at what cost or loss elsewhere, with 
what setting of new and untried economic 

It was the South's advantage in the quality 
of this labor, on the whole contented, ambitious 
and adaptable, that was one of the most cogent 
arguments to convince the New England manu- 
facturer of his disadvantages. When he comes 
South, he will require for his mill the same 
kind of white, native labor the Southern manu- 
facturer has developed for himself. If he gets 
it, where will it come from? 

Naturally, the answer is clear. It will come 
from the farm, as came the hundred thousand 
workers who have achieved this industrial vic- 
tory for their State. But already the need of 
the farm is acute and promises to be rendered 
more so by a drift of negro labor to the in- 
dustrial North. If the recruiting for the mill 
expansion goes on in the agricultural districts, 
farm production must be sustained by recruit- 
ment from other sections to make up the loss. 
Here, at the very beginning, we run into an 
impending condition with which it will require 
the exercise of a profound governmental policy 
to cope successfully. 

The Adaptable Southern White 

The New England manufacturer who is ex- 
pecting to move South, and certainly not the 
South itself, does not expect or wish to use 
the mass of labor upon which he has depended, 
and which has sorely disappointed him. The 
South does not desire and could not live with 
an alien element of mixed races and uncon- 
genial habits. The newcomer will expect to 
secure, and the South's business will be to pro- 
vide, his quota of the really wonderful skilled 
labor into which an unlearned and inexperi- 
enced element has adapted itself with remark- 
able ease and speed. He knows that the men 
and women who run the spindles and looms 
that are beating him at his own game are of 
different type from that secured abroad, that is 
fixed in an inheritance of routine, while it 
has proved itself reckless and radical as indus- 
trial disturbers. He wants for labor the strong 
stock the cotton mills have used ; that in such 
delicate work as pottery decoration has proved 
in a few years that it brings to a native ability 
to learn. and absorb an art the inestimable gift 
of originality ; the native girls and boys who 
in the Biltmore Industries have discovered a 
power of craftsmanship in weaving that hints 
at genius ; that in cabinet making, the manu- 

facture of toys, anything they are called upon 
to do require seemingly nothing more than 
tools and opportunity, to acquire skill with 
which they seem to have been subconsciously 

The new-coming mills will get the labor and 
the farms will furnish it. It will then be even 
more impressively the order of the day to refit 
the farms. New mills, to be comfortably ab- 
sorbed, will mean more people to the number o 
their employes. Which means so much more 
required of the farms in the way of production. 
It follows that the immigrants the New Eng- 
land mills will not wish to bring in as labor 
must be secured elsewhere, for farm work. 

Obligation of the State 

Inevitably the answer here is State encour- 
agement of the proper kind of immigration to 
settle on the farms made ready by reclamation 
work in the drainage and cut-over districts of 
the East. It is the individual employment o 
improved machinery to take the place of ; 
lessened supply of labor, depleted in one class 
by the recruits to the mills and in another b\ 
the migration of negroes to the North. 

The answer, also, will depend largely upon 
the manner in which State policy shall be ad- 
justed to encourage the water power industry 
to realize as rapidly as may be its vast possi- 
bilities. Water power development has added 
its potent reasoning to the advantage of the 
Southern over the New England mill, but the 
South already has utilized all such power avail- 
able, and its own existing industry is crying for 
more. With development temporarily checked 
on account of construction costs, the manner 
in which the South shall be able to welcome 
the great shift in textile mills will hinge largely 
upon the breadth and liberality of treatment ac- 
corded this new phase of realized resources. 
Not otdy in the case of the great hydro-electric 
corporation, but in the ultimate use of the 
small water power by individuals or community 
cooperation, will it be necessary to avoid in 
the case of the latest public utility the senseless 
and destructive warfare which followed when 
the railroads were selected as the quarry o 
politics and responded, naturally enough, by 
seeking political influence for themselves. 

Sound Plans Imperative 

The coming of the New England mills to 
the South promises to be an industrial migra- 
tion in its own way as thrilling and full of 
romance as that of the wagon trains that made 
the pioneer's epic in the winning of the West. 

It is not a moment too soon, for our good 
as well as theirs, to begin to plan for them t 
welcome that will so far as possible avoid the 
retarding mistakes and cruelties which are the 
numerous examples of history and experience. 

It is the beauty of the problem they raise 
that its solution for the special case includes 
in its scope all those principles of conservation 
which success as a people demands we shall 




(Continued from Page One) 

though it is no longer possible to whistle the 
dog, shoulder the fishing pole and stroll into 
an outdoors teeming with game ami free for 
the use of all comers. 

Still more recently the shad was the succu- 
lent food to a multitude that could not imagine 
the time near when its scarcity would make 
the planked fish and the breakfast roe orthodox 
signs of luxurious living. 

All down the line from the tragedy on the 

large scale written in the almost unbelievable 
efficiency in slaughter which rendered the buffa- 
lo extinct save as a museum piece, we came 
face to face with almost absolute depletion of 
a once apparently inexhaustible profusion of 
the life of land and water. 

Game Laws Saved Day 

Just in time, the country as a whole awaked 
in tin- peril. Although much remains to be 
done in the way of their refinement, the game 
laws of this and other States intervened in the 
nick of the moment. They struck at the root 
of the evil when they put the pot hunter out of 
business, provided liberal breeding seasons, in 
certain instances took game out of commerce 
by preventing its sale or shipment. These laws, 
however, were only the first step and their in- 
spiration only in part conservative. They 
were for the protection as property of the 
game on private lands, whose owners realized 
its value in its scarcity. The next step is to 
go beyond the bare preservation of game species 
and assure their increase and so far restock 
the lands as to recreate for the average man a 
reasonable hope of indulging a natural instinct 
for wholesome sport. There are thousands on 
thousands of young people in North Carolina 
who not only have never eaten, but never even 
seen the once prevalent quail ; yet in a sense 
the right of every boy to know the thrill of the 
point by a staunch dog, the whirr of the rising 
covey, to school his nerves to hold a gun true, 
is one the State should have as much interest 
in preserving as his right to have his mind 
drilled in the ways of education. In fact, edu- 
cation that does not find room for something 
of the sympathetic learning of woodcraft is 
essentially as lop-sided as a classical curriculum 
without scientific and physical reinforcement. 

Preserves the Second Step 

The solution of the game problem — so far 
as it can be solved after what has happened — 
is therefore in governmental game preserves 
supplementary to the game laws. Where the 
game law prohibitions are founded on the public 
policy of a property statute, the game preserve 
is in theory and practice a matter of conserva- 
tion and use for the public welfare. Its aim 
is not only to preserve the game to the owner 
of the land, but to keep and propagate it as the 
property of the State, to become again a com- 
mon incident of land ownership and thus avail- 
able in the preservation of the principle of 
sport, in providing for leisure earned by in- 
dustry the stimulating and heart-filling privi- 
lege of becoming intimate with Things as They 
Wen- Meant to Be. 

By virtue of acts of Congress and the Gen- 
eral Assembly and the presidential proclamation 
of Woodrow Wilson one game preserve ex- 
ists in North Carolina — Pisgah Forest, a part 
of the Federal Forest Reserve, ninety thousand 
acres in extent, in which all native game finds 
protection against the gun of the hunter. In 
general the Forest Reserve lands are open to 
hunting and fishing, subject only to the restric- 
tions of the game laws of the States in which 
they lie. The game preserve goes further in 
that no game may be kille-d on any pretext and 
a place is provided where it may breed un- 
molested and from which the overflow will 
naturally migrate, with the result of stocking 
surrounding territory. Lying on the upper 
waters of the French Broad River and smaller 
portions of the watershed of Pigeon River, the 
present area of the preserve in Transylvania. 
Haywood. Buncombe and Henderson counties 
originally was full of buffalo, elk. deer, wild- 
turkey, bear, and innumerable smaller fur-bear- 
ing animals, as well as grouse and other game 
birds. The buffalo and elk are said to have 
vanished even before the era of the Revo- 
lutionary War: but deer, wild-turkey, and bear 
were more or less plentiful until about the be- 


ginning of the Twentieth Century. The Nation 
and State were fortunate in that for a number 
of years before the creation of the preserve 
the lands had been systematically restocked 
with deer, turkeys and pheasants by th; former 
owner, George W. Vanderbilt, from whom the 
Government acquired the fee. 

Population of Pisgah 

At present there are in the preserve an esti- 
mated 1,500 to 2,000 head of deer, eighteen elk, 
the increase of specimens shipped from the 
Yellowstone in 1917 and doing well, and pheas- 
ants and wild-turkeys, which are increasing 
and spreading throughout the region beyond 
the confines of the preserve. In 1919 Austin 
Corbin of New York made the Government a 
present of a herd of six full-blooded buffalo, 
but though they bred readily they fell a prey 
to and died from intestinal disease until only 
four of the original herd are left and the pos- 
sibility of preserving them permanently is 
therefore doubtful and remote. 

In the streams the future for fishing is 
bright, and while no gun may be fired at game, 
the privilege of using the rod and reel and 
artificial fly for rainbow and brook trout is 
granted under reasonable regulations and for a 
nominal fee. Vacationists may obtain camping 
permits and sites are ready prepared. Forest 
wardens and rangers keep a strict patrol in the 
territory of the preserve and Federal Judge 
Webb has proven severe upon the poachers 
they capture, giving sentences to jail as well as 
imposing heavy fines. Only forest officials can 
fire a shot within the ninety thousand acres, 
and they only to kill the persistent foxes, wild- 
cats and other predatory animals, and the in- 
evitable dog running at large. Foxes make 
slaughter among the pheasants and wild-turk- 
eys, and the wild-cat (in appearance a beautiful 
magnified edition of a familiar type of domes- 
tic "Tom") is at once prolific, fierce and re- 
sourceful. The cats kill largely among the 
deer and several instances are known in which 
they have pulled down and destroyed full grown 
animals. As for the dog running loose, his 
depredation is particularly cruel, since it occurs 
chiefly in the Spring, when the does, heavy 
with fawn, fall easy victims to the chase. 
Wardens and rangers execute the volunteer 
hunting dog on sight. 

The effect of the preserve on the increase of 
game in the general territory is indicated by 
the number of private hunting clubs whose 
lands adjoin the Pisgah area. A few years ago 
there were but two of these ; now there are 
ten. While it may be admitted that with but 
the one preserve, its overflow now results 
chiefly in giving good sport to a few fortunate 
hunters, the process is a progressive one and 
will in the course of time provide a new over- 
flow to adjoining districts. 

The lesson is that where there is one preserve 
now, there should be numerous others, both 
large and small, State as well as National. 
The experience of other States — notably New 
York and Pennsylvania — in creating both game 
sanctuaries, strategically located to restock the 
surrounding territory, and other semi-preserves 
which are thrown open for hunting for limited 
terms and bags, has shown that it not only is 
possible to prevent extermination but to win 
back against the tide of destruction of which 
the denudation of the forests, the invention of 
modern weapons and the ease of transportation 
were chief factors. 

Example Should Be Rule 

North Carolina soon or late must follow the 
precedent of the State Park at Mount Mitchell 
with the acquisition of other territory of for- 
est land, lake, and seashore necessary to be 
preserved as great natural assets which it 
would be a species of sacrilege to give over to 
otherwise inevitable despoliation. An incident 
of the park policy, the principle of game pre- 

serves would be even easier to establish, on ac- 
count of the relatively limited areas required 
and the ease with which its financing could be 
assisted by revenue from hunting and fishing 

The Pisgah Preserve is the example that 
should be developed into the rule. 




Numbers of North Carolina towns which are 
contemplating the establishment or improve- 
ment of municipal water plants have been 
hampered in the past by a lack of definite data 
as to the stream flow at the source of supply. 
In some cases there have been failures and 
disappointments that have meant much useless 
expense and great embarrassment. Gauging sta- 
tions for measuring the flow of the small 
streams from which this municipal supply is 
generally obtained are therefore of great public 
as well as economic value. 

One of the results of a recent agreement 
reached by the Survey with the director of the 
present survey of the Tennessee River it is 
hoped will be the establishment of a number of 
such stations on North Carolina streams to 
which a number of municipalities are or will 
be looking for their water supplies. 

Congress having appropriated $200,000 for 
two years for an intensive investigation of the 
Tennessee River, measurement of stream flow 
is almost the first requisite. In 1922 the U. S. 
Geological Survey was operating through the 
office of the district engineer in Asheville 
fifteen gauging stations which were under the 
joint control of the Federal and State govern- 
ments and supported in part by State funds 
Since these stations are largely upon the tribu- 
taries of the Tennessee River in North Caro- 
lina, it was recently agreed at a meeting in 
Asheville between the director and hydraulic 
engineer of the Survey, the State Geologist 
and district engineers of North Carolina and 
Tennessee and Major Harold C. Fisk, U. S. 
engineer in charge of the Tennessee River in- 
vestigation, that the U. S. District Survey at 
Chattanooga take over these stream flow sta- 
tions now operated from the Asheville office 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, in coordination 
with the State. 

The arrangement is important in that it will 
set free State and Federal funds heretofore 
used in the maintenance of these stations for 
use in establishing new gauging stations in 
other parts of the State, and this will permit 
the placing of stations on the small streams in 
the same general region, the run off of which 
is very different in character, supplying lacking 
data for the use particularly of municipalities, 
as stated, and establishing minimum flow. It 
will also permit the placing of new stations on 
streams in the East, the flow of which has not 
been gauged recently, if at all. Particularly 
are such stations needed on the Neuse and the 
Tar and in the newly established drainage 
canals — where they will aid greatly in the 
future in their design. In the two year period 
it is hoped that it will be possible to establish 
these new stations and rate them, so that after- 
wards it may be possible for them to be 
permanently maintained. 

The enlarged work in Tennessee and North 
Carolina has made it impossible for the district 
engineer to do any work in any of the other 
Southern States, none of which is availing 
itself of the opportunity of cooperating with 
the Federal Government. While it is rec- 
ognized that it is very necessary for industrial 
and other reasons that a number of old gauging 
stations be kept up, there are no Federal funds 

available. It has therefore been suggested that 
the Southern Appalachian Water Power Con- 
ference seek to raise from various interests, 
power companies, Federal permittees of the 
War Department, etc., sufficient funds to es- 
tablish at Atlanta a sub-office of the Asheville 
district. General supervision of the Southern 
region would remain in the hands of Warren 
E. Hall, district engineer at Asheville, but all 
detail work would be done at the sub-office. 

At the recent meeting of the executive com- 
mittee of the Southern Appalachian Water 
Power Conference, the plan for this office was 
canvassed and accepted and the committee will 
recommend its adoption when the Conference 
holds its second annual meeting at Asheville, 
June 25-27. 


Robert W. Bruere, an eminent expert, has 
been commissioned by The Survey, New York 
magazine, to write a series of articles in con- 
nection with the water power possibilities of 
the Southern Appalachian region, their utiliza- 
tion and potential inter-connection. Seeking 
information in Washington, he was referred to 
the N. C. Geological and Economic Survey as 
the source best fitted to supply his wants, and 
later was in conference with the director of 
the Survey. Mr. Bruere hopes to be in attend- 
ance on the Southern Appalachian Water 
Power Conference in Asheville, June 25-27. 

Colin B. Spencer, of Carthage, Moore 
County, was recently in conference with the 
hydraulic engineer of the Survey in connection 
with the development he and his associates are 
contemplating upon the Jones mill site on Deep 
River. By reason of investigation of the Deep 
River area already made, The Survey was able 
to provide the necessary information. The site 
of the development will be included in further 
investigation of the Deep River, to be made 
during the summer. 

The Director of the Survey recently confer- 
red in Washington with John C. Hoyt, assistant 
in the division of water resources of the U. S. 
Geological Survey. Plans are under way to 
increase the force of the Asheville office of the 
Survey to include an office engineer, so that all 
records of water powers may be kept up to 
date and available for use. The work of the 
Asheville office now deals with North Carolina 


R. L. Faris, acting director of the U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, has announced 
that work already is begun on a revised edition 
of the Magnetic Survey made in North Caro- 
lina in 1899, when the meridian posts were 
established for the testing of surveyors' in- 

Completion of the work, which gives full 
tables for all counties in the State, will be 
pushed and should be ready in a reasonable 
time. Copies will be furnished to the Registers 
of Deeds of each county for their own use 
and for distribution to surveyors. The work 
of reetablishing meridian posts which have 
been removed or rendered unfit as points for 
observation will be undertaken this summer, as 
stated in the previous issue of Natural Re- 

In view of the quite general neglect of the 
law requiring surveyors to test their instru- 
ments annually by the meridian posts and to 
secure a certificate from the county authorities, 
it has been suggested that the need would be 
met by a change in the law which would make 
a survey admissible as court evidence only 
when it could be shown that the surveyor did 
his work with properly tested instruments. 

Natural Resources 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. JUNE 16, 1923 

No. 4 


The detailed report of Messrs. M. R. Camp- 
bell and K. K. Kimball of the United States 
Geological Survey as to the extent and com- 
mercially recoverable content of what is known 
as the Deep River Coal Field supports the 
preliminary investigations which have been 
made by the North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Survey and points the way to an 
early practical development of an industry that 
for one reason and another has missed mate- 
rialization through a century and a half of 

The report, which was made by cooperation 
of the Federal and State geological surveys, 
shows the geography of the field to extend 
from a short distance northeast of the Cape 
Fear River in a southwestardly direction to 
Carthage, and in the other direction from San- 
ford on the southwest to a few miles beyond 
Gulf on the northwest, embracing portions of 
Chatham, Lee and Moore counties. It is known 
as the Deep River Coal Field because almost 
all the prospecting and developing through the 
years has been on or near that stream, from 
near Glendon to the point where Deep and 
Haw Rivers unite to form the Cape Fear. 
The area in which the presence of coal to a 
recoverable total of 67,000,000 tons has been 
demonstrated is only a small part of the area 
outlined above. 

The coal described in the report as commer- 
cial at the present time lies in the upper of two 
distinct benches, where it varies in thickness 
from three to nearly four feet, the combined 
width of the two benches being given as seven 
feet, six inches, which it is believed was origin- 
ally mined entire. Ultimately, it is believed, 
the lower bench might under certain conditions 
be mined and cleaned profitably. The esti- 
mated 67,000,000 tons of workable coal and 
available tonnage in the district west of the 
Deep River fault, in the opinion of the geolo- 
gists, can be mined profitably to a depth of 
2,000 feet. The area in which this tonnage is 
included is about twenty-five miles square and 
it is considered reasonable to assume that the 
coal bed throughout averages at least three feet 
in thickness of recoverable coal. 

Valuable Bv-P'roducts 
The character and quality of the coal have 
been very carefully studied and physical and 
chemical analyses are given of specimens from 
various sections of the area. One interesting 
feature of the chemical composition is that it 
contains approximately two per cent, of nitro- 
gen, which could be obtained in the form of 
ammonium sulphate as a by-product in coking, 
which would yield approximately twenty-three 
pounds per ton of coal. The test showed a 
very good quality of coke, so far as could be 
determined by a laboratory test, fairly equal to 
either Freeport or Pittsburgh cokes. It is be- 
( Continued on Page Four) 



(By A. W. McLean) 

I believe the natural resources of North Carolina exceed in variety those 
of any other State in the Union, and that we should do everything in our 
power to make them known, not only to our people, but to others outside 
the State. While it is a well known fact that North Carolina can produce 
and supply nearly every agricultural, sea, and forest product needed in the 
State, and many of the raw materials used in the manufacturing industries, 
there are still being shipped into the State millions of dollars worth of goods 
which could be produced or manufactured here at home as cheap, if not more 
cheaply than the cost of the imported product. 

A citizen of North Carolina could have no greater ambition, to my 
mind, than to aid in bringing about, not so much some glittering industrial 
achievement, or new preeminence in this or that line of manufacture or agri- 
culture, or a brilliant application of some one of many vast potentialities, 
but a "balanced prosperity" which can only be realized when there is brought 
the full weight of all the State's resources into the concert of energy which 
is the reasonable dream of every man who knows North Carolina. 

For such an achievement we need to work, not only to the limit of our 
own capacity, but to interest the initiative and the capital of the country as a 
whole. To do this quickly and successfully against the competition of such 
States as California and Florida, which have already adopted advertising as 
a principle, we need to center more strongly on making known to the world 
the story it is ours to tell, but which even we ourselves as yet only incom- 
pletely comprehend. 

With fewer resources, we would be forced to undertake a campaign of 
publicity for the sake of preservation ; with resources of infinite variety and 
amount, a policy of publicity so thorough as to make them a part of the 
breakfast menu of the Nation would speedily become of more value to the 
State than the richest asset it could celebrate. 


To the vague popular understanding the ex- 
pression "thermal belt" conveys a mythological 
picture of a blessed region magically defying 
the laws of nature ; a favored area relieved of 
seasonal penalties; where extremes of heat or 
cold never afflict; where frost, in particular, is 
unknown, and the weather an ever genial deity. 

As a matter of fact this impression is an 
error as egregious as the superstition that once 
gave full faith and credit to tales of a "Foun- 
tain of Youth." There is no miracle weather 
in the mountains of this or any other State. 
The fixed rule, that the higher one goes, the 
colder he finds the air in which he moves, 
generally holds as true of the regions sup- 
posedly blessed with "thermal zones" as of 
those in which the aviator, ascending on a blaz- 
( Continued on Page Two) 


Expression of policy of the Southern Appa- 
lachian Water Power Conference, to meet in 
second annual session at Asheville. June 25-27, 
has been definitely formulated by the executive 
committee, Wilbur A. Nelson, State Geologist 
of Tennessee, chairman. 

The conference will represent official State 
bodies, Federal agencies of research and in- 
vestigation, members of public utility boards, 
and many of the leading figures in Southern 
industry, water power corporations, and allied 

On broad lines the end of the conference is 

the promotion and application of the natural 

resources of the Southern Appalachian States 

in both direct and indirect relation to water 

(Continued on Page Three) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C., by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free on 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

South's Rights in Reclamation 

There are in North Carolina approxi- 
mately two million acres of swamp and 
overflow lands which could be redeemed 
and made available for agriculture. 

These lands are rich beyond estima- 
tion. Their soils are literal reservoirs of 
productive energy, stocked through cen- 
turies. They need nothing except sun- 
light and cultivation to make a whole 
section a garden spot. 

In addition, there are approximately a 
million and a half acres of cut-over tim- 
ber lands which are at present useless, but 
awaiting development to become a region 
of prosperous homes and prolific revenue. 

To realize this potential empire for the 
people of the State and to bring into use 
vast areas of similar lands throughout 
the South, it is necessary that State and 
Federal governments combine their en- 
ergies and advance their credit to prepare 
them for settlement. The plans whereby 
this can be done with financial safety 
have been thoroughly worked out. It re- 
mains only for Congress to adopt a policy 
for the idle lands of the South analogous 
to that which it has for more than a de- 
cade brilliantly followed in using irriga- 
tion to convert into a region of rich farm 
homes the once arid regions of the West. 
There is no moral, political or legal dif- 
ference in principle between drainage and 
development of waste lands in the South 
and irrigation of desert lands in the West. 
The West "got the jump." It has profited 
exclusively as a region in the develop- 
ment of a policy that should have been 
national. It is high time that the South, 
which aided the West by the votes of 
Southern representatives in Congress, 
should demand in positive tones an equal 
consideration as a matter of absolute 

At the last session of Congress there 
was passed an appropriation bill relating 
to several Western reclamation projects 
which nevertheless included the following 
clause that might well prove pregnant 
with meaning for the South : "cooper- 
ative and miscellaneous investigations of 
reclamation projects, $125,000." 

The amount, of course, is in itself im- 
material. Its significance, however, if it 
be used in whole or in part in inaugurat- 
ing Federal interest in a reclamation 
program in the South like that which has 
been followed in the West, is tremendous. 
How well that significance is recognized 

is shown by the instant denial by Western 
interests that the appropriation for "mis- 
cellaneous investigations of reclamation 
projects" can have any possible relation 
to anything except the familiar Western 
districts in need of irrigation. 

It is time — high time — for the South, 
which has ten acres capable of reclama- 
tion and development to one of like kind 
in the West, to assert itself. There is no 
monopoly in the desert capable of being 
made into a garden that works against 
the swamp which justifies draining or the 
pine barren needing government aid in 
development for settlement. Small as it 
is, the appropriation referred to logically 
applies to the South as well as to the 
West or any other section. It is the duty 
of every Southern interest to see to it that 
our representatives in Congress know the 
importance of pressing the point of 
principle so modestly conceded only to be 
frantically denied. It is time to say to 
the West in all good feeling that the 
South which made possible the practice 
of reclamation in the West now demands 
a similar treatment, not as a threat but 
as an expectation of justice. 

Catfish Tenants 

General E. F. Glenn, U. S. A., retired, 
speaking recently to a North Carolina 
audience, referred to the familiar sight 
of bridges lined with country natives en- 
gaged in the idle self-hypnotism of 
watching a cork. 

As a recreation, the mere act of fishing 
has physically beneficial as well as philo- 
sophic points. That is a spiritual de- 
tachment that is the best medicine. But a 
practice pleasant and valuable as an avo- 
cation becomes an enervating vice when 
indulged, not as a means, but as an im- 
becile end. There is suggested by this 
type of fishermen the old man on the 
pier who, when asked what he did all 
day, replied, "I jes sets and thinks, and 
then again I jes sets." 

These lethargic fishermen live in a 
section of Eastern North Carolina in 
which there are possibly greater agricul- 
tural possibilities than in any other part 
of the Union. They were spending 
golden hours at a time of the year when 
the fields called for the best they had to 
give. Yet it will not do to blame entirely 
the tenant farmer who leaves his field 
and goes down to the creek to "set" in 
the faint hope of catching a worthless 
catfish. Just because he is not a clod 
but a human being, this fisherman will 
never leave his creek for the land until 
he can see in the cultivation of the soil 
something definite in the way of a future 
for himself. 

There are enormous North Carolina 
areas given over to lands now practically 
unproductive. There are thousands on 

thousands of men of the creek fisherman 
type, who once given a chance to own 
lands, would never again consider the 
creek and the bobbing cork a means of 
killing otherwise intolerable time. 

To put the land and the man in harness 
together requires capital and energy be- 
yond the power of any individual to rea- 
lize. It is a governmental task in devel- 
opment of a rich resource that otherwise 
will remain practically useless. But its 
results, not only in utilization of the soil 
but in the production of men of a new 
type of vision and power of energy, 
would be incalculable. 

As an incidental benefit, it might soon 
be possible to fish the country streams 
with more than a faint delustion of suc- 
cess in capturing a string of catfish. 

Deep River Coal Field 

Development of the Deep River Coal 
Field in line with the reasonable prob- 
abilities held out by the first comprehen- 
sive and detailed report of its extent and 
content would add to the State's power 
of self-sustainment several important 

First, it would secure for industrial 
use something like 1,000,000 tons of coal 
per annum, out of a total of commercial 
coal now estimated at 67,000,000 tons as 
a minimum. 

Second, it would add appreciably to 
the sum of hydro-electric power in a dis- 
trict already busy with the production of 
"white coal." 

Third, it would furnish cheaply an ex- 
cellent quality of coke for use as a do- 
mestic fuel by the people of the State 

Fourth, it would be capable of produc- 
ing by-products that in themselves might 
provide valuable industries now unknown 
in the State. 

All these things are self-evident possi- 
bilities growing out of the long delayed 
analysis of this ancient field, which for 
years was practically the only source of 
North Carolina's coal supply, but was left 
by a strange negligence to languish 
through generations. 




(Continued from Page One) 

ing July day, has to wrap himself in furs to 
withstand the attainment of altitude. Despite 
the fiction of "frostless" belts, "verdant zones," 
the spot supposed to be the beneficiary of an 
arbitrary physical exemption, the adiabatic rate 
— that is to say, the decrease of one degree in 
temperature for every 300 feet in ascent — re- 
mains the law of the land, the partial excep- 
tions to which may be scientifically explained. 
While there are thus no thermal zones, 
strictly speaking, in which there are irration- 
ally mild temperatures, the fiction has a basis 
in extremely useful fact. Experience in the 


mountains of this and other countries, and 
peculiarly in the mountains of North Carolina, 
in which the phenomenon is more marked than 
anywhere else in the world, has shown that 
there are many high altitude slopes on which 
the adiabatic rate is varied by special condi- 
tions. There are thus numerous instances in 
North Carolina mountains where fruit is killed 
at the bottom of a slope and thrives at or near 
the summit. There are instances in which the 
freezes that kill both at the top and the bot- 
tom seem to leap in a mood of sudden gen- 
erosity over intermediate altitudes. In locali- 
ties that are near neighbors, one may be a suf- 
ferer from winter conditions in seasons when 
the other is enjoying the advantages normal 
to a far milder clime. These are the pheno- 
mena out of which has developed the generally 
accepted fiction of the frost-immune "thermal 
zone," which dwellers in the mountains have 
noted and acted upon without seeking reasons 
why ; which the science of meteorology has at- 
tacked, and in a great measure solved. 

Inversion Phenomenon 

The conditions producing the so-called 
thermal belt phenomenon are summed up in 
what is technically known as an inversion. The 
adiabatic rate at certain times is partially 
and locally in eclipse. Air at the higher level 
is in these instances admittedly warmer than 
that nearer sea level. Why? 

A supplement to the Monthly Weather Re 
view of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
solves the riddle in adequate fashion and with 
voluminous detail collected from a number o 
North Carolina stations, maintained for three 
years at points in which inversion was notable 
and supplemented by charts and data of periods 
of temperatures under different climatic con- 
ditions. For the purpose of the lay reade 
the deductions may be summed up as follows : 

Broadly speaking, the cause of the phenom- 
enon of inversion is a matter of radiation and 
the topography, or construction, of the summit 
above the slope, the slope itself, and the floor 
of the valley in which it ends. It depends, also, 
on whether the weather period is clear and 
still, or cloudy and windy. Thus it is elemental 
physics that warm air ascends and cold de- 
scends. Under normal conditions night is the 
colder period of the day, because the earth 
radiates the heat with which it has been stored 
by the sun, and the air which has been heated 
also radiates warmth, although less rapidly. As 
a consequence the cold air on the slopes above 
the valley floats toward the bottom, and its 
place is taken by that which, heated by the sun 
during the day, has been floating above the 
summit. It is this down-rush of cold air as 
night falls that produces what is known as the 
"mountain breeze;" and if the fall of warm 
air from the slope encounters a valley which is 
well enclosed, and the clear air and still night 
encourage the flow of warm and slowly cooling 
air from above, the result is that the collection 
of chilled air in the valley tends to hold the 
warm air above and to create an inversion of 
the normal rule. 

Verified observations have disclosed, also, 
that inversion may be accentuated by the fric- 
tion generated by the air in its descent from 
the summit, the very rapidity of the motion 
generating heat in the manner of an automobile 
tire. This effect, called dynamic warming, is 
greater than the normal radiation. On the 
slopes this friction-warmed air is duly trans- 
ferred to the earth. 

Inversion, it has been established, occurs as a 
rule only under the special conditions of cold, 
clear and quiet days. Generally it is absent 
in periods of stormy or cloudy weather. Its 
effects are practically of value as they reduce 
the likelihood of killing frosts — not in the 
Winter months, so much as during the growing 
seasons in the Spring and Fall, when the killing 

frost is a chance growing out of sudden clim- 
atic changes, as cold waves. Favored slopes 
have higher minima temperatures during the 
winter and sometimes higher maxima, but the 
great value of the inversion consists in the 
tempering and protection against the unseasonal 
temperatures which would otherwise kill the 
fruits of the orchards which are the agricultural 
reliance of the higher altitudes. 

The supplement, which deals with results of 
three year records made at Bryson, Ellijay, 
Highlands, Asheville, Tryon, Cane River, Alta- 
pass, Blowing Rock, Globe, Gorge, Transon, 
Wilkesboro and Mt. Airy, is based on experi- 
ence with inversion phenomena in localities 
in which orchards are maintained, some of 
them at very high altitudes. It contains a mass 
of information most valuable to fruit growers, 
particularly as respects the selection of sites 
for prospective orchards. Of special signifi- 
cance in such an enterprise is the topography 
of the tentative slope, the character of the sum- 
mit, and the characteristics of the valley floor. 

How spotty in manifestation inversion may 
be is illustrated by the existence of numerous 
"frost pockets" in which relatively very severe 
temperatures are experienced, even in connec- 
tion with localities which are in general fav- 
ored by marked thermal peculiarities, these 
pockets being formed either by depressions in 
the ground that are sinks for the capture of 
cold air or by surrounding growths of timber 
or other obstructions which serve to cut off the 
evening flow of the warmer air from the sum- 
mit region. 

There is even mentioned as an extreme ex- 
ample of sharply defined inversion the case of 
a cherry tree so located on a slope that while 
one half is barren of fruit, the other is almost 
uniformly prolific ! 




(Continued from Page One) 

power, including minerals, forests and agri- 

Scope of Conference 

The scope of the conference and its aims 
may be gathered from the official statement of 
the executive committee, which is as follows : 

1. The Southern Appalachian Water Power 
Conference is an organization of State com- 
missions, public utility companies, engineers, 
bankers, industrial or commercial interests and 
individuals concerned with the development, 
operation, regulation, and utilization of power 
projects and industries dependent upon them. 

2. The conference is committed to the policy 
of wise and beneficial development, utilization 
and conservation of the great water powers, 
forests and other natural resources of the 
Southern Appalachian States. To effect this 
object it proposes to act as principal in carry- 
ing out the following undertakings : 

(a) To effect a more harmonious relation 
between public utilities, public service regula- 
tor}' bodies, and the general public. In further- 
ance of this purpose it is proposed to establish 
a Bureau of Public Relations. This bureau 
will prepare accurate information as to power 
developments, the market supplied, the avail- 
ability of power, the restrictions on use of 
power, and other information relating to de- 
veloped power, and see that such information 
is properly supplied to the press and public 
generally. The bureau will, when requested, 
act as mediator in disputes when such disputes 
do not relate to rates. The bureau will in gen- 
eral act as publicity agent for the dissemina- 
tion of accurate information relating to the 
power industry in the South. 

(b) To provide a bureau to furnish accurate 
information relative to power, and natural re- 
sources, and to supply such information to in- 
dustrial and commercial organizations, engi- 
neers, bankers, etc. In furtherance of this pur- 
pose it is proposed to establish a Bureau of 
Industrial Development. This bureau will in- 
augurate a thorough investigation of water 
powers, forests and other natural resources of 
the region, making use at first of information 
already available from such sources as the 
State Geological Surveys, conservation com- 
missions, chambers of commerce, power com- 
panies, railway development agencies, etc. It 
is essential in this connection that all the in- 
terests involved freely contribute their informa- 
tion to the bureau. The bureau will then en- 
deavor to approach interests outside the States, 
indicating where specially desired facilities for 
industry or commerce are to be found, and 
serve as a general accurate source of informa- 
tion relative to the proper exploitation of the 
great natural resources of the South. 

(c) To provide a means of compiling in- 
formation relative to the scientific facts needed 
in the development of natural resources, it is 
proposed to establish a Bureau of Research. 
This bureau would compile the large amount 
of existing data relating to rainfall, evaporation, 
run-off, power problems, and natural resources, 
etc., now widely scattered, and by making it 
available to all would eliminate much duplica- 
tion and provide needed information. The 
bureau would carry on investigations suggested 
by the conference and, in general, coordinate 
the activities of the existing special committees. 

The Executive Committee proposes immedi- 
ately to develop these bureaus on a functioning 
basis. Their operation would necessitate the 
employment of a full time director who would 
organize the bureaus with suitable personnel. 
The director would report to the Executive 
Committee, which would carry out through him 
any specific recommendations of the conference. 

To put into effect this expansion of the ac- 
tivities of the conference will require practic- 
ally entire agreement as to- cooperation among 
the several interests composing the conference 
and will necessitate a considerably increased 
budget. The budget for 1922-1923 is estimated 
at $25,000. 

The revenue required to carry on the activi- 
ties of the conference is to be raised by con- 
tributions from chambers of commerce, indus- 
trial and commercial associations, water power 
companies, industries utilizing power, railways, 
and individuals. 

High Points of Progress 
The conference will have its opening session 
Monday afternoon, June 25. and will be wel- 
comed by Hon. John H. Cathey, Mayor of 
Asheville. who will be followed by Colonel 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, president, in an address 
outlining what the conference has done to the 
present time and the plans for the future. 
Features of the proceedings will be : 
Report of the Committee on Energy Supply, 
H. L. Mills, chairman. Atlanta, Ga., with dis- 
cussion led by B. M. Hall, hydraulic engineer. 
Atlanta, Ga. ; and Professor C. E. Ferns>. of 
the University of Tennessee, on "Consideration 
of Large Crude Oil Engines for Auxiliary 
Power Plant Installation." 

Committee on Interconnection, P. A. Tillery, 
Raleigh, chairman; discussion by Gerald H. 
Mntthcs. of the War Department District Engi- 
neer's Office, Chattanooga. Tennessee, whose 
subject will be "The Use of Aerial Mapping 
in Water Power Surveys;" Major Harold C. 
Fisk. U. S. A . who will speak on "Investigation 
oi Water Power Possibilities Within a River 
Basin ;" and W. J. Eck, electrical engineer of 
the Southern Railway, on "Electrification of 

Report of tlic Committee on Relation of 





Forestry to Navigation and Water Power, J. S. 

Holmes", State Forester, N. C. Geological and 
Economic Survey, chairman, with discussion 
led by YV. W. Ashe, District Engineer U. S. 
Forest Service, and by a representative of the 
Champion Fibre Company, who will tell what 
his corporation is doing in North Carolina in 

Report of the Committee on State and Fed- 
eral Legislation, Colonel T. C. Williams, Col- 
umbia, S. C, chairman, with discussion by 
Hon. A. J. Maxwell, of the N. C. Corporation 
Commission, and Professor Thorndyke Saville, 
hydraulic engineer of the N. C. Geological and 
Economic Survey. 

Report of the Executive Committee on the 
Future Policy and W<ork of the Conference, 
Wilbur A. Nelson, State Geologist of Tennes- 
see, chairman, with discussion by Lincoln 
Green, vice-president Southern Railway, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Clement C. Ucker, Seaboard Air 
Line Railway, Savannah, Ga. ; E. A. Yates, 
Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, Alabama ; 
M. O. Leighton, hydraulic engineer, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Special addresses are expected from Dwight 
F. Davis, Assistant Secretary of War ; U. S. 
Senator J. K. Shields of Tennessee, and O. C. 
Merrill, executive secretary of the Federal 
Power Commission. 




(Continued from Page One) 

lieved that one use of the Deep River coal 
that should be given careful consideration is 
coking it, using the coke as a domestic fuel, 
and the yield of gas for generating electric 
power for transmission, there being water in 
abundance for the steam plants which would 
furnish the initial power. It is possible, also, 
that it might be feasible to utilize the gas by 
pipe lines, perhaps as far as Charlotte. 

The ammonium sulphate, also obtained as a 
by-product, will be of large value for agricul- 
tural purposes. There would also be obtained 
as a by-product approximately twenty-two gal- 
lons of tar (dehydrated) per ton of coal. The 
by-product yield, in fact, compares very favor- 
ably with yields from Freeport coal. 

For the benefit of those who are tempera- 
mentally given over to roseate dreams, the re- 
port is explicit in the conclusion that from a 
geological point of view all the evidence re- 
specting the possibility of oil in the district is 

That portion of the report having to do with 
geologic formations and structure finds that the 
coal beds are associated with sandstones and 
shales of Triassic age and belonging to the 
Newark group. The Newark group of rocks 
includes the red sandstones of the Connecticutt 
Valley in Connecticutt and Massachusetts and 
the red sandstone and shale of Virginia. The 
Newark group in the Deep River Field con- 
sists of three generally recognized parts : a 
lower formation to which the name "Pekin" 
has been given, composed largely of red and 
brown sandstone ; a middle formation of light 
colored or drab shale, sandstone and coal beds, 
to which has been given the name "Cum- 
nock ;" and an upper formation, called the 
"Sanford," consisting mainly of red conglo- 
merate of great, though unknown, thickness. 
This portion of the report also describes the 
character and location of the dykes cutting 
through the formations, and faults that were 
noted; it also shows cross-sections of the form- 
ation at various places throughout the area. 
The report is accompanied by a geologic map. 

Field Has Long History 

As stated, North Carolina coal has been a 

familiar and yet unknown quantity for more 
than one hundred and fifty years. From time 
to time there have been experiments in mining 
it, notably at Cumnock, but these were almost 
universally commercial failures, chiefly due to 
lack of capital and attempted exploitation by 
men in charge of operations who were un- 
familiar with coal mining. At the Cumnock 
mines, for instance, there have been periodical 
accidents with loss of life, all of which doubt- 
less could have been prevented had operators 
and miners been aware of self-evident dangers. 
It is narrated that the late J. A. Holmes was 
once in a level of the Cumnock mine when one 
of the workers illustrated some bit of in- 
formation by touching a lighted candle to a 
seam in the vein for the purpose of igniting 
the loose gas ! 

In old times, however, the field was famous, 
and when transportation was at a premium, it 
was practically the only source of supply of 
bituminous coal for North Carolina. All the 
Eastern counties knew "Gulf Coal" although 
few except the richer families could afford to 
use it. A most interesting map of the period 
before 1860 (Rob't H. D. Brazier, Philadelphia, 
and published by John MacRae, of Fayetteville, 
in 1833, reprinted by the Association of Ameri- 
can Geographers, 1916) gives the lines of 
transportation by plank road and water, rivers, 
canals, etc., of a number of counties, including 
sections in which the Deep River Field is lo- 
cated. According to the map, coal from the 
Deep River Field was shipped at that time from 
the Cape Fear to the Neuse, by way of Taylor's 
canal, from a point just above Buckhorn Falls 
through Middle and Swift Creeks. Coal thus 
went to Battle's mills at Smithfield, on the 
Neuse, and from there to the falls of the Tar 
at Rocky Mount. Wayne county families — 
the Whitfields, Colliers and Cobbs — also de- 
pended on this devious route for their supplies 
of bituminous. 

While the history of coal mining operations 
in the Deep River Field has been one of many 
failures, due to lack of capital, to the inex- 
perience in coal mining of those in charge of 
the work, and to want of adequate transporta- 
tion facilities, changed conditions of marketing 
and transportation and the thousands of homes 
calling for domestic fuel supply hold out an 
entirely reasonable prospect of successful oper- 
ation. This, of course, is predicated on there 
being an adequate supply of fuel obtainable at 
a moderate cost, the probability of which the 
report discusses. 

Assuming 67,000,000 tons of coal thus avail- 
able, we have for the mining the prospect of 
an industrial community of, say, a thousand 
operatives and dependents numbering four times 
as many more. We have, in addition, the pros- 
pect of development of hydro-electric power, 
steam plants, gas lines, various by-product in- 
dustries. All this is in futuro. There is noth- 
ing in the Deep River Coal Field to suggest a 
"boom," in mineral lands or otherwise. But 
there is in the ascertained facts a basis invit- 
ing and justifying the attention of engineering 
skill and capitalistic enterprise. 


If the principle of the Weeks Law — the Ap- 
palachian Forest Reserve Act — should be 
helped by a kind fate to a realization ahead of 
the forces destructive of the forests it is its 

aim to safeguard to States and Nation, there 
would be deposited in the Bank of Natural Re- 
sources about 8,111,238 acres of forest lands. 

At present only 2,142,000 have been put in the 
Savings Department, where they are drawing 
good interest. It will be many years under 
present conditions before the other three- 
fourths of this essential reserve, that is not 
only to conserve timber but hold the stream 
flow for our rivers, can be acquired. If we 
had the Appalachian Forest Reserve as it was 
visualized, we should esteem it a great achieve- 

But consider that whereas the Forest Reserve 
System contemplates eight million acres, there 
are in the Southern States, not less than 178,- 
000,000 acres of forest lands, a working per- 
centage of which it is the duty of the respon- 
sible governing authority to preserve, while it 
is yet time, to the future that is the present's 
constant responsibility. 

Were the question that of buying these lands 
outright and passing on the burden of main- 
taining the necessary debt in taxes, the propo- 
sition would square with a proposal for fiscal 
suicide. The National Forests, however, al- 
though they have progressed but a little way, 
have demonstrated that as a crop timber is a 
gilt-edged security upon which to found credit. 
Were the States to look this opportunity in the 
face, they would see that the acquisition of ex- 
isting forests and of cut-over lands susceptible 
of reforestration would he not only an incal- 
culably valuable investment for future genera- 
tions, but one which in the present would carry 
itself without appreciable burden. 

Take a few conservative figures as a basis 
for calculating the result of the purchase of 
300,000 acres of, say, cut-over lands. Put the 
cost at $1,500,000. Estimate the length of time 
necessary for reforestration at 50 years. Sup- 
pose 50 year bonds, and an interest charge for 
the_ entire term of $3,750,000. Add a cost of 
maintenance and protection from fire of from 
$9,000 to $18,000 a year. Make the liberal 
maximum cost $6,150,000. 

At the end of the period there would be 
marketable timber of from 8,000 to 15,000 feet 
per acre. At a minimum valuation of $5 a 
thousand on the stump and 8,000 feet per 
acre, the value of the timber would be $40 an 
acre. At 15,000 feet it would be $75 an acre. 
The total value of the 300,000 acres would be 
from $12,000,000 to $22,000,000, leaving a net 
profit of $5,850,000 to $16,350,000. 

This is no matter of Mulberry Sellers cal- 
culus. It is the minimum expectation to be 
derived from an established law of supply and 
demand. As a matter of fact the debt probably 
would take care of itself for the greater part 
of its term, and at the end the land would re- 
main, with its young growth to develop, and 
the capital of the recreated forest, with all its 
benefits, with it. 

It is one thing to contemplate the State 
undertaking to invade the realm of private busi- 
ness ; it is another matter when the project has 
to do with the preservation from the principle 
of quick profits that animates private enterprise 
of fundamental resources which can be made a 
continuing and inexhaustible source of revenue, 
as well as preventing and checking a senseless 
squander of perennial assets that are in essence 
the capital of prosperity on which the people 

The State is man emphasized and sublim- 
ated ; man, the individual, sees everything in 
terms of appetite and its immediate satisfaction. 
When the State steps in to save the cake for 
the generations to come, for which even the 
individual is working, it is merely exercising 
its rights of society in perpetuity as opposed 
to the distressing limitation of life under which 
its individual members must labor. 

Norfh G*d5na St* e Library 

Natural Resources 

A Bi- Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. JUNE 30, 1923 


A recently published North Carolina news 
dispatch from Washington described the cap- 
ture of a sturgeon weighing three hundred 
pounds. The big fish had been breaking shad 
nets, so a larger net was set, he wrapped him- 
self in it and was duly taken ashore and killed 
by being hit over the head with an axe, as a 
hog is dispatched. 

Today a lone buck sturgeon is news in North 
Carolina; but there was a time within a gener- 
ation when the coast and every sound, bay and 
river teemed with these great fishes. Their 
practical extinction in American waters paral- 
lels the process by which the buffalo was elimi- 
nated from the plains. It was the more foolish 
because while there was not room at the same 
time for vast buffalo herds and the farms and 
cities of the Plains States, the ignorance that 
wiped the sturgeon out of the waters was so 
abysmal as to have the color of ingenuity. 

Thirty years ago the problem of disposing 
of the dead bodies of the sturgeons was a 
matter of sanitation of coast and river bank ; 
today the occasional survivor of the slaughter 
is a prize, and in case it is a female full of roe, 
its value runs into the hundreds of dollars. 

Eating Golden Eggs 

Although the once prevalent sturgeon was 
ruthlessly destroyed for years out of sheer 
spite, cruelty or seeming impatience with its 
presence, its doom as an American fish was 
sealed when those who had before killed in 
wantonness discovered that the fish had value 
as a food and for certain by-products, but par- 
ticularly on account of the roe. American 
caviar w^as for a brief space one of the most 
profitable fishery products — but only for a 
space. With insensate greed, the .waters of 
both coasts and the Great Lakes were merci- 
lessly combed. Fewer and fewer sturgeon 
readied the spawning grounds. Eggs of the 
sturgeon proved to be golden; folly gobbled 
them at the source. 

' 'Twas caviare to the general,'' said Hamlet, 
meaning that certain things were as much over 
the mental heads of the multitude as salted 
sturgeon roc was beyond the power of their 
uneducated palates to appreciate. He did not 
foresee America and its type of militant de- 
mocracy which only needs to know that a thing 
is caviare to demand it on the bill of fare. 
Whether it is a disease, a philosophy, or pickled 
tongues of prehistoric birds from Patagonia, the 
liniousincd ordinary American will have his 
share. In the case of the sturgeon, he had it, 
and ate it. In the process the sturgeon was 
wiped out. Now caviar that is imported from 
Russia is even beyond the purse of bricklayers 
who earn fifteen dollars a clay! With a modi- 
cum of care and common sense, there still 
might he great schools of sturgeons in place of 
the occasional adventurous wanderer who be- 
comes a news item. "The general." having 
learned to like caviare need not have lost it ! 
(Continued on Page Two) 



A seaport is inevitably fixed with the incident of a public use for the 
benefit of the interior. Free to commerce, it feeds the people by whom 
it is nourished. Its equipment inadequate or privately restricted, it is robbed 
of its own destiny and a drag put upon the progress of all naturally tributary 
sections, however remote. 

By reason of paramount public interest, there is nothing of socialistic 
taint about public provision of port facilities. As a prime natural resource 
a port fails if it stops short at the accident of its geographical situation. It 
must be ready, not only to receive ships, but furnish to all comers the termi- 
nals and other means of meeting the complicated demands of modern 

Of late years this principle has been applied in the South with emphatic 
success. New Orleans has insured her future by putting $100,000,000 
on public waterfronts and in a canal and inner harbor both for public use 
and provision of sites for leasing and ownership by private interests. Balti- 
more's progress since the great fire is largely explained by the expenditure 
of $56,000,000 on its waterfronts. Alabama is to invest $10,000,000 in 
creating a great State port at Mobile. Norfolk has added largely to its 
equipment, and the State of Virginia has a port commission planning con- 
fidently from the vision of a complete and coordinated Port of Hampton 

It is high time North Carolina looked to the development of the ports 
of the East to the limit of their capacity. Here are the service stations on 
the original and ever greatest of all highways. We may spider-webb the 
State with rail and hard surface roads ; we limit their value in the exact 
degree in which we neglect the opportunity of bringing them through the 
ports into the world communion of commerce that is the message of the 
Seven Seas. 


This is the rhododendron season. Visitors 
who have planned an early or long mountain 
vacation are now witnessing in profusion the 
distinctive blooming of the characteristic flower 
of the high hills. White, pink, purple, rose. 
the rhododendron, the flower glory of the 
altitudes, is covering rock and cliff and scarp 
with its amazing color challenge. 

Mountain and rhododendron are terms that 
suggest synonyms, but the less well known truth 
is that many North Carolina communities that 
cannot boast of montane character show the 
shrub in all its native glory. Notable, on ac- 
count of the antiquity of the report concerning 
it, is the rhododendron found in the vicinity of 
Chapel Hill ; Rhododendron catawbiense, re- 
(Continued on Page Three) 


The eyes of a great industry are now looking 
to may he a rich neglected resource of the 
in the form of molding sands, the chief 
sources of supply having begun to show signs 
of exhaustion. With the coming to the Survey 
he summer of J. L. Stuckey. a University 
graduate now engaged in research work at Cor- 
nell University, owners of deposits of sands 
will be enabled to secure expert preliminary 
•nation and opinion as to quality, to be 
followed, if conditions justify, by fuller exami- 
nation and investigation as to commercial pos- 

Molding sands are at present furnished by 
those States in which the foundrying industry 
i- chiefly located. Pennsylvania, Illinois. Ohio 
(Continued on Page Three 1 ) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free on 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

A Case for Public Opinion 

A recent Supreme Court decision seems 
to nip definitely in the bud the proposal 
of certain Alabama legislators to pass a 
law prohibiting the export of power from 
the borders of the State. 

Interstate commerce is a wonderfully 
broad term and includes practically 
every product capable of sale and deliv- 
ery. The means of delivery is imma- 
terial. It may be a railroad, a river, a 
canal, a high tension wire. The product 
dealt in may be lumber or coal or elec- 
tricity. In any event, so that it be com- 
merce, only Congress has the power to 
regulate it. 

In itself the proposal as to Alabama 
was not serious ; the serious thing is that 
there was present the prejudice to make 
it possible. It may not be legal to pro- 
hibit the export of power generated in 
Alabama to another State ; it may not be 
legal for another State to prohibit the 
exchange of its power with Alabama 
plants. But the mere fact that men of 
any degree of authority in any State 
should be able to take this selfish view 
of a resource such as hydro-electric 
power and should be willing to attempt 
such a limitation of its development is 
a thing of vital concern to the South, 
calling aloud for the counter effect of a 
sound public opinion. 

During the drought two years ago, 
Southern States linked up power com- 
panies of North and South Carolina, 
Georgia and Alabama into a system of 
intercommunication that not only kept 
the wheels of industry turning and pre- 
vented great financial loss, but set a 
valuable example of the possibilities in- 
herent in a development as yet in its 
infancy. What the full utilization of the 
South's water power might mean in the 
next decade no thoughtful man can per- 
mit himself to guess. But it is certain 
that although they cannot override the 
commerce clause of the United States 
Constitution, it still is possible for poli- 
ticians of narrow mind and limited men- 
tal viewpoint greatly to delay, if not 
actually to stifle, the greatest modern 
expression of applied energy. 

The Southern Appalachian Water 
Power Conference, which is meeting in 
Asheville as this is printed, rightly con- 
siders that one of its chief duties to the 

producers and the users of hydro-electric 
power, and to the people of the South, 
will be to help in putting the case of 
water power development before the 
people in its true light. In spite of the 
demagogic pretense to the contrary, the 
time has passed when any public service 
corporation has the slightest chance to 
exploit any people in any evil sense. But 
the danger remains that any people may 
be tempted at any time to do injustice 
through ill-created fears and so hold in 
abeyance the realization of resources 
that should be economically and equita- 
bly employed. 


Many have heard of the Civil War Salt works 
about which the Survey recently made inquiry, 
but there is a dearth of information as to the 
precise locality and character of the interesting 
brine wells supposed to have been utilized in 
Eastern North Carolina, notably in Currituck 

Letters received by the Survey seem to sus- 
tain the tradition that the salt supply of the 
Confederacy came in part from wells and the 
names of a few veterans supposed to have 
worked in them have been furnished. So far, 
however, there is a lack of substantive evidence 
tending to show that the water from which the 
precious salt was obtained was other than that 
natural to the sea. So far, the salt wells re- 
main a possible but not demonstrated tradition. 

Interesting reminiscences of the actual work 
of procuring salt for a war isolated land are 
given, nevertheless, by George H. Troxler, 
83-year-old citizen of Burlington in Alamance 
County. Mr. Troxler was employed, under 
the direction of the "Salt Commissioner," on 
Masonboro Sound, near Fort Fisher, and gives 
a vivid description of the methods followed in 
treating the sea water for the production of 
salt in quantity. He was called by the Con- 
federacy in 1863 and assigned to the specific 
duty. According to his account the need of 
salt was so acute that men were worked in 
shifts, making a twenty-four hour day. Thirty- 
two pans, or boilers, were ranged in parallel 
rows and heated from one furnace, which was 
fed with an illimitable amount of the "fat" 
culled from a large acreage of virgin pine forest 
specially set apart for fuel purposes. At night 
the glare was visible for miles, the flames and 
sparks shooting far above the high stack and 
making a picture of toilers in inferno not un- 
like a night view of a modern blast furnace. 
To the men engaged the service was as hard 
as that of battle, since they labored constantly 
in clouds of steam and stinging brine ; their 
clothes were stiff as board with salt; hair, eye- 
brows and beards encrusted; skins habitually 
chafed and cracked ! 

In the immediate vicinity of Camp Davis 
and the Masonboro works were two other 
similar plants engaged in securing salt, which 
was packed in bags and distributed from Wil- 
mington. Occasionally detachments of soldiers, 
long fed on rations without savor, visited the 
works and hailed the sight of salt as it were 
the rarest delicacy, eating it with animal-like 
avidity. The works at Masonboro and vicinity 
were frequently under bombardment by the 
Federal fleet off Fort Fisher, and on one occa- 

sion Mr. Troxler's company was raided by a 
landing party which took fifty prisoners, most 
of whom it later released by ejecting them from 
the boats when they were found to be over- 
loaded. The salt works in the vicinity of Wil- 
mington ceased operations when Fort Fisher 
fell, January 14, 1865. 

Although unable to give any data as to the 
existence of salt wells, Mr. Troxler narrates 
some forgotten facts highly pertinent to the 
recent interest in Deep River coal, in recalling 
that after the fall of Fisher he was for several 
months engaged in hauling coke from "Egypt" 
to Burlington, where it was used in the foundry 
of the North Carolina Railroad shqps. It is 
of significance that at the moment when ex- 
perts are declaring that the use of Deep River 
coal as a domestic fuel will depend upon its 
being changed into coke, their opinion should 
be confirmed by this bit of practical history. 
Mr. Troxler remembers distinctly that the 
Egypt coke was of excellent quality and proved 
entirely satisfactory for foundry service. 




(Continued from Page One) 

A few figures will show graphically how 
greed in this instance of a specially prolific 
food fish species has given the sturgeon a pho- 
phecy of matching the dodo. In 1890, when 
the fish was first appreciated for its eggs and 
as a food, there were taken in the country 
14,00C\000 pounds; by 1910 the catch had 
dropped to 2,000.000 pounds. On the Atlantic 
coast the catch fell from 7,000,000 to less than 
1,000,000 pounds in fifteen years; on the Pacific 
from 3,000,000 in the early nineties to a few 
hundred thousand at the end of the decade ; 
on the Great Lakes the yield declined 90 per 
cent, in eighteen years ; in the American waters 
of the Lake of the Woods, the catch, after a 
decade of intensive fishing, declined 96 per 
cent. In the last ten years the sturgeon has not 
been worth the time of statisticians. As an 
American industry, its catch is at an end. Pecu- 
liarly among fish species, it may not be artifi- 
cially propagated on account of its distinctive 
habits in spawning. 

Hamlet Once More 

Literally, the words of Hamlet again apply. 
"caviare to the general" once more means some- 
thing of which the "general" can have no ex- 

In all probability the sturgeon never will 
come back in abundance to American waters. 
On the off-chance of its doing so, instead of the 
occasional specimen being trapped and "knocked 
in the head," it should have by strictly enforced 
law absolute sanctuary and a perpetual closed 
season for its protection. 

Oysters Indestructible 

The greatest of all seafood, however, the 
bivalve, would seem to be practically freed 
from danger of extinction. Greed and folly 
cannot go that length, on account of the 
minute character of the oyster spat and the 
manner of its distribution. 

Here Nature protects man against himself. 
The infinitesimal principle of the oyster is a 
thing of the salt water currents. For a number 
of days it floats, then drops. It sinks, seeking 
purchase for a steady growth and habitation. 
Its future depends on what it finds at the 
bottom. If it strikes mud, it_ perishes. If it 
lands on sand or rock, it clings and grows. 
It is fundamentally the most certain and auto- 
matic of cultures. Whether waters in which 
the oyster would naturally produce itself yield 


poorly or abundantly depends upon the manner 
in which the industry is fostered by the care of 
beds and the provision of suitable rock on 
which the spat may find lodgment. Incidentally, 
there is but one oyster ancestor, so to speak, 
despite the many varieties, from the Lynn- 
haven so large that six will furnish a meal to 
the blue-point of tiny proportions and distinc- 
tive flavor that is a mere opening relish for 
the feast. Granddaddy oyster spat in these and 
intermediate cases is the same through the gen- 
erations; the differences in size and quality 
of his descendants is a matter of environment ; 
the salinity and density of the water in which 
they grow ; the food content ; the nature of the 
bottom, etc., etc. 

Seeking Cleaner Waters 

Modern conditions about large ports of en- 
try and waters near great cities are, how- 
ever, working a slow but definite change in the 
location of the oyster industry. As well-in- 
formed a man as H. F. Moore, assistant com- 
missioner of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, 
confirms the report that oyster packers of 
New York, New Jersey, and Connccticutt have 
begun to discount the future and look abroad 
for new sources of supply. The reason for 
their fear is the effect of sewage on the beds. 
Where these are subjected to city waste, they 
are outlawed by statute, even if they could 
continue to produce — a thing they cannot do so 
soon as the water becomes sufficiently contami- 
nated to limit the necessary supply of oxygen. 
In addition, the great increase in the use of 
oils, which are ejected from city sewers in ever 
increasing quantity, has the effect of rendering 
the beds sterile. Objections on the score of 
health are met in England by a process of puri- 
fication of the oyster after it is gathered, disease 
germs being destroyed and the product sold as 
"certified," in the manner of pasteurized milk. 
But this is necessarily a half-measure with any 
food product, and the real future of the oyster 
lies in those waters in which it can best thrive 
under most natural conditions. 

Those waters on the Atlantic are now and 
should remain along the North Carolina coast, 
its sounds and tidewater rivers. Nowhere else 
is there less contamination either by sewerage 
or oil. There is an abundance of natural rock. 
There is an infinite variety of conditions of 
temperature and water to produce every known 
marketable variety of the bivalve. North 
Carolina already furnishes many of these 
oysters popularly identified with other localities, 
as it does a large proportion of the diamond- 
back terrapin "of Chesapeake Bay," but the 
need is the development of a broad market 
under our own distinctive names and trade 

We Encourage Culture 

Modern laws and for the first time a sub- 
stantial appropriation to safeguard and increase 
the output of a great semi-public industry give 
promise that the oyster industry of the Eastern 
counties will lead in the development of fisheries 
now definitely and scientifically under way. 
As the region of the Piedmont is attracting 
for other reasons the cotton mill industry of 
the New England States, so the waters of 
Eastern North Carolina are marked by logic 
to become the center of the oyst:r industry 
r.f the future. Owing to the warmer waters, 
the maturity of the oyster is reached in North 
Carolina in three years, as contrasted with five 
years necessary to become marketable on Chesa- 
peake Bay, and seven years on Long Island 

The records of the N. C. Department of 
Fisheries show that there were handled during 
the past season 517,879 bushels of oysters, which 
brought an average price of 50 cents per bushel, 
or a total of $258,938.50. 

The State should easily produce annually 
seven million bushels of oysters; the fact wait-, 
on a comparatively little time devoted to intelli- 
gent appreciation of what the possibilities are 
and a business initiative that already has the 
long delayed but natural protection and en- 
couragement of the State. 




(Continued from Page One) 

ported by Professor F. W. Simmons as early 
as December, 1879, in the American Naturalist, 
on report with specimens from Dr. Asa Gray. 
These specimens were found in full bloom on 
the third of April, on a steep and shaded bank 
on Morgan's Creek, near Chapel Hill. Prior 
to this the catazvbiense was supposed to occur 
only on the higher mountains or on peculiar 
stations at somewhat lower levels. More recent 
reports indicate that this naturally gorgeous 
and prolific plant occurs independently of moun- 
tain environment at a number of points in 
Piedmont, and in some instances almost coastal 
plain, North Carolina. 

Among other non-montane points reported 
by Dr. W. C. Coker, professor of botany at the 
University of North Carolina, as furnishing 
examples of the egregiousness of the rhododen- 
dron are Patterson's Mill, in Orange County, 
Christian's Mills, near the Roxboro Road, in 
Durham County, and at several points on steep, 
northward facing banks and bluffs of Morgan's 
Creek, on the Eno River. More remarkable, 
\V. J. Andrews' farm, one mile West of Cary. 
in Wake County, affords authenticated speci- 
mens of rhododendron, and it also occurs on 
a steep bluff south of the Neuse River, within 
four miles of Selma, which is on the verge, 
if not actually upon, the coastal plains area. 

Rhododendron catawbiense has thus been iden- 
tified, not only on the Eastern slopes of the 
mountains (it does not seem to occur on the 
western slopes) but at a number of spots in the 
Piedmont and toward the coastal plain to ele- 
vations as low as 150 feet above sea level. It 
occurs at King's Mountain and at Table Rock, 
in Gaston County and in a number of stations 
distant from the Western mountains by 140 
to 210 miles. 

"Flower Hill" at Middlesex 

Perhaps the most remarkable vicinity in which 
the flower flourishes naturally in the near-plains 
section of the State is reported by Col. F. A. 
Olds, of Raleigh, in a letter in which he de- 
scribes a location at Middlesex, near the junc- 
tion of Wake, Johnston and Nash counties, 
where the blooms are in such profusion that 
the spot is locally known as "flower hill.'' 

Comparison of the local and mountain forms 
(the latter has been grown and brought to 
bloom at Chapel Hill) leads Professor Coker to 
conclude that the flowers of the mountain form 
are similar to these found farther East, except 
that they are somewhat broader in proportion 
to width, ancf that the leaves of the local plant 
average broader and longer than those of the 
mountain variety. For these reasons Professor 
Coker has given the name insularies to the 
mid State variety. 

In an article in the Journal of the Elisha 
Mitchell Scientific Society, vol. 35. Professor 
inker says: "As the streams along which our 
Form grows are not connected in any way 
with the territory occupied by the type, and as 
the respective areas are so widely separated. 
it is highly probable that there has been no 
intermixture for a good many thousand yea'-. 
This territorial segregation would in itself al- 

most justify tin- separation of the forms even 
though little or no structural distinction were 
obvious, and it would perhaps be justifiable to 
give the Kings and Crowders Mountain form 
a distinctive name also. It is probable that at 
all these widely separated stations the plants are 
a little different, though the differences are hard 
to distinguish." 

Rhododendron catawbiense is, of course, one 
of the chief charms of the high altitudes. Scar 
a mountain, tear off its forest robes, and this 
beautiful shrub comes quickly to hide the wound. 
At a distance the height of the flowering season 
shows it in masses of pink raiment with effect 
similar to that of the hills covered by European 
heather. More closely viewed the flowers are 
of a deepish pink, to some suggesting a purple 
hue, but perhaps more accurately described as 

It was this color characteristic of the North 
Carolina mountains in the rododendron season 
that led the director of the Survey to give the 
name Rhodolite to the beautiful gem stone which 
so far appears to be absolutely unique in occur- 
rence to North Carolina mountains. 



Practical interests are taking much notice of 
the recent report on the Deep River Coal Field 
recently received by the Survey, a summary of 
which was printed in the last issue of Natural 

Among other news from the field, informa- 
tion reaches the Survey office to the effect that 
the old Gardner prospect near Haw Branch and 
the prospect on the Evans place near Carbonton 
will undoubtedly be included in this year's 

Owing to the quality of the coal and the im- 
practicality of using it directly for domestic 
heating purposes, attention is properly centering 
upon use of the run of the mine for steam 
purposes and of numerous available by-products, 
chiefly coke and gas. The suggestion has been 
made that the Deep River Field offers splendid 
opportunity for the development of an auxiliary 
plant for water power companies, which would 
either employ the run of the mine coal direct 
or utilize the gas from a gas producer. There 
is sufficient water in Deep River to serve the 
needs of a steam plant. 

Incidentally much history is being recalled for 
new telling concerning the Egypt or Gulf coal 
and its mining and shipment in the era preceed- 
ing the Civil War and at different times after- 
wards until the disastrous explosion at Cum- 
nock in 1896. Cumnock mines are now being 
operated, but their reopening was of recent 




(Continued from Page One) 

New York, New Jersey and Indiana. Of late 
years, however, the great glacial lake be<i- 
\"cw York and Ohio are beginning to fail as 
a source of supply and the foundry inte: 
through their association, have begun a thorough 
survey of the country. Sands now used in 
the industry amount, roughly, to <7. 000. 000 in 
annual value, and the price, f. o. b. is about one 
dollar per ton. How the use >'i these sands 
hi- been increasing is shown by figures for the 
■ .d 1014 tii 1920. during which the tonnage 
mew from 2,751,209 in the one year to 5,128 


075, and the average price from sixty- four cents 
to $1.46. 

Since the greater interest in the sands there 
has been developed quite a market in Virginia, 
but at only three places in North Carolina does 
there seem to be any attempt at their use. 
Some sands have been used near Winston- 
Salem, some by the Bonsai Company, at Hamlet, 
and a core sand near Selma. In contrast to 
this neglect of an asset that almost certainly 
waits only on exploration, there is the example 
of Virginia where, with far less territory in 
the Coastal Plain than North Carolina, foun- 
dry sands have been liberally developed. 

The typical sand for foundry use is one that 
is high in silica but contains sufficient clay to 
act as a bond, so that the mold will hold its 
form. It should also be sufficiently porous to 
permit the escape of gases. 

There is also a good market for many sands 
whose chief use lies in their refractory, or heat 
resisting, qualities, and many of the sands 
which are not in themselves ideally adapted to 
use in molding, as for lack of a bond, may now 
be utilized by synthetic treatment and the ad- 
dition of the bond material. 

Varieties of Sand 

Sands used for foundry work are obtained 
from two kinds of rock, either friable silicifer- 
ous sandstone or unconsolidated deposits of 
sand, gravel, or sandy loam. The classes of 
sands obtained from these sources are divided 
in the industry as : 

Molding Sand — composed of sand grains and 
a bonding material. The grains are for the 
most part quartz, but in part feldspar. Free- 
dom from mica is desirable. The bond may be 
clay or hydrous iron oxide and should be evenly 
distributed. The grain ranges from coarse to 
fine, depending on the size of the casting to be 
made. Fineness may be roughly determined by 
feel and inspection. The bond may be gauged 
by squeezing some moist sand in the hand and 
then noting how the lump resists breaking. 
The degree of this bonding power is not in 
direct relation to the amount of clay the sand 
contains, but rather to the amount of colloi- 
dal material. 

Core Sand — Composed usually of silica grains, 
but some contains a considerable proportion 
of feldspar. It has little or no bonding material 
and this is customarily added. It must be clean, 
free cf silt, clay or other fine material, but 
feldspar does no particular harm. The grains 
may be either rounded or angular. 

Molding Gravels — much coarser than the gen- 
eral run of graded molding sands and rarely 
used for any other work than heavy castings. 
The larger pebbles may run to 1-4 inch in 
diameter. The pebbles should be of silica and 
the bond is clay. On account of the coarseness 
of the material a strong bond is required. 

Steel Sand — should consist of pure quartz 
grains, angular or rounded, but preferably the 
latter. It may be a natural sand or crushed 
sandstone. Steel sand is selected primarily for 
its refractoriness, and hence the impurities 
should be low. 

Fire Sand — highly siliciferous, refractory. 
It may contain feldspar and is not as pure as 
steel sand. There may also be a small percen- 
tage of bonding substance. It may sometimes 
be so coarse as to be called gravel. Fire sand 
is mixed with fire clay to make cupola and 
ladle linings and for other refractory uses. 

Parting Sand — a pulverized, fine quartz sand, 
which usually passes 10 mesh. 

Sandstones — those used are in general those 
with little cement, which crush easily. 

Although there has been practically no pro- 
duction and marketing of any of these sands 
in North Carolina, there is every prospect that 
various localities can be discovered in which 
they are present in profitable quantity. When 
they so occur with reasonably available trans- 

portation facilities, they can be delivered for 
shipment quite economically. Throughout the 
Coastal Plain section, and to a more limited 
degree in the stream beds of the Piedmont, ex- 
ploration should discover many such deposits 
hitherto overlooked. The foundry industry is 
now taking the initiative in seeking new sources 
of supply, and there is little doubt that with 
the steady growth of operations the market 
for all grades of foundry sands will steadily 

During the summer Mr. Stuckey will be with 
the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey at Chapel Hill, where he may be ad- 
dressed by all interested persons. 


There was a time when it was possible to 
include horsemanship as almost a certain quality 
of the Southerner as well as of the man of the 
West who was so much in the saddle that he 
rolled awkwardly on land as a sailor just come 
ashore. Along with the management of the 
horse went the ability to shoot and with both 
the spirit of independence and initiative that 
became a part of the regional character. In 
the wars of the Revolution, with Mexico, and 
the Civil War, Southern troops were exceptional 
largely because of the instinct of mastery and 
courage which comes naturally to the habitually 
mounted man. 

Changes in economic conditions, urban 
growth, the smaller and more intensive farm 
all were factors which for more than a gener- 
ation have worked to alter a rule that was of 
great benefit. The rule now is in danger of 
being abrogated even in its partial survivals by 
the great blessing of the good road and the 
impetus it has given to the automobile. 
A New Walkless Age 

It was once the case that Southern people 
never walked when they could ride or drive ; 
the walkless age is coming back, but in a way 
to repeal the helpful and healthful friendshi'p 
of man and horse through the more impersonal 
and mechanical agency of gasoline. 

No sane man, of course, regrets the preva- 
lence of the hard-surface road, or fails to see 
that if its coming necessarily banishes the horse, 
the price is w r orth paying. But there are many 
reasons why concrete, gasoline and the familiar 
steed of yesteryear should still be reconciled 
and continued in use to the common good. The 
multitudes of automobiles, for instance, have 
done a great service on the whole to the health 
of the people. They have introduced thousands 
of sedentary workers to novel breaths of new 
air. They have opened up to eyes accustomed 
to the steel and masonry of cities and the elec- 
tric lighting of dark offices new visions of space 
and sun, of mountain and valley, of sea and 
river. They have multiplied the opportunities 
of vacationing, and so done more for first 
aid in a nervous age than a battalion of sani- 
toriums. But this has been at best a substitute 
for the glow of exercise afforded by the horse 
to the thousands of individuals who formerly 
used him ; and the out-of-doors it brings to the 
army of automobilists is naturally a standard- 
ized" affair, strictly limited to the set routes 
which the hard-surfaced roads can reach. With 
the construction of good roads into the moun- 
tains, the numbers who are able to visit these 
natural playgrounds and sections of beauty is 
wonderfully increased ; but it can never be by 
the agency of the automobile that one can come 
to see intimately and really to know the moun- 
tains in their infinite variety of charm and sur- 

Horseless Mountains 
Where a few years ago every mountain 
resort, hotel, farm house for tourists, or camp- 
ing ground had its stable of horses for the use 
of guests, it is now a matter difficult and costly, 
if not impossible, to secure a mount of any de- 
scription. Not only has the breed degenerated 
from the time when the Western counties had 
many horse-lovers who knew their business and 
took delight in developing and training examples 
of useful strains, but the horse by any name is 
being rapidly eradicated. As a consequence 
the traveler in the mountains rarely sees the 
parties of horseback riders who were once so 
familiar in the vacation season, despite the fact 
that there are a hundredfold more vacationists 
in the mountains. As a result, while general 
knowledge of what the mountains are and what 
they mean is greatly broadened through the 
ease of approach given by the automobile, this 
knowledge is far less particular, satisfying 
and revealing today than it was to the relative- 
ly much smaller number of mountaingoers 
fifteen or twenty years ago. 

Closed Trails to Beauty 

The fact is the more regrettable because there 
are in the North Carolina mountains at least a 
thousand miles of trails through regions of 
wonderful natural beauty which can never in 
the course of things be revealed to the mere 
automobilist. To reach these secluded spots 
of scenic grandeur, of hidden streams and re- 
mote waterfalls, it is necessary either to ride 
or "hike". The latter method was always con- 
fined to the very few and is not in the spirit 
of the age. Riding is going out of the fashion, 
The sad result is that much of the mountains 
today is more bottled up and inaccessible than 
ever before. 

One of the reasons apt to be given offhand 
for the decline in horseback riding is that the 
hard-surfaced road is unsuitable for the exer- 
cise — uncomfortable and dangerous to the rider 
on account of the number of machines on the 
highway, and injurious to the horse by reason 
of the strain put upon his hoofs. As a criti- 
cism of our highways this is undoubtedly true, 
but it is one which could be relieved by a small 
amount of foresight and at relatively small 
cost. It should be an easy matter to provide 
in new construction of highways for dirt by- 
paths suitable for riding, and to equip with 
them the roads already constructed everywhere 
within the State. In the mountains such pro- 
vision on the highways leading to cities and re- 
sorts is imperative, if one of the greatest joys 
of mountain sojourning is not to be wantonly 
given up at a great and varied expense. Every 
year, as State and National governments acquire 
forest reserves and found State parks, more and 
more attention is being given to the making of 
trails designed to open up every portion of the 
new domains to the public use. It is a fact 
that if the automobile is to be permitted abso- 
lutely to supercede the horse, these wisely 
planned byways to inaccessible beauty will be 
available only to the very few inured to the 
physical labor of climbing on foot. 

Horse-Breeder to Garageman 

As stated, Western North Carolina in the 
past raised many magnificent horses, and there 
is no reason why there should not be a healthy 
renewal of the breeding industry, now more 
profitable than ever in its history. 

The automobile, its manufacture, its use, the 
things it makes possible and promotes, is the 
wonder of the age. Yet the spectacle afforded 
by a once famous lover and breeder of blooded 
horses in Western North Carolina, who has 
given up his farms and stables to become the 
owner of a magnified garage and gasoline filling 
station, not only tempts to tears but indicates 
that there is something more than mere money 
cost which the times are called upon to pay. 

Natural Resources 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. l 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. JULY 14, 1923 

No. 6 


Fort Bragg, the Government's permanent 
artillery camp and range in Cumberland and 
several ad jointing counties, is showing under 
the wise administration of General A. J. Bow- 
ley that it is far more of an asset to the State 
than the mere amount of money it causes to 
be distributed month by month. 

In itself the money its a large consideration. 
The tip-keep of the fort, its pay and salaries 
and the food requirements of the garrison of 
two thousand men, totals something like $120,- 
000 a month, most of which finds its way into 
circulation through Fayettevillc. The total in- 
vestment probably exceeds five million dollars. 
One hundred and twenty thousand acres of land, 
necessary for the maintenance of a range- 
across which guns fire for a distance of some- 
thing like thirty miles, were purchased at lib- 
eral prices. Camp equipment has involved large 
expenditure and in the course of time will 
naturally be greatly increased. But all this is 
incidental, in point of view of value, to the 
object lesson in peace-time economics which is 
in course of being worked out under the di- 
rection of the commander. 

The Fort Bragg tract originally was almost 
entirely covered by a virgin growth of long- 
leaf pine. Today there is left of this original 
growth one parcel of five hundred acres — a 
splendid memento illustrating by the sharp con- 
trast it offers to the surrounding cut-over lands 
the folly of destruction which has practically 
denuded the sand-hill country of what might 
have been conserved as unimaginable riches in 

So far from permitting anything to happen 
to this example of a past glory of forest 
growth. General Bowley has been inspired by 
it to see the possibilities of reforestation of 
all that part of the Fort's domain which is not 
actually utilized in camp site or military oper- 
ations. He has therefore applied the positive 
powers of a military command to the creation 
of what might be called a hundred thousand 
acre forest demonstration reserve. At Fort 
Bragg there is already in course of creation a 
great new forest of pine — not second-growth, 
loblolly, or any of the several species of short- 
leaf pines that are accustomed to follow the 
destruction of the original, but the real long- 
leaf, about which there has grown the popular 
but false tradition that, once gone, it never can 
return. Scattered throughout the Fort Bragg 
pine lands there are already thousands of 
flourishing young long-leaf pine plants that give 
visible contradiction to the superstition. 

This development, which in forty to fifty 
years should result in the practical reestablish- 
ment of one hundred thousand acres of sand- 
hill forest as it was before the wasteful era of 
turpentine and lumbering operations, has come 
about without any artificial means. There has 
been no effort at reforestation in the sense of 
seeding or replanting. The young pines are all 
volunteers and are tending themselves naturally 
(Continued on Page Three) 


The membership of the Southern Appalachian Power Conference was 
composed of men of affairs who imagined they fully understood the size of 
the problem they were approaching. They represented builders, invesl 

students and economists dealing with a relatively new force vital to the destiny 
of eight great States. On the manner in which the water powers of the 
Southern Appalachian States are developed depends the degree in which 
these commonwealths shall continue to share in National progress, prosperity 
and social welfare. 

But these men soon found their vision extending far beyond its original 
mental bounds. They perceived that, great in itself, the question of water 
power was a relatively small if essential part of a still greater problem and 

This is the Age of Power, and Power is not to be circumscribed in 
means of attainment. Energy is the primary, and its source the secondary 

Alan's triumphant quality is his catholic readiness to utilize Nature to 
contribute to and enlarge the science of living. The constant call is for such 
production as will increase the output of the human unit, while lightening 
the load of his physical labor and so freeing and extending his spiritual 

The answer is Power — more Power — the recovery from all sources of 
whatever latent energy is stored in Nature for development by and use of 

It was the impact of this truth that caused the Water Power to adopt 
the more comprehensive name of Power Conference. 

The streams must be developed. Their headwaters must be protected 
against erosion. There should and will be proper legislation to insure against 
power waste through inadequate and short-sighted engineering practice. 
Great storage reservoirs must meet the lack of natural lakes. But wherever 
there is coal or other source of energy it must be converted into power to 
the limit of capacity and distribution, to serve its own and to relieve the 
needs of other territory. 

Power is the means. 

Mill, and factory, and spinning wheels; intensified production in industry 
and agriculture; more and better homes, less of human grind and more of 
human joy — these constitute the end. 

The real dynamo is the winged mind of man. earthbound only for the 
time it fails fully to realize the energy the Earth holds in trust to -peed its 


The eyes of the State are again centered on 
the Deep River coal field, for years neglected 
and even denounced as a hopeless commercial 
proposition. Although it is realized that the 
coal production of the region is scarcely suited 
in the first instance for domestic fuel uses, h 
is true as recently pointed out that it lias great 
possibilities in the way of steam coal for near- 
(Continued on Page Two) 



Climbing the motor road up .Mount Mitchell, 
the tourist stops from time to time to feast 

S eyes on the ever expanding view of giant 
i idge, spread valley and gleaming river. 

The greater the altitude toward the goal of 
the highest peak East oi the Rockies, the more 
and more wonderful become these visual rec- 
ords of the path one has taken in the twisting 
1 ( "it tinned on Page Three) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free on 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

A Happy State Polity 

A. J. Maxwell, of the North Carolina 
Corporation Commission made a most 
happy impression on the members of the 
Southern Appalachian Power Conference 
in Asheville, when he told them with evi- 
dent sincerity that in his opinion the 
policy of the State was to be based on a 
clear understanding of the reasonable 
financial requirements of hydro-electric 
construction and operation. 

Rates of public service corporations, 
on account, of the intimate manner in 
which they touch the cost of living, make 
an important and delicate problem. 
Taxes of such corporations furnish a 
splendid medium for loose talk and looser 
thinking of semi-political inspiration. 
But leaders of clearer vision are begin- 
ning to see that neither in rates nor taxes 
can this class of corporation be given 
consideration less fair than that' tendered 
the individual without mutual disaster to 
corporation and public. Inasmuch as 
they use natural resources and exercise 
eminent domain public service companies 
become the proper subject of govern- 
mental regulation. The new realization 
is that regulation must be controlled if 
the real public interest is to be served. 

Voicing of this principle by a high 
State official of trained mind and experi- 
ence is encouraging in view of the man- 
ner in which plans for power develop- 
ment are being embarrassed by short- 
sighted prejudice in certain other States. 
It was peculiarly pleasing that in con- 
nection with these views Mr. Maxwell 
showed himself so heartily in sympathy 
with the constructive regulation which 
would make it encumbent on promoters 
to show a competent commission that 
their proposed use of stream or river is 
in line with its full and complete devel- 
opment possibilities. 

Pyromaniac Bogies 

Effort to afford fire protection to for- 
ests and wooded tracts in North Caro- 
lina is constantly having to combat hoary 
superstitions that have a remarkably 
tenacious hold on the popular imagination. 

There are cases in Eastern counties, 
for instance, where valuable swamps are 
burned by their owners and much valu- 
able timber destroyed in the process be- 
cause it is desired to "get rid of snakes." 
As a matter of fact, it is probable that a 

snake can take care of itself under fire 
conditions better than birds or animals, 
having the ability to get under water, go 
into holes, or run away from the danger 
as the case may be. In addition, there 
are but one or two species of poisonous 
snakes in the State, and they of rare oc- 
currence ; and snake bite, even if as pre- 
valent as is imagined, is not sufficiently 
serious to weigh against the folly of 
woods burning. Of equal absurdity is 
the idea, now more or less in course of 
being followed in the East, of burning 
woods with the idea that the practice is a 
protection against the boll-weevil. The 
boll-weevil, which can hibernate any- 
where, and does, is also able to fly ; and 
while it is possible that it may find re- 
fuge on the edge of cotton fields, burning 
a wood in the hope of destroying it is 
something more foolish than it would be 
to burn a house with the notion of getting 
rid of the vermin within it. 

Related to this pyromania in the in- 
terest of old wives' tales is the stubborn 
practice of permitting hogs and cattle to 
run at large. So long as this violation of 
the no-fence laws continues, it is useless 
to hope for a beginning of new growth 
on the hundreds of thousands of acres 
of cut over and burned lands which once 
were covered with the long-leaf pine. 
Probably the evil genius of waste never 
imagined any more effective formula than 
this of saving in the feed of scrub stock 
at the cost of forests kept barren in 

Money-Bearing Sands 

A large part of North Carolina will 
feel inclined to smile broadly at the en- 
terprise of the association of foundrymen 
in spending large sums of money in the 
prosecution of a nation-wide survey in 
search of sand. 

When it comes to sand, there are sec- 
tions of the State in which it would 
seem there is, in the negro phrase, "noth- 
ing else but." Yet there is a high proba- 
bility that in many cases these sands, 
instead of being the nuisance they have 
been esteemed, possess real commercial 

J. L. Stucky, an expert in sands and 
clays who has been doing research work 
at Cornell University, is this summer 
with the N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey, and is prepared not only to 
make free preliminary examination of 
samples but to follow up likely pros- 
pects with more comprehensive investi- 
gation to determine new sources of sup- 
ply of a material much in demand. 

At present there is practically no pro- 
duction of molding sands in North Caro- 
lina. There is abundant reason to believe 
that they are present in many localities in 
quantities to make their marketing profit- 




(Continued from Page One) 

by power plants, as coke for domestic fuel, 
and for the production of numerous valuable 
by-products, among which gas is one of the 
most interesting speculations. 

If it took the Deep River field a long while 
to gain recognition of the reasonable use of 
its resources, there is yet available in North 
Carolina another resource well worthy of seri- 
ous investigation in the form of the peat beds 
of the East and, in some cases, of the Pied- 
mont plateau. To a much greater degree than 
most regions so far South, the swamp areas 
cf North Carolina give evidence of containing 
quantities of peat sufficient, with development, 
to have important bearing upon the fuel and 
perhaps the power situation, to say nothing of 
by-product recovery. 

Peat is the first stage of the formation of 
coal, partly decomposed vegetable matter ac- 
cumulated when ordinary decay is arrested, 
while the form and structure of the original 
growth is more or less completely changed. 
Water excludes the air and the organisms oi 
decay and in general the deposits are found 
only in places where there is a nearly perma- 
nent supply of water which saturates or covers 
the plant debris. Beginning with peat and 
passing into lignite and finally anthracite coal, 
a large percentage of heat-bearing properties 
are thrown off in the course of transition, in- 
cluding marsh gas, tar, paraffin, light and heavy 
oils. In the scientific treatment of peat, one 
of the oldest fuels, this circumstance is of 
great importance, since the properties lost in 
the process of coal formation can under certain 
conditions be utilized with great profit while 
they remain in the form of peat. 

Peat ranges in color from a light brown to 
black and in texture from a loosely felted mate- 
rial, coarse, fibrous and woody, to a structure- 
less, cheesy mass nearly as plastic as clay or 
putty. In all cases it contains from 80 to 95 
per cent, of water, and the problem of its com- 
mercial use is largely connected with the pro- 
cess of drying. 

In North Carolina, the peat beds of the 
porosons are generally shallow and have an 
admixture of sands which greatly reduces their 
heating value. In other cases they are filled 
with logs which render the process of recovery 
almost prohibitive. Even in the Dismal 
Swamp, the peat beds are shallow, rarely at- 
taining a depth of more than six feet. But if 
the peat of the pocosons is of doubtful com- 
mercial value, that of the marginal swamps, 
areas adjacent to the sounds or their estuaries, 
are full of promise. Bogs found near Eliza- 
best City at a depth of sixteen feet gave off 
an odor of hydrogen sulphide and considerable 
gas through the test holes. Peat from these 
beds was readily briquetted, the experiment 
being conducted by the Director of the Survey 
at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907. The 
peat contained no wood or logs and very little 
silt and an approximate analysis showed vola- 
tile matter, 67.41, fixed carbon, 23.71 and ash 

In prospecting for peat swamps should be 
avoided in cases where they have been sub- 
jected to flood waters, as should regions sub- 
ject to river floods, since in such cases the 
beds are well contaminated with sands and 

In European countries peat has been for ages 
the chief fuel reliance of the people. For 
cooking and heating stoves it is of ideal char- 
acter, being clean and light and burning freely 
with an even intense heat, giving off very little 
smoke, no cinders or clinkers and having no 
corrosive effect on grates or fire-boxes. 


Its coke is as firm and hard as hardwood 
charcoal, and quite as valuable for metal- 
lurgical operations. 

By-products include wood tar, methyl or 
wood alcohol, acetic acid, ammonia compounds, 
illuminating and lubricating gases. 

In heating quality air dried coke shows 6,840 
B. T. U. as contrasted with 5,760 in case of 
wood, while in briquette form it develops 
around 13,300 B. T. U. as compared with 
13,000 for semi-bituminous coal and 14,600 in 
the case of anthracite. Special coke processes 
have produced a fuel with a higher heating 
power than hard coal. 

Much progress has lately been made in de- 
vices fur using peat in the production of il- 
luminating gas and for use in producer gas 
engines. This latter development was in an- 
swer to the abjection that artificial drying in 
making briquettes was commercially unprofit- 
able on account of fuel costs. The raw peat 
is now fed into the gas producer engine, which 
in turn provides heat and power for the peat- 
drying and briquetting plants. 

Peat possibilities should be tested with con- 
sideration of quantity, quality and availability. 
There should ordinarily be from 200 to 300 
tons per acre available for each foot of bog 
beyond two or three feet below the surface. 

Undoubtedly peat is present in many North 
Carolina localities in quantities that, consider- 
ing the expanding calls for power and fuel and 
recent inventions in the way of treatment, 
amply justify thorough prospecting and inves- 
tigation. In addition to its properties as a 
fuel, it is capable of profitable employment in 
connection with fertilizers, its value in this re- 
spect being enhanced by the fact that, properly 
used, it remains on the land in the shape of 
humus. Small establishments for making 
briquettes, recovering ammonia and other by- 
products and for generating power through the 
gas-producer engine are clearly suggested by 
conditions in many localities in the State. 

Note: See Economic Papers, N. C. Geo. and Econ. 
Purvey, Nos. 11, 15, 23. 




(Continued from Page One) 

in satisfactory manner. All that General Bow- 
ley has done to aid them has been to establish 
and maintain reasonable precautions against 
fires and to see that the Fort's area is kept 
clear of the roaming razor-back hogs that once 
infested all the cut-over pine lands. 

As to the idea that the long-leaf pine will 
not reproduce itself, it rests on what is really 
slight circumstantial evidence. While it is true 
that great areas once rich in these primeval 
forests have been thoroughly denuded, almost 
without exception the cause has been neglect 
of the land after cutting, rather than any in- 
ability on the part of the forest to reseed and 
renew itself. Even where the cutting has been 
of the closest character, if only a few seed trees 
are left, there will be new long-leaf growth, 
provided that fires are kept down and that hogs 
and cattle are kept away from the mast. The 
razor-back, in particular, enjoys nothing more 
as a tidbit than the roots of the young pine, 
and the destruction of these forests in the past 
can be in large measure traced directly to the 
former rule of the "fence law," under which 
cattle and hogs were given the privilege of 
indiscriminate roaming at large in forest and 
cut-over lands. The regrowth of the long-leaf 
pine has also been retarded by the circumstance 
that only about one out of three years pro- 
duces a good crop of seed. 

The value of such an object lesson as Fort 
Bragg should in a few years be so unanswer- 
able as to compel State action with regard to 

many thousand acres of pine barrens which 
only require a measure of protection, time and 
opportunity to become again the treasure house 
of a great natural resource. On the Fort 
Bragg area now in course of redemption the 
most moderate and conservative estimate would 
place the value of the timber at the term of its 
commercial growth at from four to seven mil- 
lion dollars, and probably at a figure sufficiently 
large to reimburse the Government for its 
capital investment with interest, besides pro- 
ducing thenceforward a source of revenue suffi- 
cient to maintain the fort. 

Owing to the long term of years involved 
such developments are indicated for govern- 
ments rather than for individuals or corpora- 
tions, though a number of the latter are be- 
coming more and more interested in the perma- 
nent as opposed to the temporary forest. Some 
States, notably Pennsylvania, are considering 
the purchase of large tracts of timber lands 
not only from the point of view of flood con- 
trol, etc., but as a distinct investment. In Fort 
Bragg, susceptible on account of its military 
character to direct intelligent control, the 
physical illustration will Ik- worth years of 
theory and argument. 

While reforestration with long-leaf pine is 
the major consideration in the economic care 
of the Fort Bragg area, the protection of wild 
life from hunting and shooting has also begun 
to shown very gratifying results. Quail, in 
particular, have multiplied very rapidly, and 
wild turkey, of recent years very scarce in all 
their former ranges, are increasing. It is plan- 
ned to introduce pheasants and to experiment 
with ruffled grouse. In addition there are now 
built or under construction six or seven lakes 
which will provide excellent facilities for re- 
creation and sport. 

It thus happens that a great military reserva- 
tion, all the land of which is needed in order 
that the gun ranges may be established, is being- 
utilized in a manner to build up its values, to 
provide a source of future riches and to dem- 
onstrate the principles of conservation, game 
protection and natural park advantages that 
have proved themselves wherever tried, but 
which we in North Carolina have only begun to 

So far from being a mere military reserva- 
tion Fort Bragg is already well on the road to 
epitomizing in practice the truth of contentions 
for saving and restoring resources which, when 
consumed in "progress," exact a price so heavy 
as to make the bargain a doubtful one. 




(Continued from Page One) 

course that leads on gently yet irresistibly to- 
ward Camp Alice. A photographic negative 
would show a scene like that recorded from an 
aeroplane ; but as the eye takes in the picture 
it is truly aerial in its character. Only instead 
of the black and white of a photograph, the 
eye is rested with a vivid succession of softly 
glowing colors. One towering slope is sombre 
in the shadow of cloud. Over the green mantle 
of another sunlight travels like a wave, bring- 
ing out every chromatic nuance. Yonder lie 
the Lilliputian fields, the far threads of streams, 
the checker-board farms and the tiny dots on 
the landscape one realizes are homes, hotels, 
towns, railroads! And close at hand the road 
is hemmed in by the luxuriant growths of oak, 
chestnut, birch and other woods of the com- 
paratively lower slopes. 

Then, while the eye looking back upon the 
path encounters scenes of even more amplitude 
and intensity of beauty, there comes the shock 
of the scar of Mitchell. It is a giant gash. 

perhaps thirty to forty thousand acres, and it 
extends so far as the eye can reach on each 
side of the great peak. Look down, and the 
vision is one that is like a caress; look up, and 
it encounters the all too familiar graveyard 
i ff< cl of the Forest That Was. 

This was the forest of the spruce type, the 
slow-growing, evergreen wood that in this sec- 
tion loves the heights and will grow nowhere 
else. It has been nine years since it gave way 
before the lumberman's saws and was jerked 
ajid skidded and flumed in giant logs into the 
valleys to be turned into merchantable lumber. 
Afterwards fire after fire seared its way 
through the slash of great tops dry and in- 
flammable as tinder. There remains a 
waste aria whose great stumps and isolated 
trunks, dead and grey- white, are the mournful 
monuments of its one-time glory. Once the top 
of Mitchell comes into view, still green and 
covered with its native trees, the tragedy of 
Mitchell becomes more poignant at the same 
moment there rises the consolation of the State 
Park, that in part at least, will hold the historic 
peak forever as it was in the day when Llisha 
Mitchell established its preeminence. 

As the road to Camp Alice passes along the 
slope of Clingman's peak, the great scar is all 
about. The scene is one of unmixed desolation. 
So thoroughly has fire done its work there is 
scarcely the undergrowth sufficient to provide 
a sense of decency to a mountain that is naked. 
not with the grandeur of rock, but shrinking 
as a thing forcibly unclothed. 

It is at this point on the journey to Mitchell 
that the Appalachian Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion, of Ashcville, in charge of E. H. Froth- 
ingham, has elected to establish one of it- 
most important areas for reforestration. not 
only because of the peculiarly characteristic 
type of the denuded forest, but as an object 
lesson to the thousands from all over the coun- 
try who are making the yearly pilgrimage to 
Mitchell. On the side of the road the tourist 
attracted by the sign of the station will notice 
flourishing small evergreens, which are spruce, 
fir, white pine, larch and other species under 
test. Further removed from the road are 
thousand's of other similar but much smaller 
plants, three years from the seed, which have 
been set out and are under constant observation 
in order to determine in the passage of time 
what particular species will be most effective 
in the work that will sometimes be recognized 
as absolutely necessary. 

Within the plots that have been planted are 
included both native and foreign trees of the 
spruce and white pine type. There are Norway 
spruce, Japanese larch, native red spruce. Doug- 
las fir and several other varieties suitable to 
high altitudes. The seedlings, as they nestle 
near the rocks and under the sparse shrubbery 
of the devastated slope seem particularly tiny 
amid the distances of which they are a part. 
Yet a tree whose bid for maturity seems auda- 
cious when the time element is considered has 
an embryonic faithfulness in detailed liki 
to the giant at which it is pointed : it may have 
the height of a linger and the diameter oi a 
straw, but it stands out with brave similitude 
that supports its grandiloquent ambition. 

Experimental work on the part of the Gov- 
ernment has a history of only fifteen years. 
There are now seven experimental stations 
such as that at Asheville and two m ire will 
soon be established. With four men on its 
staff its working field extends from Pennsyl- 
vania to the northern highland region of 
Georgia and Alabama, and from the Atlantic 
Coasl to and including the Cumberland and 
Alleghany highlands of West Virginia, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, containing about 185,000 
square miles. From east to west it embraces 
six distinct top 'graphic units and a range of 
",700 feet in altitude and six degrees of lati- 



tude. "It is not strange, therefore," says Mr. 
Frothingham, "that within this great region is 
to be found the most complex forest vegetation 
in the United States. The Southern Appa- 
lachian Mountains," he continues, "are in effect 
the great melting pot of northern and southern 
forest types. The forests range from the Can- 
adian spruce on the highest peaks through a 
bewildering variety of mixtures of hardwoods, 
pines and hemlocks to immense areas of coastal 
plain flats and estuary swamps, in which cypress 
mixes with tupelo and other swamp hardwoods^ 
In the mountain region the fertility of the steep 
soils, together with the cool, moist climate, 
make this the prize region of the United States 
for raising hardwoods." 

It is this heritage that fire and destructive 
lumbering are hastening to destruction, and 
the experimental work is seeking the most prac- 
ticable means of preserving. Owing to the 
short while the Government has been awake to 
the need and the long time that must elapse 
before deductions can be proved, the first and 
most important inquiries have to do with the 
effect of fires and the determination, in cases 
where fire has occurred, of the species that 
can be looked to most hopefully to repair the 
damage. Another practical but highly scien- 
tific inquiry is how best to secure the most 
rapid growth and valuable timber crops as a 
second growth when the old crop is removed, 
and how to introduce thrift and value into the 
forest of cut over and burned lands. 

Incidentally, the study of plant diseases, 
fungi, blights, etc., goes on apace with the 
work of conservation and replating. "Damp- 
ing off" is noticed in the case of some of 
the plants set out in the Mitchell scar, espe- 
cially among the white pines. What species 
may be best able to escape these perils is an 
important part of an intensely interesting 
pioneer work. 

In connection with plant diseases several in- 
stances of the occurrence of the chestnut blight 
have been found in the Mt. Mitchell forests 
as well as in other localities in North Carolina. 
So far, experts declare this blight has proved 
irresistibly fatal. They even make the predic- 
tion that within a decade the chestnut, which 
now commonly comprises at least one-third of 
the timber on the lower slopes of North Caro- 
lina mountains, will become extinct. Unlike 
other blights, as that which attacks the white 
pine, the chestnut disease spreads rapidly from 
tree to tree and does not require another 
medium, as for instance, blackberry and goose- 
berry vines as a necessary step in the develop- 
ment of the white pine blight. 

In these cases when an infected forest is 
cleared of the medium, the disease is halted, 
on the same principle that the malaria germ is 
eradicated when its mosquito medium is re- 

In the case of the chestnut, however, no way 
has yet been found to check the spread of the 
blight, and a disconcerting circumstance is its 
habit of appearing suddenly in localities that 
mean it has jumped for several hundred miles. 
This phenomenon is explained on the theory 
that the gummy spoor is carried on the feet of 
migratory birds. In the case of the chestnut, 
the problem seems to be almost entirely that of 
using the wood before the trees fall a victim 
to their peculiar Nemesis. 



This map, which shows more clearly than 
anything else could do the development of 
water and steam powers and hydro-electric 
lines in the Southern Appalachian region, was 
compiled by the N. C. Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey under the direction of its hy- 
draulic engineer, Thorndyke Saville, and the 
chief work in its preparation was done by G. 
Wallace Smith, of the Survey. Including the 
States of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky 
Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia 
and Alabama, it comprises a detailed exposition 
of just what has been done and what awaits 
doing in the use of power in the region in 
which development of the natural resource of 
water power is just now making greater pro- 
gress than is found in any region East of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

By means of varie-colored pins and wires the 
map shows, within certain ranges, all plants, 
whether water or steam, in all towns having 
power. All transmission lines are symbolized 
as to ordinary distribution, main circuits to 
feed distributing centers, etc. There are also 
shown location and ownership of all the larger 
hydro-electric and steam stations by means of 
which inter-connecting systems for the delivery 
of power can be traced, these, from Goldsboro, 
in North Carolina, to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
covering a distance of 1,100 miles. 

In addition to power stations and transmis- 
sion lines the map also shows the location of 
U. S. G. S. stream gauging stations and pos- 
sible sites of undeveloped water powers of 
1,000 horsepower and over. 

The valuable character of the map was shown 
by the action taken by the Power Conference, 
which by resolution ordered it printed in colors 
and distributed to all members. 



During the meeting of the Southern Appa- 
lachian Power Conference at Asheville a group 
of experts was almost constantly gathered in 
front of and examining the map of power lines, 
sites and installations in the Southern Appa- 
lachian States. 

A recent trip of inspection in Buncombe, 
Henderson, Transylvania, Jackson and Hay- 
wood counties by Major Warren E. Hall, Dis- 
trict Engineer of the U. S. G. S., and Thorn- 
dyke Saville, hydraulic engineer of the N. C. 
Geo. and Economic Survey, in connection with 
the establishment of new gauging stations on 
small mountain streams, disclosed a number of 
interesting facts in connection with water 
power sites. 

The particular significance of the gauging 
station on the small streams is the relatively- 
large run-off as compared with the larger 
streams. On the latter the run-off ranges 
from 1 1-2 to 2 cubic feet per second per 
square mile ; while on the smaller streams it 
averages 2 1-2 to 3 cubic feet per second. In 
cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey, 
the N. C. Geo. and Economic Survey plans to 
establish a few gauging stations on these small 

After going over the area proposed to be in- 
cluded in the great dam on the French Broad 
and existing stations on the French Broad and 
Davidson Rivers, where good possibilities for 
water power were found, Messrs. Hall and 
Saville inspected the old Toxaway dam site, 
with the view of possibly establishing a station 
on the river below. Excellent power possi- 
bilities were also noted on Horse Pasture River, 
on which a gauging station will be established. 
On Pigeon River there are a number of im- 
portant power sites, capable of being developed 
to produce 250,000 h.p. These have already 
been bought and are controlled by Waynes- 
ville and Washington, D. C, interests. The 
Pigeon, New River (Ashe County), and the 
Hiwassee (in Cherokee) all have very large 
potential power sites, each capable of producing 
250,000 h.p. All these are now controlled by 
various interests. On the Pigeon River other 

interests have applied for a Federal power 
permit for a development expected to produce 
60,000 h.p. 

The most interesting site inspected on the 
trip was that offered by Tuckaseegee River and 
Falls. Near the latter is a marvelous gorge 
rivalling in scenic beauty the famous Linville 
section. The two falls are 75 and 40 feet re- 
spectively and the river runs from them very 
precipitously, developing a 1,500 foot head. 
The site could be easily developed by a very 
narrow high dam, and the table land above 
lends itself admirably to the creation of a 
lake for impounding purposes. The estimate 
of power readily available at this site is 25,000 


Of a total of allotments of $40,463,280 made 
by the Secretary of War from the total ap- 
propriation of $56,589,10 for river and harbor 
improvement, the South gets for the projects 
in which it is interested $22,922,180, or con- 
siderably more than half of this allotment to 
this time. 

Of this sum there is to be utilized at once 
$673,000 in developments and improvements 
concerning North Carolina, as follows : 
Waterway, Norfolk, Virginia, to Beau- 
mont Inlet, North Carolina $400,000 

Blackwater River, Virginia 2,000 

Meherrin River, North Carolina 2,000 

Pamlico and Tar Rivers, North Caro- 
lina 12,000 

Neuse River, North Carolina 12,000 

W T aterway connecting Core Sound and 

Beaufort Harbor, North Carolina... 30,000 
Cape Fear River, North Carolina, above 

Wilmington 12,000 

Cape Fear River, North Carolina, at 

and below Wilmington 200,000 

Northeast (Cape Fear) River, North 

Carolina 3,000 

Black River, North Carolina. 2,000 

Congaree River, South Carolina 10,000 

It will be noted that the projects to which 
these sums are to be devoted lend themselves 
peculiarly to the policy of development in 
Eastern North Carolina of port facilities and 
the encouragement of shipping and water 


The Survey has received from Dr. R. W. S. 
Pegram, of Canton, N. C, a sample of splendid 
kaolin, which should be worth from eight to 
ten dollars a ton crude and twenty dollars per 
ton powdered, f. o. b. 

Owing to the lack of a ceramic laboratory, 
it is impossible to determine whether this and 
other clays are best suited for porcelain, facing 
for tile, paper, or other use. 

Dr. Pegram has been referred to several 
large users who have made inquiry as to the 
presence in the States of clays similar to the 


The Survey has secured as District Forest 
Warden Carl I. Peterson, graduate in forestry 
of Pennsylvania State University, who in ad- 
dition to service as Assistant Forester on the 
Santa Fe National Forest had two years valu- 
able experience with the 10th Engineer (For- 
estry) Regiment, U. S. A., a considerable part 
of which was overseas. 

Mr. Peterson will have headquarters at Ashe- 
ville and his territory will comprise the counties 
of Buncombe, McDowell and Polk and the nine 
counties to the southwest, all but three of 
which are cooperating in fire protection. 


A Bi- Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey ^- 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. JULY 28, 1923 

No. 7 




The committee charged with the selection 
and location of routes for the Appalachian 
and Western North Carolina Railroad Com- 
pany, with which and its branches it is pro- 
posed to bring modern transportation facili- 
ties to the so-called "Lost Provinces," will 
have an opportunity ior comprehensive plan- 
ning along the lines of enlightened and con- 
structive vision such as has been possible in 
few similar developments. 

In selection of these routes and considera- 
tion of the engineering phases of the work, 
it should be possible to contemplate no1 alone 
the needs of transportation of the sections to 
be seised, but the fullest development of 
their resources. Railroad construction too 
frequently has been followed as a sole end 
in a manner that in a measure served to 
hamper and prevent the very industrial pos- 
sibilities upon which the road itself would 
most naturally depend for its future traffic. 
The road through the "Lost Provinces" is 
peculiar in conception in that it is designed 
to open up to uniform development a number 
of counties fortuitously isolated. It will 
not fully serve its purpose unless it is built 
with the central idea of enabling its territory 
to realize in the fullest degree its natural 

Of prime importance to the location of the 
new routes is precaution that they shall 
not unnecessarily interfere with the develop- 
ment of water-powers which would he other- 
wise available for future industries in the 
newly opened territory. It may he necessary 
in some instances to consider a higher loca- 
tion for the railroad, but even at some ex- 
cess of cost of construction it would be 
economy by reason of the value of the power 
and its application to industry, which would 
mean first the settlement and enrichment of 
the territory and. second, the freight to make 
profitable the operation of the road. In the 
location of the routes every effort should be 
employed to their selection in a manner to 
keep feasible every otherwise potential water- 

The hill authorizing the new railroad speci- 
ties a number of proposed routes over which 
it and its branches may or must operate, as 
follows : 

Elkin to Sparta, and thence to .Jefferson 
and West Jefferson: That portion of the line 
from Sparta to Jefferson and West Jefferson 
crosses or parallels the Little River, in Alle- 
ghany County, and the South Fork of the 
New River and its tributaries, in Ashe 

From Taylorsville to North Wilkesboro : 
No water powers can be affected. 

North Wilkesboro to Boone, with a line 
from Elkville to Lenoir, and Hoone to Elk- 
ville: These lines would cross or parallel 
Elk Creek and the Yadkin River, in Wilkes 
and Caldwell counties, and the South Fork 
of the New River, in Watauga County. 
(Continual on page 4» 



The management of a newly opened North Carolina resort found that 
its sign, "Don't Pluck the Water-lilies," mighl a- well have read, "PL - 
Pull!" hut when the notice was changed to "Pond Lilies for Sale," the depre- 
dations ceased. 

This result was a reaction characteristic of the average American, 
remains an individualist in spite of the theoretical bonds of innumerable 
laws. He resents the spirit of "Verboten." Say to him "Shan't!" and his 
answer is "Will!" Challenge him with "Don't," and he rushes to accept tin- 
issue. Ask him to aid in safeguarding life, liberty, or property, and lie lends 
cheerful acquiescence. Assume the tone peremptory, and he is an equally 
cheerful rebel. The horde of rhetoricians preaching daily from the premise 
of "American lawlessness" could devise no better method than tlii- of accusa- 
tion to bring into contempt the very laws for which they plead. 

Every State highway should be lined with trees, ornamental and useful. 
There should be nut and fruit-bearers; there should be flowers, wild and 

Orthodox objection is that the user of the highway would soon put tie 
veto of destruction on any such program. He would do so, only if temp 
with the formula of "Don't" and "Can't." He would lend himself to 
creation of a helpful and dominant public opinion, were the emphasis placed 
on the property value of the things lying at his hand to take, but left to his 
honesty to preserve. 

Similar appeal to a sense of property rights, to generous impulse, to in- 
nate love of beauty, would do much toward preventing forest fires, proti 
ing bird and animal life, conserving innumerable natural resourci s. 

The American is not Goth or Vandal, but neither i- he modern Hun. 
to adopt a rule of conduct on no better authority than that it is ;iii order. 



A little appreciated phase of the growing 
scarcity of lumber is the fact that there is 
now scarcely a species of tree that does not 
have its definite commercial value. Woods 
formerly considered worthless, even as fire 
bote, now tind a variety of uses, in general 
construction, for trim, flooring, and interior 
finish. There is a distinct modification of old 
standards, excellently honest in themselves, 
but predicated upon a taste that could afford 
to be fastidious in view of the unlimited sup- 
ply of lumber of all kinds. 

Contractors, for instance, were formerly 
accustomed to specify spruce, because car- 
penters did not care to work with inferior 
woods; now the use of this once apparently 
inexhaustible species is growing more and 
more exceptional as the forests are exhausted. 
{Continued on page _' i 




North Carolina mountains are in all re- 
spects equal and in most, superior to the fam- 
ous Adirondacks, with one exception that will 
vitally detract from their human interest and 

enjoyment so long as it is permitted t" re- 

That is the matter of lakes. All through 
the Adirondacks Nature has spread these 
glittering jewels of the hills, prepared in the 
age when glacial action scraped out great 
bowls to be tilled by the streams and to en- 
dure as beauty and recreation sihh- and he 
reservoirs in which to store vast quantities 
of water for steady use as a producer of 

When it comes to man on a holiday, the 
lake, besides satisfying and adding variety 
to his search for relief in climate and yearn- 
ing for beauty, adds the spice of action in 
sport and outdoor employment. 
(Continm </ <,n pagt :: \ 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free 
on application. 

Newspapers are invited, to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Elsewhere in this issue are pointed out 
some considerations of caution that, if 
not heeded, might very well limit the use- 
fulness of a great enterprise which has 
been to an important section of the State 
the dream of a generation. 

The counties expecting to be brought 
into closer contact with the world by 
means of the "Lost Provinces" railroad 
would be paying a price the future would 
recognize as ruinous if it involved the 
loss or serious limitation of their water- 
powers. Lt is to be assumed that in build- 
ing this road and its branches the con- 
trolling policy will be one that views the 
enterprise in the perspective of the sec- 
tion to which the road shall be the kindly 
genii rather than seeking the narrow 
initial economy so often fathering waste 
irreparable in the end. 

What applies to building a railroad so 
that it will not destroy a water-power holds 
also as a principle demanding that de- 
velopment of rivers and streams for pow- 
er shall be only of a kind to permit the 
ultimate realization of all the power the 
prospect is naturally capable of producing. 

The day of the nimble dollar earned 
quickly at the minimum investment and 
the highest rate of interest without regard 
to the squander of resources in the pro- 
cess should never again be countenanced 
in any degree in J^orth Carolina. What 
looks to the present to have been the sense- 
less greed that destroyed the forests was in 
its time no more than the familiar urge for 
immediacy more blind and thoughtless 
than intentionally selfish. 

We have a great store of resources yet 
unrealized. But it is time it was under- 
stood that, after skimming the cream the 
milk need not be thrown away, or even 
fed to the hogs. The duty with respect 
to what Nature has provided is to use it, 
not as a mine to be dug out and consumed, 
but a farm to be cultivated and improved. 

It is practice something worse than rash 
that dares today to exploit anything that 
is part of the common heritage without 
preliminary inquiry and engineering sur- 
vey of its larger and more human 




(Continued from paye 1) 

the distances of haul increase, and the price 

In the case of pine, its exployinent was 
confined to long-leaf original growth; this 
has now become an aristocrat among ma- 
terials, and the once scorned "old field pine," 
cut as small as six to eight inches, is snatched 
up at prices reflecting the eagerness of 
the market. Builders who fifteen years ago 
were content with nothing except oid growth 
heart pine are more than pleased to lay hands 
on black, short leaf or spruce pine, and lob- 
lolly. Recent prices for such timber on the 
cars were $22 a thousand feet; in 1911, the 
cost was $9. 

Long leaf pine, such as is obtainable, is 
quoted at the mills in the far South at $40 ; 
in the distributing markets it is in strong de- 
mand at over $80. 

Gum. once denounced as worthless because 
of warping, now finds place in manufacture 
for interior trim, furniture, cooperage, and 

Beech, which used not to be cut in hard- 
wood operations, now finds its place along 
with the other woods of the forests in which 
it grows. 

Sycamore, cast aside because of its quick 
deterioration from exposure, has now found 
an extensive market use in manufacture of 
tobacco boxes, having the special quality of 
not imparting taste or odor to their contents. 

Cypress, another neglected tree, is marketed 
extensively for shingles. 

Persimmon, the dog-wood, numerous other 
woods that formerly were considered negligi- 
ble, all are quickly snatched up at good prices. 

Aside from the commercial use of formerly 
neglected woods and less particularity with 
regard to sizes and quality, there is a great 
and growing demand for numerous species in 
pulp manufacture. The pulp mill has an 
omniverous appetite and the variety of its 
foods is constantly growing. Spruce, balsam 
of four and five inches, are utilized. Hem- 
lock, yellow poplar, cucumber, linn (linden) 
and chestnut are species that have attained 
greatly enhanced value through the efforts of 
this basic industry to keep pace with im- 
perative demands. 

Of special significance in pulp-making is 
the tendency to utilize new and untried woods 
as invention is spurred on to develop material 
for the mills. Unmerchantable pine is now 
being widely sought, and much of the heavier 
and coarser papers comes from this source. 
The possibility of gum as a pulp wood has 
been canvassed and demonstrated and halts 
on a question of expense growing out of the 
necessity of combining its short-fibre with a 
long-fibred wood, such as spruce, the dis- 
tances between the swamps of Eastern North 
Carolina and the mountain altitudes from 
which the longer fibred pulp material is pro- 
cured interposing delay by reason of trans- 
portation expense. This, however, may be 
obviated in part by water transportation and 
will perhaps be done away with entirely by 
discovery of some other wood for use with 
the gum, possibly pine. Numerous inquiries 
made of the Survey for information as to 
sources of pine for pulp-making point to the 
development of a great industry on large 
areas of the East, where original pine lands 
have been re-covered with a growth other- 
wise nonmarketable. 

Such development is of especial interest 
and value because of the circumstance that 
pulp manufacture is of a permanent nature. 

Once a plant is established, it must either 
own or control tracts sufficiently large to be 
cut in rotation to permit regrowth and a cycle 
of use. Along with the relatively rapid 
growth of the pulp material, such industries 
are encouraged to take a greater interest in 
a more permanent form of reforest ration (the 
Champion Fibre Company experimental nurs- 
ery a case in point). Assuming that extens- 
ive pulp-making plants are located in East- 
ern North Carolina, as now seems probable, 
not only will much waste land be turned to 
commercial account, but a stimulus given to 
solving the problem of reforestation with 
long-leaf pine. 

In this connection, brief mention might be 
made of a fact not generally recognized in 
connection with reforestation, i.e., that while 
a species may be exactly reproduced, there . 
is a quality in its original or primeval form 
which may never be repeated. 

Look, for instance, at a cross-section of 
original growth pine, and there will be noted 
a number of closely packed rings, darker and 
lighter in color. The darker ring is the 
'heart." the slow, fall growth ; the lighter 
is the more rapid and softer growth of the 
spring. In the original form the tree grows 
slowly in the forest condition ; in the re- 
growth, although from seed of the true 
species, growth is more rapid and the wood 
lacks something of the value and durability 
of the primeval example. 

Thus, it is possible to replace the long- 
leaf pine. To do so will in a generation and 
a half practically recreate a wasted herit- 
age which the future will preserve from loss. 
Nevertheless, there will never again be pre- 
cise duplication of forests of original growth. 
They are gone, with only incidental remind- 
ers of what they were in small tracts that 
make the hobby of some connoisseur in trees 
or happen to have been saved while heirs 
wrangled at law over the division of estates. 

By 1930, authorities estimate, the cut of 
Southern pine will have decreased seven bil- 
lion feet, while the demand will have in- 
creased a billion and a half. 

Meanwhile the less desirable forms of this 
(Continued on page 4) 


American Ochre Company, of Spokane. 
Washington, has been making inquiry recent- 
ly as to North Carolina clays and has been 
furnished with Bulletin 13 and Economic- 
Paper 34 of the N. C. Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey publications. 

Ochre, an earthy and powdery form of the 
minerals hematite and limonite, is nearly al- 
ways impure and has to be prepared for 
marketing. Usually it needs washing, grind- 
ing and often roasting to improve the color. 
The finished product goes under various 
names, according to quality and pigmenta- 
tion. Colors vary from red to various shades 
of yellow, red predominating in nature. 

Aboriginals made use of ochre for war col- 
oring ornamentation, etc. Modern practice 
employs it in paints for exteriors, as build- 
ings, railroad rolling stock, as a pigment for 
coloring mortars, earthenware and paper, and 
in the manufacture of linoleums and oil- 

Ochre occurs in various ways, i.e., as ir- 
regular branching veins, as residual masses 
much like clay, as lenses and pockets. It is 
found chiefly in the Appalachian states from 
Pennsylvania south. Pennsylvania is the 
leading producer in the North and Georgia 
in the South. North Carolina's production 
has been small, but there are possibilities of 
commercial deposits in areas of crystalline 




(Continued from, page li 

Resorts arc based on the presence of moun- 
tains, seashore or lake. Either of the three, 
alone, carries relatively brief appeal. One 
tires of water alone and its uses; the human 
eye which translates beauty Into food for the 
SOUl is apt to become "fed up" on scenery. 
But set the manifold diversions of a lovely 
lake in the wistful frame of the great hills, 
and (he combination is one which will "wear" 
— both spiritually and commercially. 

What the North Carolina mountains need 
is more and ever more people. 

It is axiomatic that, the more lakes there 
are. the more people conic to the mountains. 

Since there are, practically speaking, no 
natural lakes in Western North Carolina, it 
is a prime necessity to give it by artificial 
means these features that Nature has either 
neglected, or has lost. 

In almost innumerable Instances the 
streams and mountains of the State surest 
in location and structure that perhaps in 
very remote ages there were natural dams 
across narrow valleys between the hills, from 
which stretch plateaus that almost shout 
"lake" to the eye of the engineer. A few — 
a very few — of these sites have been devel- 
oped, but wherever and whenever the lake has 
been created it has abundantly justified itself. 

Every North Carolinian either knew or had 
planned to see Lake Toxaway, whose destruc- 
tion was the real major tragedy of the un- 
precedented flood of 1916. The two Sapphire 
Lakes also are well known. Loss familiar 
is Lake James, the development of the South- 
ern Power Company on the Catawba and 
Linville rivers and Paddy's Creek, in Burke 
and McDowell counties, which covers six to 
seven thousand acres and spreads like the 
Gingers of a hand, from which there radiate 
literally hundreds of inlets. Although created 
and used strictly as an industrial enter- 
prise for storage, the vicinity of Lake James 
already has attracted numerous clubhouses, 
and in the season its miles of shore line are 
constantly lined with fishermen. Place an 
attractive water anywhere, and it becomes 
an irresistible magnet to folk of all degrees. 

An example of this appeal of the lake is 
Fairfield, on Horsepasturo Creek, a small 
water that looks as though it might have 
been the final triumph of a plan matured by 
the ages, instead of the result of a very easily 
constructed dam. Encircled by mountains 
and with the rocky side of one huge peak 
dropping almost sheer to its surface, it is 
one of those places that make the inarticulate 
long to have been born poets. And although 
Fairfield is set back in the hills far 
from any railroad center, its exceptionally 
well kept hotel is so well patronized that it 
is one of the few businesses that can afford 
to scorn advertising. For years its clientele 
has stuck by it, returning season after season, 
bringing their friends, never tiring. One who 
visits this lake unannounced and without ac- 
commodations engaged in advance can be pre- 
pared for the necessity of camping out or re- 
tracing his tracks. 

Another lake that has become famous in 
the last few years is .lunaluska, of rare beau- 
ty and the center of a colony of homes, club- 
houses and hotels that are constantly crowded 
and steadily expanding year by year. .luna- 
luska. incidentally, is a Methodist assembly 

grounds With educational and religious fea- 
tures, but its development sbows the formula 

of successful resort making and I be chief 

Ingredient is water advantages. 
As an extreme illustration of the rule, might 

be Cited the miniature so-called 'lake" at 
Hendersonville — really scarcely more than ;i 
swimming pool yet drawing patrons bj the 
thousands from a wide radius! 

As stated, tbe mountains are lull of bike 
sites that await energy, vision and tbe mod- 
erate expenditure of capital to begin meeting 
a demand that there is scarcely tbe possibili- 
ty of exhausting. Among them two stand 
out prominently. One is a lake above Lin- 
ville Falls, which would add tbe finishing 
touch to ii wonder-region of absolutely unique 
character. The other is the great lake pro- 
posed for the French Broad, which would 
be formed by a dam in the narrows opposite 
tbe Vanderbilt estate and cover a territory 
thirty miles long and live to six miles wide. 
Its waters would back up nearly to Brevard 
on the French Broad and to Hendersonville 
on Mud Creek, including from 18,000 to 
25,000 acres. 

This lake, which would create a greal re- 
sort capable of furnishing every manner of 
aquatic sport and pleasure at more than 
2,000 feet above sea level, would not only 
develop a 15,000 water power at tbe dam. 
but vastly increase the power possibilities 
below Asheville. Between Asheville and the 
Tennessee State line the French Broad falls 
714 feet, down a narrow gorge which is fol- 
lowed by the railroad and on which small 
dams and canals would give power for a great 
industrial and manufacturing area, the great 
lake with its shore line of 150.000 miles act- 
ing as an ideal reservoir. Such a develop 
ment, real estate men claim, would increase 
values a thousand per cent, and experience 
in many quarters proves that this dream-like 
prophecy has often been more than realized. 

While this super-lake, which would involve 
an investment of perhaps $10,000,000, is so 
far "in the air." army engineers are ready 
to begin the making of a detailed survey of 
its plan and possibilities. Ultimately it will 
come into being, and meanwhile the principle 
it teaches is worth study and development, 
especially by companies that are finding ex- 
cessive costs a difficulty in the way of carry- 
ing out waterpower projects. If this class 
of capital has its aim centered on industry, 
it can well afford to examine the question of 
cost as related to the return a new lake will 
bring through enhanced prices of adjacent 
lands, and provision of resort opportunities. 
and to determine to what extent the capital 
investment in the reservoir can be reduced by 
treating the reservoir as a lake asset. 


Considerable interest is being shown in the 
Survey's request for information as to the 
occurrence of sands likely to be of use in 
the foundry industry. Among other samples 
received are a very good grade of coarse sand 
for core and other heavy castings, which oc- 
curs near Selma. Another sample from tbe 
same place is a very line sand which may 
prove valuable for liner grades of work in 
tbe industry. 

These sands come from terraces above 
Xeuse River, tbe core sand from the upper 
terrace, near tbe upland level, while tbe line 
sand is found in a lower terrace near tbe 

average water level. 

It is highly probable that numerous de- 
posits similar to these would be found in the 

State, if only owners of tbe laud could he 
aroused to tbe advantage of reporting likely 





Naturally a "Good Roads" State ban a 
particular interest in "Portland Cement," 
tbe name of tbe artificial manufactured stone 
which is now perhaps the most outstanding 
and Important basic element in modern In- 

Wlietbcr it i> road or bridge, factory, or 
dam. skyscraper, warehouse, or country borne, 

tbe first call is for Ibis enduring composition 

that, applied as a liquid and hardening into 
a stone, is capable id' almost any required 
of manufacture or industry. Imagination 

did not halt at tbe effort to use it in the 
building of sbips. so far one of the few fail- 
ures attending its use. but by no means 
abandoned because of disappointment "Port- 
land Cement," for all its widespread use by 

itself or combined with steel, i< yet in the 
infancy of its application. 

A process and a formula, tbe question of 
the location of tbe materials out of which 
cement can be manufactured is one that will 
become Increasingly important. Tin- extent 
to which the demand lias grown was strik- 
ingly shown a year ago. when several North 
Carolina road projects were delayed by ii- 

lack and the Highway Commission was forc- 
ed to contract for a supply from Sweden. 
"Portland Cement," so-called, K a mixture 

of limestone and shale or other rock contain- 
ing necessary quantities of silica, alumina 
and iron oxides which are burned to fusion 
and the resulting clinker finely ground. The 
raw mixture contains 75 per cent of calcium 
carbonate and 25 per cent of silica, alumina 
and iron, all of which frequently occur in the 
limestone itself and are. of course, unobjec- 
tionable as impurities. Some limestones con- 
tain sufficient of these minerals to satisfy the 
requirements of "Portland Cement" without 
their further admixture, and are called "ce- 
ment rock." Formerly there was a quantity 
of what was called "natural cement" produc- 
ed from such material, but this ha-- given way 
almost entirely to the "Portland Cement" of 
definite analysis. 

To be suitable for ceiiient-niaking. lime- 
stones must contain no more than 7 per cent 
of magnesia, which in too great proportion 
hydrates (combines chemically with water) 
after the cement Is in use. causing the once 
familiar swelling and disintegration that was 
a draw-back to the use of the material when 
it was used without full understanding and 
experience. But the alkalies formerly con- 
sidered undesirable, can now be volatilized 

and eliminated during the burning and part 
of their potash recovered as a by-product. 

There are in North Carolina a number of 
deposits whose character indicates their use 
in cement manufacture, but which have not 
been exploited owing to inaccessibility, high 
freight rates t<> market-;, engineering difficul- 
ties in quarrying, etc 

A number of these are located along the 
Murphy Branch in Cherokee and Swain coun- 
ties. There i< high calcium limestone, also, 
in the vicinity o( Hot Springs, in Madison 
County, but its value is compromised in speci- 
mens examined by high magnesia content, 
ami also by suspicion of the presence of dolo- . 
mite, which becomes explosive if heated too 
rapidly. Red Watauga shale is abundant 
near the limestone deposits, and other rock 

i Continued on /></«/. I i 




Relative immunity of North Carolina in- 
dustry from the industrial depression of 1921 
is established by the facts relating to the 
output of public utility power in the State, 
as compiled in the recent Circular No. 6. of 
the N. C. Geological and Economic Survey 
having to do with "The Water Power Situa- 
tion in North Carolina." Output of these 
companies in North Carolina increased dur- 
ing the "bad" year, but at a less rate; while 
in all other Southern Appalachian states 
there was a decrease. 

The circular, prepared from late data by 
Thorndyke Saville, hydraulic engineer of the 
Survey, is of general interest and value to 
those interested in industrial developments 
and to the public. It deals with the status 
of developed and undeveloped power ; water- 
power used for manufacturing, by counties ; 
growth of power use, with tables showing 
output of electrical generating stations in 
kilowatt hours, by months for the years 1919- 
1922 inclusive, and contains various charts 
for the use of the student of power sup- 
ply and demand, whether related to water 
or steam production. In the period of 1919- 
1922 the output of electrical energy increased 
40 per cent, the relative amount of total 
power generated by water-power being 93 
per cent in 1920 and 89 per cent in 1922. 

As to future power needs, a former circular 
based its estimate, in 1920. on an assumed 
rate of increase of 10 per cent, compounded, 
which gave for 1922 a predicted output of 
916.336.630 kilowatt hours. The actual out- 
put was 917,739,429. A conservatively esti- 
mated rate of increase therefore calls for 
1.219,645.000 kilowatt hours in 1925 and 
1.964.250,000 kilowatt hours in 1930. 

Since the estimate of increase of output 
has proved to be essentially accurate, the 
forecast for installed water-power to meet 
the demand remains unchanged. This was 
indicated by Circular No. 2 to be 570.000 in- 
stalled horse power by 1925 and 919.000 horse 
power by 1930. The increase in developed 
horsepower to meet the above estimates would 
lie 120.000 horsepower by 1925 and 469,000 
horsepower by 1930. 

Of these needs the circular points out that 
while the figures are fairly representative of 
what the power demands are likely to be. it 
is doubtful that they will be met by any 
proportional increase in installed water-pow- 
er. That amount of undeveloped water-power 
exists in the State, but it is likely that the 
demand will be more economically met by 
extra-state power generated at large stations 
in nearby states and transmitted through in- 
terconnected systems to this and adjoining 
states. North Carolina companies at present 
finding it cheaper to purchase large amounls 
of excess power available in Alabama and 
Georgia than to develop equivalent power in 
this State. 

Minimum potential water-power is estimat- 
ed at 578,000 horsepower, maximum at 875.- 
000, and with storage an approximate 2,000,- 
000 horsepower. Of this 450.000 horsepower 
is now or shortly will be in use. The South- 
ern Power Company contemplates a new de- 
velopment on the Catawba of 50,000; Tallas- 
see Power Company has a provision for pro- 
ducing 41.000 additional horsepower at Badin 
and 25,000 at Cheoah. In addition it has 
plans for the development of 200,000 horse- 
power on the Little Tennessee. 

Of this total developed horsepower 80,000 
is transmitted for use outside the State, 113,- 
000 is used locally at Badin in the reduction 

of aluminum, and of the remaining 257,000 
available for general industrial and public 
use, 45.000 is developed for and used by priv- 
ate manufactories in relatively small units. 

Of potential power now undeveloped there is 
probably some 250.000 horsepower available at 
sites suitable for economic construction and 
not under the control of the larger power com- 
panies. The Survey has investigated sites in 
Wilkes. Surry. Clay, Cherokee and Moore, 
which total some 200,000 continuous horse- 
power ranging in installation from 500 to 
60.000 horsepower capacity. Large available 
water-powers remain on the Hiwassee. Not- 
tely, French Broad. Watauga. Toe and New 
rivers in Western and on the Yadkin, Deep 
and Cape Fear rivers in Central North Caro- 
lina. At present a considerable portion of 
the theoretical potential power is not econom- 
ically usable, awaiting increase in value 
through enhanced prices for oonl or the in- 
vention of new means of generation and 

Figures given in the circular as to develop- 
ment of water-power are approximately cor- 
rect within one per cent. Exact figures await 
the completion of the power census now be- 
ing conducted by the N. C. Geological and 
Economic Survey, in cooperation with the 
U. S. Geological Survey and the State Depart- 
ment of Labor and Printing, which will cov- 
er the amount of power used, whether water- 
power, steam or oil ; type of installation ; 
number of wheels, height of dam; use for 
power and methods of using (whether ma- 
chinery is direct connected, belt driven or by 
individual motors) ; whether water-power is 
purchased, and if so, whether it can be pur- 
chased. When the census is completed, the 
shortage of power will be known and the lo- 
cation of markets for new power indicated. 
The Survey will then be in position to inves- 
tigate immediately the water-power resources 
of those districts in which the power shortage 
is most acute, and advise to what extent, 
new water-power can be advantageously de- 
veloped. If sufficient water-power cannot be 
economically developed, other methods will 
be outlined for supplying power needs. 




{Continued from page 1) 
Statesville to Elkin : No important water 
power development would be affected. 

From North Wilkesboro to Jefferson or 
West Jefferson : Such a line would cross or 
parallel Reddies River, in Wilkes County, 
and the South Fork of the New River, in 
Ashe County. 

Certain of the routes mentioned are served 
at present by railroads which have become 
unsuitable for continuous traffic. It would 
be highly unfortunate if any effort to per- 
petuate these routes should serve to perpetu- 
ate also the damage which they have done 
in the past by blocking the development of 
water-power on a number of extremely valu- 
able sites. All of the streams noted are im- 
portant, sources of undeveloped power and 
contain some of the best sites in the State. 
In the past very valuable water powers have 
been practically eliminated by the building 
of railroads across or parallel to them. Nota- 
bly is this the case on the Yadkin River, in 
the region under consideration, on the French 
Broad River, and on certain tributaries of 
Little Tennessee River. Unquestionably, on 
many of the rivers referred to excellent water 
powers would have been developed, had it 
not been for the location of railroads athwart 
or adjacent to their courses. It is of first 

importance to the adequate exploitation of 
the natural resources of North Carolina that 
the construction .of the proposed lines be not 
permitted largely to negative their purpose 
by needless interference with the industrial 
future of these sites. 

As a corollary to the above, a second point 
of equal, if not greater, significance is in 
regard to the possibility of electrification of 
the proposed lines. Wherever they may final- 
ly be placed, they will be in the immediate 
vicinity of numerous undeveloped sites which 
would afford ample power to operate the 
lines at all seasons of the year. Modern rail- 
road operation is coming rapidly to the use 
of electric power in place of steam as an 
economic necessity on all extremely heavy 
grades, a condition which will be exceeding- 
ly common o» the routes suggested. In ad- 
dition, the proposed roads should have a 
scenic value to attract considerable tourist 
traffic, and to this, electrification would be 
a prime advantage. 




(Continued from page 3) 
which may prove useful for mixing with lime- 
stone are the Hiwassee slate, the Nichols 
slate, and the Murray slate, all of which oc- 
cur in the Hot Springs vicinity. Other pros- 
pects noted in Western North Carolina are 
those near Fletcher. Henderson County, and 
those of Kings Mountain, which need much 
prospecting but are considered worthy of in- 

In Eastern North Carolina there are num- 
erous deposits of marl, but analyses for the 
most part have shown them to be unfitted for 
manufacture of cement, generally by reasou 
of the presence of sand in too great quantity. 
What may prove to be an exception, how- 
ever, is the Mont Edgecombe estate of Mrs. 
W. P. Mercer, in Edgecombe County, within 
five miles of Rocky Mount. Here, on a large 
tract, are found abundant deposits of marl, 
together with quantities of a blue-gray clay, 
rich in silica and alumina and containing 
5.04 of iron oxide, while analysis of the marl 
shows silica, iron oxide and alumina and a 
lime content of 44.60. Although there was 
considerable sand in the specimens examined, 
it is possible that it may have been due to 
the overburden of the beds, and in any event 
the quantities in which the clay and marl 
occur fully justify investigation. 

Although little if any actual cement manu- 
facture has been undertaken in the State, the 
rapid expansion of the use of the material 
With the consequent demand for the essential 
materials has set experts to work on the 
prospective problem of getting a satisfactory 
mixture from materials not heretofore con- 
sidered ideal. The day of concrete manu- 
facture in the State to meet road building 
and other needs with a home product has 
not arrived as yet. but every limestone 
and sand deposit of anything like consider- 
able extent is well worth careful exploration. 


(Continued from page 2) 
distinctive Southern tree are being intensive- 
ly manufactured, and its use as pulpwood is 
constantly increasing. 

It would be a striking but at the same time 
logical development should it come to pass 
that the pulp mill — the symbol of utter de- 
struction of forests — should find economic op- 
eration to include restoration of this noble 
tree now apparently in course of extinction. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Fconomic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 8 




Nearly a hundred years ago. in 1825. a 
North Carolina Legislature passed an act In 
which it was declared that all vacant and 
unappropriated swamp lands in the State 
were appropriated for educational purposes. 

This was followed, in the session 1S2G-27, 
by another statute which declared that lakes 
Should not he subject to entry. 

Years later, in 1891, the existing laws were 
Clarified by a statute in which "swamp lands" 
were denned to include 'all lands which may 
lie covered by the waters of any lake or 

Still later, by the laws of 1911, it was de- 
clared that White Lake. Black Lake. Wacca- 
maw Lake and any other lake in Bladen. 
Columbus or Cumberland counties "shall 
never be sold or conveyed to any person, firm 
or corporation, but shall always be and re- 
main the property of the State of .North Caro- 
lina for the use and benefit of all the people 
of the State." 

It thus happens that there are in North 
Carolina today, and dedicated by statute to 
the public use, somewhere in the neighbor- 
hood of from fifteen to twenty lakes in the 
East, some of which are almost unique in 
character, while all of them are of a public 
value not easily estimated in view of what 
the demands of the future may be. 

It is easy to imagine that this first ancient 
law which was to pave the way for the pres- 
ervation of a cluster of jewels of inland 
waters resulted not so much from a wise 
foresight as from a habit since developed into 
the line art that has become known as "pass- 
ing the buck." There is little difficulty in 
reconstructing the picture of that far-away 
legislative session. There was a small group 
of idealists pressing the duty of the State to 
inaugurate and encourage the principle of 
public education. They brought to the Capi- 
tol at Raleigh the familiar enthusiasm of the 
crusader against whose plan "in principle" 
there is little opposition, until it runs to the 
logical end of money to put it in operation. 
One needs no historical detail to know the 
eloquence with which the cause was urged, 
or the coldness with which the "watch dogs 
of the treasury" regarded the appropriations 
it implied. And there are familiar modern 
instances in plenty of the blandly smiling 
individual who proposed a compromise by 
offering in lieu of money something that the 
State could not use but could bestow with 
a gesture eloquent of generosity. But few 
"bucks" were ever passed to better purpose! 

No Mohe Bargains in Lakes 

In the intervening years seven of these 
lakes have passed into private hands, includ- 
ing the largest of I hem. Lake Mattamuskeet, 
but as noted above, no more can bo sold with- 
out, express legislative sanction, which would 
involve the repeal of the act of 1911. 

Of these. Harrison's Lake. Bladen County 
(now Baker's Lake), covering an area of 
(Continued on page 4) 


Signs multiply of a slowly growing but healthful interest on the part of 
corporations and individuals in the subject of forest fire protection and re- 
creation of the forests themselves. 

]STotably, the railroads are increasingly concerned with the necessity of 
laws compelling the keeping clear of their rights of way from the inflam- 
mable debris, on which it is estimated that there originate at least one-fourth 
of the forest fires. One road in particular is now experimenting with a new 
invention which throws a stream of live steam that kills all such vegetation 
for one hundred feet on either side of its track. 

In addition, several of the larger land-owning corporations are making 
independent studies of means of restocking cut-over areas, and to this end 
are seeking advice as to species to plant and the best methods to follow. The 
lesson has spread to individual holders of small tracts, who are beginning to 
see in presently worthless lands the foundation of a valuable future estate 
when they shall have been reprovided with their natural covering. 

This entirely wholesome sentiment deserves every encouragement by the 
press and every public agency. In the end it depends upon the pre- 
owners of the forests whether the future will know forests or merely timber 
barrens. It is the commercial interests that have cut the forests to supply 
demand for timber that will decree whether there shall continue to be forests 
to cut. It is the individual owner brought to see his personal property in 
the true perspective of its larger public use who will in the last analysis 
largely decree the success or failure of this major public policy. 

It is a reflection on the bona fides of this policv that several reforest ra- 
tion projects should have been chilled by the lack of seed. Certainly a com- 
monwealth that looks to creating the forests of the future shotild see to it 
that those who would dedicate their lands in aid of its effort should have 
nurseries from which to obtain the stock with which to plant that crop which 
promises the greatest profit, but requires on the other band the largest meas- 
ure of faith and patience. 




The State of Louisiana is leading the South 
in the manner in which its laws encourage 
and make possible the conservation of its 
forests and the rcferostration of cut-over 
lands. Its Conservation Department has been 
perpetuated by the Constitution. It has in 
force a system whereby lands suitable to the 
growing of timber may be economically dedi- 
cated to that purpose. In addition, lumber- 
men generally are awake to the advantage "I 
adopting such methods in cutting as will as- 
sure a rotation in growth, and thus prevent 
for the future the melancholy barrens on 
suitable for agriculture and denuded of for- 
ests, which all over the South stand as a 
continuing reproach the shortage in timber 
emphasizes more and more sharply. In brief. 
Louisiana has taken a pioneer role and al- 
(Continued on page 3) 




Scattered throughout the West are numer- 
ous sites of all but forgotten camps that in 
the days of the gold rush gave every outward 
promise of becoming thriving cities. 

Now. all that remains of the typical boom 

town are a few bleak and desolate buildings 

fortuitously standing, the graveyard on the 
mountainside, and a fund of stories and 
traditions which may or may not have been 
preserved in the art of Mark Twain. Brel 
Harte. Frederick Remington and a t'cw others 
who have fixed the shifting lights of a color- 
ful epic of gold, greed and romance. 

The mining town and its fate make a famil- 
iar and quite readily understood phenomenon. 
It was at the height of its fever when the 
gold lay raw in the streams, waiting the pros- 
pector with his pan. It prospered when pick 
(Continued on page 2 I 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free 
on application. 

Newspapers are invited, to make use of contents,, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Natural Resources is confident that 
the facts contained in the article in this 
issue concerning the State's system of 
lakes in Eastern North Carolina will be 
in the nature of a revelation to the peo- 
ple, as in a sense it was to the writer who 
undertook the preliminary examination 
to serve as the basis of a more particular 

Everybody knows vaguely that there 
are lakes in Eastern North Carolina. One 
or two have been for years familiar names 
of vague significance. There was a Lake 
Waccamaw. There was a White Lake. 
There was — and the past tense in this 
instance is literally true — a Lake Matta- 
muskeet. But the location, the form, the 
interesting characteristics and in some 
cases the unique phenomena of these in- 
land waters have been unread chapters 
of a book scarcely opened. To a State 
whose public lands have long since been 
alienated, the realization that it has own- 
ership of anywhere from fifteen to twenty 
lakes of widely varied attractiveness, in- 
terest and usefulness is a matter of large 

The history of the Eastern lakes has 
been the familiar one of neglect. That 
a considerable number still remain out of 
private hands is a matter more of happy 
chance than of any wise prevision. Some 
of them have been alienated for ridicu- 
lously inadequate sums in spite of the fact 
that they were originally set apart as the 
nucleus of an educational fund. One, 
covering 970 acres, went for a considera- 
tion of $97.00 paid to the Literary Fund. 
Five lakes covering 6,400 acres, were sole! 
near the beginning of the twentieth cen- 
tury for $8,400. Lake Mattamuskeet, the 
largest of the State-owned fresh waters, 
went into the hands of a drainage corpora- 
tion for, in round numbers, a hundred 
thousand dollars for its close to fifty 
thousand acre area. 

Apparently the Legislature of 1911 
awoke to the serious tendency of such a 
policy of sale and provided by statute 
that the Bladen, Columbus and Cumber- 

land County lakes should never be sold. 
Legislatures of the future might well af- 
ford to follow the example and safeguard 
such others as have not already been con- 
veyed or exploited by private interests. 
In the development of the State park sys- 
tem of the future some of the lakes al- 
ready sold will in all likelihood be bought 
back at stiffer prices which will yet be a 
fine bargain. It is imperative that there 
be a better understanding of where the 
remaining lakes are, and what they may 
be made to mean, pending the time when 
the State shall make the use of them the 
public interest will demand. 

What a variety of beauty, strangeness, 
natural and climatic phenomena is to be 
found in these secluded wonders of forest 
and swamp ! Waters that in one case are 
murky with Stygian mystery ; in another 
clearer than the pools of Pysche or Nar- 
cissus ; whose species of fish include those 
of the cold streams of the North and the 
lagoons of the South ; to which alligators 
are native and birds identified with the 
tropics are annual visitors ; in whose sur- 
rounding forests is to be found the excep- 
tion to the rule of vanishing native game, 
not only holding' its own but increasing 
in numbers while the honk of the auto- 
mobile on the highway brings a new note 
to spice their primordial silences. 

It is a good omen that the Eastern 
lakes have practically waited on discovery 
until a day when disclosure will mean 
preservation instead of extinction. 




(Continued from page 1) 
and shovel opened up rich veins and pockets. 
It took on the false airs of stability when 
engineers put in their stamp mills and ma- 
chinery and commenced to follow the leads 
and work the dumps for the treatment of 
inferior ores. But always, unless there was 
something- else than the gold mine, the camp 
held the seed of death within it, even as it 
replaced its rude shacks with the equipment 
of a modern city. 

After all, the most elaborate of these towns 
and cities was a camp that depended on a 
mine ; and a mine is a storehouse of nature 
which holds so much — and no more — of 

When the mine's contents were recovered 
to the degree that it cost more to get the 
gold out than the product had value, both 
mine and camp closed down. It was only a 
matter of time before the coyote would re- 
turn whence he had been driven and sing to 
the stars his interrupted complaint against 
the bitterness of life. 

Mining the Forests 

Of infinitely greater value than every gold 
mine combined was the original forest area 
of the United States. Experts estimate that 
it included no less 'than S12,0O0,O00 acres. 
Five-sixths of this has been cut over, and a 
little over half (346.000.000 acres) devoted 
to agriculture. Of the cut-over areas 90,- 

000,000 acres have been devastated — that is, 
they now grow nothing of commercial value, 
and are lying as idle as the diggings which 
once produced the hectic era of the "Golden 
West." Of the cut-over lands 239,000,000 
acres contain some second growth, which 
means that they are not yet wholly exhaust- 
ed as forests and have a possibility of being 
redeemed for production. But unless some- 
thing be done to check the wasteful processes 
now employed in the rapidly diminishing 
forest areas, practically all these lands soon 
will lie, like the 90,000,000 devastated acres, a 
mine that has "petered out." 

Although less spectacular in origin and 
history there are many abandoned sites of 
what might have been permanent towns and 
even cities, to say nothing of relatively small 
industrial settlements, that are standing in 
many sections in much the same conditions 
as the abandoned mining camps of the West. 

While we use the forests as a mine to be 
exploited, exhausted and abandoned, import- 
ant industries are being developed, about 
which cities grow. The furniture industry 
in North Carolina, for instance, now reports 
107 factories with products of an annual 
value of $30,288,761, a capital investment of 
$6,525,102, value of plants, $8,384,530, and 
yearly pay roll of $5,467,614 to 8, 697 em- 
ployees. In addition there are extensive and 
growing pulp mills and tanic acid plants, all 
dependent on timber, all doomed to economic 
abolition when the timber is gone. 

The timber is going — rapidly. At the pres- 
ent time there are only fifteen timber export- 
ing states, of which eight are in the South — 
Virginia, West Virginia. North Carolina, 
South Carolina. Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, 
and Mississippi. Several of these are now 
importing as much as they export. At the 
present rate of cutting there will be in a few 
years only three exporting states, Oregon, 
Washington, and California. 

How fundamentally destructive such a de- 
velopment will be is shown by the fact that 
one-half of all the wood consumed in the 
United States, 46 per cent of forest products 
and one-third of all the timber produced are 
used on the farms. Think of the agricultural 
states of the South being forced to use coal 
and cement on the farms, and one can get 
a faint idea of the chaos impending by clear 
mathematical progression ! 

The difference between the exhaustion of 
minerals and the devastation of forests by 
treating them as if they were a mine instead 
of that resource which intelligence might 
most readily conserve is the difference be- 
tween death and suicide. For a while and 
before the warning became self-evident, the 
suicide was the result of folly ; in the face 
of glaring fact and example it has now be- 
come deliberate. 

The Diminishing Residue 

At present there are left of this original 
forest 464,000,000 acres, including National 
and State forests, State parks, farm wood- 
lands and commercial tracts. In the Southern 
States there are 240.000,000 acres, of which 
138,191,060 are in commercial tracts. In 
North Carolina the acreage is 19.600.000, of 
which 313,075 is in National, 1,564 in State, 
and 23,000 in municipal forests. Private com- 
mercial forests amount to 8,968,814 acres, and 
there are 10,299,547 acres in farm woodlands. 

These figures must be read in the light of 
their including both merchantable second 
growth and unmerchantable second growth in 
process of being prematurely used for turp- 
entine; and in the light, also, of the fact 
that while the South is growing three billion 
feet of saw pine timber it is cutting about 
16,000,000 feet. • \ 


In the hardwood forests of 1 1 1 * - Southern 
Appalachians 22,500,000 acres of second 
growth are growing al the rate of about one 

and a half billion board feet per year, while 
the estimated cut is approximately three bil- 
lion board feet. The tragedy in the making is 
apparent; the question is the best means by 
which it, may be averted from running to 
completion; and of that question the essence 
is time. 

Since the special purpose of protecting the 
headwaters of navigable streams puts a limit 

on National forest, reserves, and since under 
present laws the owners of merchantable 
timber are hard to convert to the economic 
possibility of so timbering their holdings as 
to preserve the smaller trees for future 
growth, the answer is the development of a 
general policy of state ownership of forest 
tracts on the principle of conservation and 
as an investment. This plan has long been 
in operation on the European continent and 
lias proved the salvation of the timber sup- 
plies of such old nations as France, where 
not only the Government, but every depart- 
ment and many cities maintain timber sup- 
plies as a necessary fiscal anil economic prac- 
tice. In the United States the idea is set- 
ting a slow start, which is being accelerated 
as the emergency of a timber deficit becomes 
more and more apparent. 

Finances of State Forests 

How such it forestry plan could be worked 
out from the financial point of view may be 
conservatively calculated on a basis of 300,- 
000 acres of cut-over land as follows: 

Cost of land, at $5 per acre, $1,500,000; 
interest at 5 per cent on fifty year bonds, 
$3,750,000; cost of maintenance and protec- 
tion from fire for fifty years at cents per 
acre, $900,000 — or a total cost of $6,160,000. 

At. the end of the fifty-year period there 
should be marketable timber of from 8,000 to 
15,000 feet per acre. Estimating at a mini- 
mum value of .$5 per thousand on the stump 
and N.000 feet per acre, the timber value 
would be $12,000,000. At a more reasonable 
estimate of 15,000 feet to the acre it would 
be $22,000,000, leaving a net profit to the 
State of from $5,850,000 to $16,350,000. 

In addition, the State would still own the 
lands, debt free, and the lands themselves, 
having been carefully forested, would still 
have a vigorous second growth under way. 
Incidentally, the State would have had in 
the meantime the proceeds from the sale of 
cordwood, timber produced by scientific thin- 
ning, cattle grazing rights, etc.. which would 
in all probability have been more than suffi- 
cient to pay maintenance charges. 

Of incalculable worth would be the demon- 
stration in practical value of careful forest- 
ing afforded the owners of commercial tracts. 
the prevention of soil erosion, and a popular 
awakening as to what the forests really 
mean. Of more indirect but substantial value 
would be the impetus given to the establish- 
ment of game preserves and State parks for 
purposes of sport and recreation. 

State forests are the uneseapable develop- 
ment of the next few years, and (hose com- 
monwealths which start soonest will have an 
incalculable advantage with the passage of 
time, the progressive scarcity of timber ami 
consequent increase in price. It is remark- 
able that while thousands in North Carolina 
are seeing mirages of phantom oil wells, only 
a few apparently take notice of the fad 
that what might be the permanent forest is 
being treated precisely as if it were a gusher, 
from which the last drop was to be drained 
and marketed at the earliest possible mo- 
ment ! 



[Continued from page li 

ready has achieved much progress in a work 
which the majority of states are only begin- 
ning to contemplate. 

Quite tin- most remarkable feature of the 

conservation work in Louisiana is the per- 
sonality of the man who by rights might be 
called its father. 

Dbeam Wedded to Practice 

Henry E. Ilardtner Is no dreamer or theor- 
ist. He is no inspired poet singing the prais- 
es of Nature and sighing at the destruction 
of beauty incident to the lumbering of a forest . 
lie is not the impractical idealist who sees 
nothing but vandalism in the commercial use 
of timber. Better than all. he advocates noth- 
ing in the way of progressive practice ami 
principles of conservation which he has not 
tested in actual experience as owner of tim- 
ber lands and director of lumbering opera- 

Instead of being a theorist. Mr. Ilardtner 
is one of the very men the short-sighted "lov- 
er of the forest" is so quick to denounce and 
condemn. He is a lumberman — not only by 
trade and profession, but by faith in the pos- 
sibility of both using and caring for the for- 
ests. He lias shown not only that forests 
ought to be intelligently utilized and re- 
stocked, but that these things are consistent 
with sound business. His crusades for laws 
encouraging these reforms had the inestimable 
value of proceeding from one of those whom 
the reforms would immediately affect in 
pocket, but who nevertheless believed in their 
sound value, not only to the commonwealth 
but to the man whose fortune is dependent 
upon the manner in which he handles his 
timber holdings. 

.Mr. Ilortner began the study of the 
forests with which he worked as long 
ago as 1006, before the Government establish- 
ed the Forest Service and a decade ahead of 
the movement among the States to safeguard 
a vanishing natural resource. Practically 
alone, .he began independent investigations, 
studying the ground at first hand, making 
the woods his intimate school of forestry. 
coming to his own deductions independently 
of scientific precedents. 

As theories evolved, he liegnn to preach 
them as the common sense of a practical man. 
which should be applied in government. 

As time went on. the people of his State 
began to listen, and under sympathetic State 
administrations his ideas and theories were 
given substantive form. 

As a result. Louisiana now has many im- 
portant and flourishing areas of cut-over 
lands dedicated to the raising of the forests 
of the future: it has a well-supported and 

efficient system of forest tire prevention; it 
has at work a spirit of education bringing 
into common knowledge an appreciation of 
the public interest in the forests and the 
advantage of a lumbering practice that will 
use without consuming them. 

Hardtneb Princih is 

The Conservation Department which Mr. 
Ilardtuer's enthusiasm did so much to create 
is dealing, of course, with a multiplicity of 
problems. It naturally utilizes the [ncreas 
bag mass of modern knowledge which science 

and experience have all too tardily begun to 

build up against the continuation of the old 
destructive practices. The remarkable cir- 
cumstance is that these developments so close- 

ly parallel tin- deductions of the praci 
timber man on the ground, who discovered a 
few basic truths- physical and economical — 
as to what trees were, what they would do, 
and how- they might be handled. Eel the 
foundations of iis work and the laws it has 
initiated rest on a very few principles which 

Ilardtner. the I nmberma n. Saw to be e8SentiaL 

Briefly, those principles were prevention of 
lire, protection from hogs and cattle as a 
prerequisite to reforestation, and the ne 
slty of making it financially possible for the 

holder of timber lands to hold them for better 

growth and to cut them with an eye to mak- 
ing that Increase a perpetual Incident of bis 

Results in Louisiana have been attained, 
first, by giving timber a 'hance to reproduce 
Itself in spite of the enemies, fire and cattle; 

and. second, by making it possible for the 

owner to secure a part of the profit accruing 
to the stale through young growth. 

This latter important equity Is arrived al 

by a simple method of taxation on land- ad- 
judged to be primarily suited to fort 

whereby it is made to the owner's Interest tO 

see that they have their natural covering. 

Thus, when an owner wishes to take advant- 
age Of the conservation statute, he dedic 
the land to timber, and. so long as he re- 
frains from cutting, for the first thirty years 
pays taxes upon an assessment of only one 

dollar per acre. After that time the land 
is to be again assessed ;it iis true value, 
which will by that time have been enhanced 
many times by the accrued growth of limber. 
the lumberman will have been enabled to 
carry land that otherwise would have been 
worthless, and the State will have gained an 
important asset of great profit in various 

Lumbermen As Conservationist- 

It is the happy experience that when the 
lumbering interests are thus given a chance 
to do something with their timber lands be- 
sides cutting them for the last available 
board foot, they lend themselves wholeheart- 
edly to every reasonable proposal for the crea- 
tion of new forests and the conservative tim- 
bering of those in existence. Important as 
National. State and Municipal forests are t.. 
the future, it is recognized that the bulk of 
timber lands must remain in the hands of 
commercial interests. The special value of 
the Hardtner achievement is thai it shows 
this predominant interest as ready p, cooper- 
ate fully in carrying out what will goon he 
recognized as one of the first and most vital 
policies of government. 

Sportsmanship in Timber 

In person Mr. Ilardtner i- big. jovial, with 
enthusiasm that is contagions, lie would be 
the first to deny anything in the natun 
idealism or poetry, and his methods certain- 
ly have been practically motivated. Never- 
theless he is a type of man whose spirit i- 
one of the most hopeful Signs of the ultimate 
success of timber conservation in the broad- 
est and most useful sense; dealing as he does 
with saw and lumber camp, he brings to his 
I usiness the love of the thing with which he 
works, in tii,. same sense a- the sportsman 
i- perhaps the best friend of the game he 

'Hie forests must be saved, but common 
sense realizes that they must be saved t" 
use. and use in modern life involves cutting. 

Their best hope lie- in the Increase of the 

nil f lumbermen who see a new forest 

springing up in constant recurrence to take 
the place of that which falls before their 





By way of the Charlotte Observer there 
comes a compilation from the Birmingham 
News of a number of now familiar industrial 
necessities which were first discovered or 
utilized in the South. In a long list includ- 
ing the first trans-Atlantic steamship, the 
first locomotive, the first natural ice. the first 
electric street car. etc", etc.. is mentioned 
"the first plant to make illuminating gas." 

Details are lacking to the quoted article, 
but there is North Carolina historical data 
to indicate that the claim is well-founded. 
In the files of the Executive Papers of Gov- 
ernor David S. Reid. now preserved in the 
North Carolina Historical Commission's offices 
in Raleigh, is the following : 

Pioneer American Gas Works 

"Green Point Gas Works, L. I., 

"November IS, 1853. 
■ Dear Sir : 

"The village of Green Point (ad- 
jacent to Williamsburg), will be lighted by 
gas made exclusively from American Coal, 
on Tuesday evening, the 22nd. inst. 

"Those interested in such matters will 
have an opportunity of seeing the retorts 
charged about 5 o'clock. 

"The demonstration is intended to show 
that Gas Companies are no longer depend- 
ent on England for their supplies, the 
North Carolina coal being more bituminous 
and purer than any imported, having a 
greater bulk of coke, and capable of run- 
ning off eight, charges within twenty-four 

"The favor of your attendance on the 
occasion is respectfully requested by 
"Your very ob't serv't, 

"Thos. G. Baxter. 

"N. B. Omnibuses from the Peck Slip 
and Houston Street Ferries start from 
Green Point every five minutes." 

All the circumstantial evidence extant tends 
to show that the coal which put Green Point 
on the map as a pioneer of the municipal 
lamp-post which for a decade of comic paper 
practice did so much to support the disciples 
of good cheer came from the coal mines at 
and adjacent to "Gulf," a part of the same 
t field of varied history about which the first 
really comprehensive geological report finds 
chiefly that its value is in coal suitable for 
fuel for steam purposes, and secondarily for 
domestic use as coke and gas production and 
the by-products incidental to such a quality. 

"History Repeats" 

Natural Resources has pointed out in 
some detail the possibilities of the Deep River 
coal field in the way of a producer for domes- 
tic use of gas and coke, together with the 
natural by-products. It has personal evidence 
of those who remember the war-time utili- 
zation of this fuel, of the high gas content 
of the selected lumps, that would "pop" with 
almost the effect of an explosion in the grate. 
This historical confirmation of scientific con- 
clusion is in the nature of cumulative testi- 

It is to be supposed that the modern Green 
Point boasts a main street sufficiently bright 
with electricity to be known as the local 
"White Way." 

It is more than probable that its domestic 
gas is derived from sources far removed from 
the Deep River field. 

At the same time, it was to Moore County 
that Green Point looked when it had its first 
impulse to become really modern, according 
to the standards of its day. 

Deep River coal is still in existence, mil- 
lions upon millions "of tons under ground, 
ready for the uses to which it is specially 

History — unlike Shakespeare — can be de- 
pended upon to "repeat." 




(Continued from, page 1) 
070 acres, was conveyed by the president and 
directors of the Literary Fund to Thomas C. 
Smith. October 13. 1851, for a consideration 
of .$97. 

On October 8. 1002. James A. Bryan, of 
New Bern, bought from the State Board of 
Education five lakes in Craven and Jones 
counties, covering an area of 6,400 acres, for 
which he paid $8,400. 

On January 14. 1911. the same hoard con- 
veyed Lake Mattanmskeet, in Hyde County, 
to a drainage corporation, which paid for its 
48.830 acres the sum of $99,660. 

Although some of the lakes conveyed, 
especially Great Lake in the Bryan purchase, 
have features which render their loss as pub- 
lic property very unfortunate, there remain 
a number which, while perhaps technically 
the property of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, are protected against the chance of get- 
ting into private hands without due notice. 
It may be safely supposed that, once such a 
purpose were proposed, it would be defeated 
by positive public opinion. The lakes that 
remain, therefore, must be considered per- 
manent State possessions and the manner of 
their use a matter of peculiar interest. 

Natural Lakes System 

The State's fresh water natural lake sys- 
tem may be somewhat arbitrarily divided 
into three groups. Northern. Central, and 

In the Northern group was the great Mat- 
tamuskeet. now drained and its acreage ready 
for agricultural development. In this group, 
also, are to be numbered Alligator, Phelps 
and Pungo. 

In the Southern group are numbered the 
eight bodies of water comprising Lake Wac- 
camaw. in Columbus County, and Black. 
White. Singletary. Little Singletary. Jones'. 
Baker's and Salter's lakes, in Bladen County. 
Suggs' mill-pond, also in Bladen County, looks 
like a natural body of water, although its 
name implies otherwise. 

Great Lake. Lake Ellis, Little. Long and 
Catfish lakes, which comprise the Central 
group, are those which were conveyed to Mr. 
Bryan. Black Lake, in the Southern group, 
was conveyed to John Gray Blount in 1794, 
but reverted to the State in 1800. 

Of all the lakes above mentioned only Lake 
Waccamaw and White Lake have been given 
any development as resorts. Lake Wacca- 
maw. situated on a line of the A. C. L. rail- 
road from Wilmington to Whiteville and 
Chadbourne. has been used for years as a 
summer outing place by the people of the 
section. White Lake, wmich is now a great 
rival of Waccamaw. had to await the develop- 
ment of good roads to come into popular 
favor. It now entertains hundreds who come 
from long distances with little trouble, to 
find excellent fishing, and the beaches of its 
translucent waters are probably the finest 
inland bathing places in the world. Both 
Waccamaw and White Lake have long been 

famous for their white perch and bass fish- 
ing, although they now are somewhat in need 
of restocking, and at Waccamaw the high 
bluffs of the north shore offer ideal sites for 
hotels, cottages and club houses. 

Waters of Mystery 

A marked peculiarity of many of the lakes 
mentioned is their opaqueness, which becomes 
extreme in Black Lake, in which it is im- 
possible to see a white object submerged for 
as much as three inches. This coloration 
gives a' forbidding aspect to the waters and 
lends them a quality of mystery and fear- 
sameness. There is something repellant in 
the sight of waves that break in brown foam, 
and a sense of the eerie in stepping into 
water that, so far as the eye can tell, may 
be three inches or ten feet in depth. Further- 
more, while the original bottom of all these 
lakes is sand, in the black water lakes it is 
usually carpeted with a layer of soft, black 
mud. intermixed with sticks, pine cones and 
other foreign refuse — to say nothing of lurk- 
ing stumps and roots of cypress trees of by- 
gone ages. These lakes, also, contain many 
alligators, some of which attain a length 
of twelve feet ; and while they have earned 
a reputation for harmlessness. they are not 
objects of beauty or pleasant companions, 
when their presence cannot be detected by 
sight but only surmised. 

As if to intensify the gloom of these black 
waters, doubtless of peat stain origin, the 
water of White Lake is of absolute trans- 
parency, showing the glistening sand of the 
bottom as though plate glass, and with beach- 
es shelving off into the depths through hun- 
dreds of feet of almost imperceptible gra- 

Other lakes worthy of mention are Cath- 
erine, an isolated body of water in Onslow 
County, Silver Lake and Big Pond, in New 
Hanover, while Brunswick County contains 
a number of 'woods ponds." some of which 
might almost carry the name "lake." The 
largest of these, "Pretty Pond." a few miles 
from Southport, is perhaps the best known. 
There remain, of course, the famous "fresh 
water ponds" on the beach near Nag's Head, 
the largest of which is something less than 
half a mile by one mile in dimensions. These 
ponds, the source of which is something of 
a controversy, are famous as fishing grounds. 

All the lakes mentioned are, have been, or 
can be made into excellent bass and perch 
fishings, and without exception they are 
located in regions where game is plentiful. 
The country surrounding them contains many 
deer and wild turkey, besides an abundance 
of small game. On Great Lake a feature is 
the colony of cormorants which has nested 
there for years, and on White Lake a single 
pair of eagles has maintained a nest for 
more than a generation — though what be- 
comes of the young is unknown. 

The growing success of White Lake and 
Waccamaw as resort localities makes it cer- 
tain that a number of the lakes above men- 
tioned can be developed in the course of 
time, as they become more accessible. It is 
a fortunate circumstance that to most of 
them the State can readily get title when- 
ever it is desired, since they cannot now be 
alienated by the Education Board. They 
await the time when they shall be utilized 
as important parts of the system of parks, 
State forests and game preserves which must 
be developed in each section of the State in 
order to preserve natural resources and bene- 
fits and meet the increasing popular demand 
for room to enjoy in sport and pleasure the 
things which in the design of Nature were 
for the common possession. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Curolina Geological and Lconomic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 9 




in a party making the descenl from Mounl 
.Mitchell were two Government experts in 
forestry, one of them a specialist in plant 

diseases who lias had experience in every 
part of the United States and in much of 
South America and the Orient. The season 
and day were peculiarly favorable. As the 
sun struck the dense foliage of alternate 
peak and valley the contrasts of color were 
drawn as in a Living pattern, and of particu- 
lar loveliness were those great sections of 
forest tops of a green blurring to a misty 
shade (hat showed almost white. This was 
the chestnut, its soft coloration derived from 
the bloom id' its (lowers. 

I!ut the experts viewed the scene not so 
much with an eye delighted with its beauty 
as cold with prophecy. <>ne of them waved 
a hand toward a towering hill across which 
the shadow of a cloud was racing, producing 
effects almost like those of a spot-light as 
it traveled the ridge. 

"All that," said the plant disease specialist, 
"will look mighty sick in a year or so-!" and 
his fellow expert grunted a matter-of-fact 

( >n the side of the roai 

again in the borders of 
around the peak, the 
and examined a few 

to Mitchell, and 
the State Park 
specialist had found 
withered leaves and 

a handful of hark on which he had detected 
clusters of fungus blisters that caused his 
experienced eye to vision not the softly 
glowing greenery before it hut a slope of 
stricken trees, in the tatters of their foliage, 
girdled and doomed to destruction! 

They had found the chestnut blight. To 
them the chestnut forest, stout, brave and 
prolific as it was. was fore-doomed. Upon 
it was the leprous spot ! 

Tin-: Hopeless View 

This hopeless view is the all too general 
attitude of experts with respect to a disease 
that within twenty years has practically 
destroyed all the chestnut trees throughout 
the whole of the New England States and 
in the North Atlantic States as far as the 
Potomac River, it has found widespread 
lodgment in Virginia and is moving steadily 
south. Its threat is the more dangerous both 
because the tree it attacks is one of the 
most valuable of the forest and the species 
whose characteristics of relatively rapid 
growth and varied uses make it specially 
desirable in the inevitable era when the 
greatest economic problem of the country is 
to be the regrowth of timber on devastated 
and cut-over lands. Since the chestnut blight 
(supposed to have been imported from China 
on stock used for the production of nursery 
hybrids) attracted particular attention in 
1904. it has spread with remarkable rapidity 
and delied not only all efforts at its control. 
but even positive and definite identification. 
Made up of tiny fungus threads which multi- 
ply in masses, the disease produces a sticky 

(Continued on page 2 I 










$ 3,238,249 

Est. 215,000 

(In 26,871 




1 , 000 







$ 3,869,981 



a :i 

Brick and 1 Lie 

Clay (kaolin and pottery) . 

( 'oal 

$ 2.275.27:; Est. $2 22 

188,862 214,692 
1 in 628 


Feldspar (c) 






( lianite 

1 .1 17 
1,968 912 



I ,700 
l ,820,818 

1 . s.57 


51 ,851 
30. 196 

I 939 
2,325 940 


Est. 19 115 

Marble—. }■... 
Marl J 
Mica (sheet). . 


119 " : 


65 - 



lb, 990 


li 1.575 
409.. 7. H 



74.:! Id 

:; sir 





Mineral Waters, 



Precious Stones . 



24 . 735 

Sand and Gravel 

Sandstone (quart zite) 

1 ,350,233 

Esl 634,434 


17. (Ms 

Talc and Soapstone 


.' • 049 
L5 800 

Total . 

$ 6,438.707 

$ 8,150.753 

$ 6.468.849 

S 6.70i 

(a) — Included under miscellaneous. 
Est,— Estimated. 

(x) — Not yet reported. 

(1>) — Small production, due to development work, putting in air shaft. 

(c) — All feldspar represented as crude. 
* — The production figures given in the above tables an- gathered by cooperation with 
the producers and represent the values flic different producers reported. Many of the pro- 
ducts as mica and feldspar have their value greatly increased by being cul or ground before 
leaving; the State. The value of these minerals to t ho State is often a great deal more than 
their original value to the miners. 



Even in cases where a long history of 
operation by steam and costly construction 
based on that system prevail an increasing 
number of railroads are now engaged in ex- 
tensive electrification of their lines, especi- 
ally where traffic is congested and grades 
are heavy. 

Results in all such developments show an 
economic gain that practically doubles ton- 
nage while permitting a reduction of locomo- 
tives, in some cases cutting in half the num- 
ber formerly required to move the smaller 

Especially is this saving and Increase in 
t Continued on i»i<i<- 2. i 


A preliminary report of minerals and 
mineral products produced in North Caro- 
lina for the four year period 1919-1922. in- 
clusive, data for which is now in course i f 
preparation for publication by the \. <'. 
Geological and Economic Survey, reflects the 
most profitable period the State has ever 
known in these line- 
Totals in value of the 26 minerals and 
products dealt with rose from $6.43S.707 in 
1919 to $8,150,753 in 1920, fell in sympathy 
with the general business depression to 
$6,468,849 in 1921, hut recovered to a total of 
$6,701,995 in 1922, with the early month- of 
(Continui <J <n\ page •'! I 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free 
on application. 

Newspapers are invited, to make use o£ contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


In the cotton-growing sections of North 
Carolina farmers are at last thoroughly 
aroused over the arrival of the boll- 
weevil, whose invasion by slow stages 
from the Mexican border they have been 
watching for more than fifteen years. 

Energetic action by protective zones, 
quarantines, etc., might have stopped 
short the progress of this enemy of the 
South's greatest staple, or at least delayed 
it pending the development of means and 
methods for its extinction. As it is, the 
resources of science, the determination 
of agriculture and industry not to be 
whipped by a mere "bug," are being 
brought energetically into play with good 
prospect of success. As when a virile 
people are overtaken by a war for which 
they neglected to prepare, the battle will 
bring unnecessarily high casualties and 
expense — but it will be won in the end. 

A calamity similar to that threatening 
the cotton fields of the East is now in 
course of preparation for the chestnut 
forests of the West, through the advance 
guards of the "blight" that for more 
than ten years has been working its way 
south, while the weevil traveled north. 

In this case, also, there is a section of 
pessimistic opinion inclined to declare 
that "nothing can be done." It is true 
that one great conference in Pennsylvania 
was followed by failure and the expendi- 
ture of many thousands of dollars with- 
out appreciable gain. But it were even 
more pusillanimous to "lie down" before 
the chestnut blight than to surrender the 
cotton fields and their allied industry to 
the boll-weevil. Man were a worm, could 
he be beaten by a bug! 

The chestnut blight — said to have been 
imported from the Orient — has now made 
its appearance sporadically in several lo- 
calities in Western North Carolina. The 
time for action admittedly grows short, 
but the sight of the forest slopes with 
the lighter green of the chestnut showing 
the extent of this valuable wood empha- 
sizes the necessity of working both fast 
and vigorously. Cotton is a crop that 
grows annually. It may be a total loss 
one year and a brilliant success the next. 
The chestnut tree crop must be figured, 
not in years but in decades. Compared 
with the injury done by the chestnut 
blight the harm worked by the boll-weevil 
is temporary. 

The chestnut forests of the State are 

face to face with an implacable enemy. 
On them is dependent the success of sev- 
eral great industries, to say nothing of 
the continuance of one of the most beauti- 
ful and essential forest coverings. What 
are the great interests whose prosperity 
depends on the chestnut going to do about 
it ? What is the State, to whose moun- 
tains it gives a glory and to whose streams 
it affords necessary protection, going to 
do about it ? 

Will the chestnut blight be met "stand- 
ing up" or "lying down ?" 

Is the versatility of highly organized 
men capable of no effective answer to the 
challenge of a fungus? 


{Continued, from page 1) 
spore which is spread on the feet and bills 
of birds, is blown by the wind, carried by 
insects, and is therefore a baffling enemy 
with which to deal. The one effort of any 
moment seems to have been the conference 
called by the State of Pennsylvania in 1912, 
which was supported by liberal appropria- 
tions for investigation and cutting out of 
infected areas, but produced nothing material 
beyond a sharp difference in scientific opin- 
ion. Since then it has come to pass that 
only the slopes west of the Blue Ridge are 
yet unaffected, and unless something be done, 
their time is very near. In North Carolina 
infection was noted as early as 1919 and 
since then has been reported in Wilkes, 
Surry, Stokes, Yadkin, Yancey, the Pisgah 
National Forest, and several other localities. 
There is some small comfort in the fact that 
when the tree is killed by the blight the 
timber is not injured for use for tanning 
extract, as it remains sound for many years : 
but with the passing of the chestnut, the 
tanning industry would be deprived of its 
chief source of supply. 

Chestnut's Varied Uses 

Of all good forest trees the chestnut has 
the most rapid growth. While the white- 
oak acorn is making a baseball bat, the chest- 
nut grows a cross-tie. Cut down its shoots 
go up six feet the first year and keep on 
growing. Its wood is utilized in many ways. 
It is the standard telegraph and telephone 
pole, makes a good tie or mine prop, has 
wide use as lumber and as interior finish. 
In addition, it is full of tannin, so that any 
chip. top. slab or waste is useful in industry 
to the last scrap, and when the tannin is 
extracted the pulp goes into paper-making. 
Apart from the value of the wood, the fruit 
has exceptional qualities as a food for both 
man and animals. In short, there is no 
forest tree so generally useful, so abundant, 
so quickly reproduced. It is this species, 
seemingly devised by Nature to help in the 
approaching crisis of a timber famine, in 
respect to which the scientific regard is one 
of farewell instead of rescue ! 

Place for a Fight 

As long ago as the Pennsylvania conference 
the value of the chestnut species was placed 
at above three hundred million dollars. 
Since then its use for tannic acid and as 
wood pulp has been greatly developed and 
the supply of other timber greatly decreased, 
so that what remains probably i& far in 
excess of that sum in value. Of what is 
left the forests of the Southern Appalach- 

ians, and particularly of North Carolina, 
contain the most abundant supply. Although 
there has yet been found no effective means 
of stopping the spread of the blight, curing 
the infection or producing immunity against 
it, its presence and progress must be recog- 
nized as the equivalent of the greatest of 
all forest fires. Certainly such a menace is 
not a thing to be viewed with quiescent 
Eastern fatalism, especially since other 
blights and plant diseases that looked as 
unconquerable have been met and defeated. 
The most malignant of these plagues calls 
for a fight and not a capitulation. 

Geological Board's Action 

At the recent meeting of the North Caro- 
lina Geoligical Board at Asheville. July 25- 
26, it was resolved that : 

Whereas the chestnut blight has appeared 
in North Carolina and unless checked will 
ultimately destroy this tree ivhich is so valu- 
able in the industrial life of the State; and 
whereas the destruction of this valuable tree 
will further result in the denuding of our 
forests, the preservation of which is so es- 
sential for so many purposes and particularly 
in the regulation of stream flow; now, there- 
fore, resolved that the Directoi- of the Geo- 
logical and Economic Survey be reduced to 
confer with the appropriate officials of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture with a view 
to securing cooperation in the investigation 
and retarding and final obliteration of chest- 
nut blight by means of appropriate publicity 
of aU the facts connected therewith. 

That the Director be further authorized 
to cooperate with any other public or private 
agencies engaged in simiar work. 


(Continued from page 1) 
efficiency shown on these roads which are 
required to operate heavy trains over steep 
mountain grades, as occurs with the coalers, 
one of the most striking illustrations being 
the shift from steam to electricity by the 
Norfolk & Western on the Pocahontas Divis- 
ion, west and east of Bluefield. 

On this division coal cars arrive at Bluer 
field empty and are taken to the mines to 
the west through the Elkhorn tunnel, and 
prior to electrification were then loaded and 
taken back over a preliminary heavy grade 
by two Mallet locomotives and a pusher to 
the mouth of the tunnel, at a speed of seven 
miles per hour. In 1914 there were assigned 
to this duty 24 Mallet engines, which took 
an average of 25 hours for the round trip. 
Since electrification seven electric locomo- 
tives do a far greater volume of work than 
the 24 steam engines of the most powerful 
type, making an increase in speed for the 
trip from seven to fourteen miles per hour 
and showing an average of 100 miles per 
day for the electric as contrasted with 60 
per day for the steam locomotives. Extracts 
from records of the train sheets of the 
Norfolk & Western for the years 1914 and 
1916 show: 

The total number of loaded cars handled 
eastbound during the year 1914, under steam 
operation, amounted to 132,618. The total 
loaded cars handled for the year 1916, under 
electric operation, amounted to 165,689, an 
increase of 33,071, or 25 per cent for the 
gross eastbound traffic over that handled in 

To handle the business with steam loco- 
motives during the year 1914 required a total 
of 93.625 engine hours. To handle traffic 
25 per cent greater with electric locomotives 
(Continued on page 4) 




The vitality of a phrase never survived 
more strikingly the accuracy of its descrip- 
tion than the "Tar, pitch and turpentine - ' 
by which the geographies of the preceding 
generation undertook to catalogue the prin- 
cipal resource and industry of North Caro- 

Probably there are thousands living in the 
State who are still impressed by this early 
teaching. They have never seen a turpentine 
Still. They are unfamiliar with the appear- 
ance of a blazed forest with its crude cups to 
catch for a few years the dripping life-blood 
of a maimed tree. They are ignorant of 
the products going into "naval stores." They 
have no memories of railroad platforms and 
wharves piled high with casks of tar and 
barrels of resin. Yet they imagine that 
"Tar, pitch and turpentine" still holds good 
in some mysterious manner as a description 
of what North Carolina is doing. 

( )f course. North Carolina should be still 
producing naval stores in quantity. As a 
matter of fact, the industry has long since 
sunk to minor proportions, its center shifting 
ever southward, to South Carolina, to 
Georgia, Louisiana, Florida. "Naval stores" 
are still esteemed a necessity in industry, 
but their production is on the road to ex- 
tinction in what is their natural territory. 

Ultimately North Carolina lands which 
gave the State its early soubriquet must be 
redeemed to this natural and important use. 
The longleaf pine forests of the past, which 
now stand in the shape of whitened stumps, 
must be replaced by new growths which will 
be marketed for their products in a reasona- 
ble manner. Killing a pine that produces 
turpentine is somewhat akin to butchering 
a cow after an initial milking. The growing 
demand for "naval stores," ever more and 
more extensively used in industry and the 
arts, issues an imperative economic order; 
meeting it is an additional but highly im- 
portant and far-reaching reason for State 
policy to concern itself immediately with 
conserving timber and reforesting cut-over 

CUTTING Down Cities 

How vital the scarcity of naval stores be- 
comes in practice has recently been poig- 
nantly illustrated in the experience of two 
highly important Southern cities. 

Both Savannah and Charleston became 
ports largely because of the apparently 
steady influx of naval store cargoes. Both, 
in the stimulus of war conditions, engaged 
rosy hopes as to their commerce with too 
little consideration of the supplies on which 
it was based. lint when the war was over, 
it was discovered that the naval stores were 
not forthcoming. The ships that had sailed 
laden with the products of the forests had in 
reality carried with them the forests them- 
selves, whose ruthlessly sacrificed life prin- 
ciple entered into the casks' with which they 
were tilled. As a result, these cities are 
going through an economic crisis that gives 
promise of being hopeless for years, or until 
a trade destroyed by folly can be revived by 
patient planning and intelligent treatment. 
In Savannah the failure of seven banks 
which all but prostrated the city might be 
traced directly to the collapse of this in- 
dustry, inherited from the slaughter of the 
longleaf pine in North Carolina and yet 
subjected in Georgia to the same cormorant- 
like greed which made it the successor to 
the Tar Heel State's devoured wealth. 
(Continued on page 4.) 




(Continued from page 1) 
the present year showing a steadily main- 
tained upward trend in the industry. 

The figures given have been gathered by 
I he Survey through cooperation with the 
producers and the r. s. Geological Survey 
and represent, only values reported. Many 
of these products, such as mica and feld- 
spar, have a greatly increased value when 
cut or ground before being exported and thus 
have a far greater value to the State than 
they originally have to the miner. 

The bulk of the State's mineral produc- 
tion and products for the period in question 
has been in the field of nonmetallics. Of 
these there is rather a wide range, a total 
number of fifteen having been produced un- 
brokenly through the four years and six 
others during two or more years of the 
period. The most important have been clay 
as brick and tile; kaolin; feldspar; granite: 
limestone; mica; sand and gravel, while 
coal, marble and peat have been produced 
in increasing amounts. 

Clay and clay products continue to take 
leading rank in industrial minerals. Com- 
mon brick and tile passed the $3,000,000 mark 
in value in 191!) and more than doubled 
their 1018 value. In 1920 their value reach- 
ed $3,809,918, a new high level for the State, 
but in 1921 fell off over a million dollars. 
Kaolin and pottery clay have maintained 
important place. In 1921 the falling off was 
less marked than in other minerals, and 
the 1922 production came back to the aver- 
age since 1918. Pottery showed a marked 
increase in 1919, reaching a record of $17,- 
240 in value. There has been shown a de- 
crease in 1920 and 1921. and 1922 figures are 
not yet available. 

Coal, produced in 1918, for the first time 
in several years, has become of much interest 
and promises a large development. Produc- 
tion in 1922 reached nearly $400,000. The 
Deep River Field is the source, the survey 
of which, the total estimate of 07,000,000 
tons and the uses to which the product is 
suitable bavins been heretofore summarized 
in Natural Resources. 

North Carolina remains the leading State 
in the production of feldspar, 1922 showing 
a new record. In value it has ranked second 
and third because the product was sold in 
the crude state. This drawback, it is hoped, 
will be overcome by the erection of a mill 
for grinding feldspar near Micaville. The 
mill is electrically operated. Waste around 
the mines and quarries is also to be utilized 
for crushed stone. The State continued as 
the leader in the production of mica in 
1919 and 1920, but there was a severe slump 
in 1921. The 1922 production, however, has 
more than doubled that of the preceding 
year in value. 

Sand and gravel have increased rapidly 
in value reports covering only amounts 
shipped and not including these used by 
road builders and contractors, of which there 
is no way of obtaining a record. 

Among North Carolina metallic minerals 
iron is the leader. The close of the World 
War produced a great slump in production, 
that of 1919 being only one-third of 1918. 
There was an increase 1 in 1920. but the next 
year production had almost entirely ceased. 
There was. however, improvement in 1922. 
markedly in the latter part of the year and 
in the early months of the present year. 



Fish ponds for the farm as a means •■( 
enhancing the value and desirability of the 
land and producing a revenue a- regular 
as a good-paying crop have not bad the at 
tention thai should have been given them 
by North Carolina owners, whose holdings 
in every Section of the State are in a high 

percentage of instances specially adaptable 
to their establishment. 

Almost any stream, creek or branch, if 
properly handled, will lend itself to the con- 
struction of a pond which might he main- 
tained in a healthful manner and serve 
lor sport, pleasure, and profit. Care will 
have to be taken, however, in the construc- 
tion of the dam and in the selection of tisb 
species which will thrive naturally in the 

conditions provided and recommend them- 
selves for their qualities as game and food. 
When such a pond is properly constructed. 

stocked and cared for. it is a matter of a 
short while before it becomes a bountiful 

In order to encourage small ponds of this 
character, the North Carolina Geological 
Survey stands ready to assist prospective 
owners in several material particulars. It 
will furnnish general expert engineering ad- 
vice and, in case an inspection is desired, 
one of its staff will visit the site and advise 
as to the size and type of dam the condition- 
indicate, with no charge beyond actual ex- 
penses. When the pond is prepared, applica- 
tion to the Survey biologist will secure ad- 
vice as to the proper plant foods, etc.. neces- 
sary for the feed of the fish population, 
Finally, on* application to the Director, the 
pond owner may have advice as to the 
species most suitable for his venture and 
the assistance of the Survey in securing 
requisitions of the needed stock of young 

W. E. Merritt, of Mt. Airy. Surry County, 
now has in course of construction a dam 
over 22 feet in height, which is to create a 
pond covering over ten acres, to lie devoted 
to fishing and boating. The pond will be 
stocked with bass and top-minnows to keep 
down mosquitoes. It is being built accord- 
ing to plans ami specifications furnished 
through the Survey. 

owing to strong demand anil good prices for 

steel. The magnetite mines at Cranberry 
began operations again in the fall of 1922. 
and in the brown ore district of Cherokee 
Several old mines are being reopened and put 
in working condition. 

Production of copper, totalling 3,334 pounds 
in 1919. has ceased entirely. Cold and silver 
have been produced in neglible quantities 
and some few precious gems. None of the 
other metallic minerals has been produced 
since 191& 

Minerals produced each year of the four 
year period were barytes. brick and tile, 
pottery clay and kaolin, coal, feldspar, gold, 
granite, iron, limestone, marl. mica, mill- 
stones, mineral waters, peat, pottery, sand 
and gravel, silver, and talc and soapstone. 

Asbestos, copper, garnet, marble, precious 

stones, quarts and sandstone (quartette) 

were produced part of the time. 

A number of minerals produced in 1918 
owing to the extraordinary war demand 
were not produced in 1919. Most important 
of these were manganese, corundum and 
emery and chromite. 



According to the psychologist, it is only 
man who has the power of reason and the 
ability to proceed from cause to effect and 
so adjust his actions with his mind. When 
it comes to animals this specialist in mental 
processes applies a different rule and traces 
to other causes the apparent ability of birds 
and animals to simulate human process 
in their habits. Sportsmen — especially the 
increasing number whose only weapon is a 
camera — have reason, however, to back ex- 
perience against theory with a condescending 

Always, with the wild thing, the problem 
of conduct is based on the two-fold con- 
sideration of food and existence. The one 
must be had at the risk of the other. Its 
habit is based on reducing the risk, and it is 
in accordance with its ability in doing so 
that the intelligence or — as the psychologist 
would have it — the degree of perfection of 
instinct is based. The phenomenon of what 
at least has the appearance of brain and 
reasoning ability in wild life consists in the 
manner in which instincts, so-called, are 
modified or perfected to meet living condi- 

Waterfowl "Night- Workers" 

Take the habits of waterfowl, which once 
swarmed in all streams, ponds' and lakes, 
particularly those of the East. They still 
inhabit the lakes, the ponds, the rivers, but 
they are night visitors. After dark, the 
vicinity of these waters resounds with the 
noise of feeding fowl : in the day. not a 
duck, a goose, or other waterfowl of game 
species is to be seen upon them ! Instead, 
the birds that have been feeding all night 
are sleeping off the day far out in open 
waters of sound or ocean. They have learn- 
ed that to contend with gun and blind and 
decoy, they need to be night workers, if 
they would both eat and live. As a result, 
they have completely reversed the rule with 
which they were endowed by instinct. 
Formerly they woke with the first streak of 
light, fed during the day, went to roost when 
the shadows lengthened, and slept until an- 
other dawn. Now they float drowsing in 
the open, guarded by their lookouts, and 
only when it is too dark for the gunner to 
see do they venture into the marshes and 
fields in search of food. It is a reasonable 
fancy to imagine a future breed of water- 
fowl that is owl-like in its keenness of 
vision at night and sluggish and half-blind 
by day. 

Know Their Safety Zones 

Even more remarkable is the ability of 
both birds and animals that live in protected 
areas to understand the safety zone in which 
they are protected and its limits. Within 
the sanctuary, deer, bear, all species of pro- 
tected game birds, apparently forget in a 
carefree assurance the very fundamentals 
of self-protection with which their instincts 
provide them. They are tame to the point 
of indifference. To kill them under the 
circumstances would be nothing short of 
murder. Seeing them so, one thinks with 
pity of what might happen to them once 

they strayed into unprotected territory. 

But the pity is apt to be somewhat over- 
done. For when, for the sake of variety, 
the denizen of a game sanctuary ventures 
outside of bounds, "instinct." or whatever 
its special endowment may be. reasserts 
itself full strength. The deer that was so 
approachable becomes a vague shadow. The 
bear that shuffled out of the path gives 
no sign of its presence beside the spoor it 
leaves, the place of its bed or feeding, or 
the mark of its claws on tree trunks. The 
birds, which in the preserves offered them- 
selves as tempting targets, have become in 
the new territory game it takes all possible 
skill to hope to bring down. 

Adaptation of Habit 

One of the more skillful of the camera 
hunters gives interesting details of the 
familiar "garbage dump bears" of the Yel- 
lowstone Park. These lumbering beasts 
have learned thoroughly that around camps 
and dwellings they have a special license. 
They nose and grunt openly among the 
kitchen scraps. They are even known to 
paw open a door like a dog and invade 
dwellings. But once off the trail and in the 
brush, the animal that appears to the tourist 
as tame and as stupid as a pig becomes in 
an instant an example of all the wile, cun- 
ning and caution with which be has been 
endowed' by Nature through generations. 

To obtain camera studies this hunter with 
the lense lay out at night near trails it was 
known the bear followed in the woods. From 
the camera was stretched wire of a fine 
strand, at night utterly invisible, which the 
bear was expected to break, thus producing a 
flash-light exposure. Yet time and time 
again the garbage dump bear would know 
the presence of the wire by some sixth sense, 
halt, reconnoitre and often make a wide 
detour to avoid an obstruction he could 
neither see nor smell ! Near the camp, in- 
stinct slept at the command of reason : in 
old conditions instinct — or reason announc- 
ing different circumstances — asserted its 

Deer Numerous in East 

In Eastern North Carolina, where their 
range is in cut-over lands thick with scrub, 
or in difficult swamps, deer are multiplying 
rapidly, notwithstanding the fact that they 
are hunted with dogs. Hunting with dogs, 
by the way, is the only method by which it 
could be hoped to obtain a single deer in 
such country. When the hunt starts the 
party station themselves at stands chosen 
for the likelihood of intercepting the course 
of the quarry in flight. But though they 
are selected with knowledge of the general 
direction the game will take, it frequently 
happens that with a dozen deer started by 
the dogs in the course of the day, not one 
will be glimpsed by the occupants of the 
stands. Hunting with dogs in the mountains 
where the course of the deer is more directly 
marked by a few narrow alternative runs, 
a few dogs and good shots could and would 
mean their quick extermination. There, the 
only reasonable method is the still hunt, 
which in the thick growth of the East is 

But in either section the rule obtains that 
deer and game of all sorts realize the limits 
of territory in which they are protected 
and show the fact by the difference in their 
conduct inside and out. It is not yet evident, 
but not too much to contemplate when game 
laws have a longer history and are better 
obeyed, that the wild things of the woods 
will add a conception of time as well as of 
topography to their protective practice. 


(Continued from page 2.) 
in 1916 required a total of only 44,112 engine 
hours, or a reduction of 49,513 engine hours, 
or 48 per cent, from those required under 
steam for a much smaller volume of traffic 

The total ton miles, east bound, during 
1914 amounted to 457,163,921 as against a 
total of 592,597.018 for the year 1916 under 
electricity, an increase of 133.433.097 ton 
miles, or approimately 30 per cent, over the 
gross eastbound business for the last year 
under steam operation. 

In the last few years Norfolk & Western 
has considerably extended the electrification 
of its lines in the peculiar coal districts, 
and improvements of the same sort are now 
contemplated by the Virginian road, which 
also has a coal terminal at Norfolk. In the 
case of the transcontinental lines electrifi- 
cation of mountain divisions is the order 
of the day for economic operation, Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul having completely elec- 
trified its Rocky Mountain division for a 
distance of 440 miles. Of course, it is long 
practice with all the greater railroads to 
electrify their terminals in large cities, par- 
ticularly New York. 

The economies of capacity for greater haul 
with less equipment, fewer engines and crew 
hours, etc., have proved themselves fully on 
lines where it was necessary to scrap in large 
measure the complicated and expensive equip- 
ment already in place for steam operation. 

When new lines are to be built, especially 
in mountain country, the argument for elec- 
trification is of course much stronger, since 
the equipment would in such case be a first 

On the proposed Lost Provinces lines many 
of the engineering difficulties will be en- 
countered in the case of steep mountain 
grades that- caused the electrification of the 
coal roads. As another consideration these 
proposed lines will be built in sections where 
there are abundant waterpowers waiting for 
development, which would greatly simplify 
the question of the source of power. 

Electrification in part of the Lost Provinces 
roads will bear much study from the point 
of view of strict business methods in opera- 

From the point of view of rendering 
pleasant the journey through the mountains 
a fast and powerful train, without smoke 
or cinders, is another strong and appealing 



(Continued from page 3.) 
Question of Ports 

Water traffic, ports, terminals are press- 
ing matters in North Carolina. A commis- 
sion is engaged in intensive consideration 
of their needs in the creation of a coastwise 
and foreign commerce. But such a trade 
will depend for its success largely upon the 
cargoes awaiting the ships at their ports of 
call. They can ill afford to come loaded and 
return empty. Formerly there awaited them 
a steady traffic of naval stores. Now these 
cargoes are lost. 

It is a long task for an impatient age to 
contemplate — that of replacing through slow 
processes of forest rehabilitation what a 
generation of wasteful methods destroyed — 
but it is one that must be accomplished if 
the ports, to say nothing of the forests them- 
selves, are to have a future consistent with 
their natural possibilities. 



A Bi- Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 10 




Two decades of development <>i' hydro-elec- 
tric power have converted industry in general 
to the belief thai, whenever obtainable, it is 
essential i<> economic operation, in every 

industrial State the problem new is to get 
such power in sufficient quantity, so that 
every increase is engaged in advance by an 
eager market. 

At this moment the American farm is in 
the sauie position respecting the use of 
electricity in which industry found itself 
twenty years ago. The principle is admitted, 
hut the information and details of its appli- 
cation to the business are very largely lack- 
ing. Bui if hydro-electric power is the 
answer to the economic needs of industry 
in general, it applies to the farm with equal 
force. .lust as the manufacturer worked 
out a system to meet the necessities of his 
ease, so agriculture will have to adapt itself 
to the utilization of electric power brought 
to the farm. 

As in so many other things, the farms 
of the country use more power than any 
other industry, indeed than many of them 

Approximately 6,500,000 farms require the 
use or the equivalent of the power of four 

Here is a potential use for 2U.000.OO0 horse- 
power in the beginning, and when there is 
added the combined energy of internal com- 
bustion engines, windmills, steam engines, 
etc., etc., the use of power in agriculture 
may be recognized for the tremendous thing 
it is. 

At the same time, industrial history shows 
that whatever the immense total of power 
now applied, it is hut a fraction of that 
which could be employed did the farms have 
advantages analogous to the use of central 
station electric power available in manufac- 
ture, lighting and transportation enterprises. 

Conditions now facing agriculture as the 
greatest industry are demanding application 
of modern power to the farm even more 
imperatively than like economic drawbacks 
forced industry to seek electricity as a 
solution of its problems. Advances in costs, 
scarcity of labor, the yet unrerarded drift 
of farm population to the city, make il 
axiomatic that the farm must become in time 
a plant as dependent on electric power as 
the factory. 

At present the movement is in its infancy, 
the U. S. Census of 1920 showing that of 
6,448,348 farms only 462,620, or approx- 
imately 7% had either gas or electric service 
of any kind, and of this only a small pro- 
portion was supplied by a central service 
station. Even in those cases where electricity 
has been brought to the farm, its use has 
practically been limited to light to replace the 
kerosene lamp and the old-fashioned farm 

(Continued on page ") 



Every prospect is that the coming' winter will see a renewal of high 
prices for coal, rendered inevitable by retarded production in the anthra- 
cite and consequent increased demand at heavy transportation cha - 
in the bituminous fields. 

To meet the vital human and industrial need for abundant and cheap 
fuel, the recourse is better utilization of the commodity, rather than an 
increase in its quality. 

To this end the reopened Deep River Coal Field is capable of a devel- 
opment of inestimable importance. It is true that as it comes from the 
mine Deep River coal breaks down easily, has few lumps and contains 
a very high percentage of gas and other bituminous elements tending 
to unfit it for domestic use. But it is this very quality that, scientifi- 
cally exploited, peculiarly fits the Deep River Field for meeting the 
demand for fuel for both heat and power, so far as North Carolina is 

Used alone, the Deep River coal gives minimum combustion, and 
so loses in soot, gases, and escaping by-products a large proportion of 
its value. Owing to its character salvage of these properties is essential 
to its true effectiveness, either to mine or consumer. 

But if coked, Deep River coal promises a remarkable yield capable 
of producing large returns and providing a cheap and efficient fuel 
supply for both industrial and domestic uses. Among the by-products 
obtainable in connection with such a process are a high gas coir 
suitable for steam for generating electricity, amonium sulphate amount- 
ing to 23 pounds and dehydrated tar to the amount of 22 gallons per 
ton. These are in addition to the coke residue, which could be crushed 
and — when combined with sufficient bituminous matter as a binder — 
made into briquettes that for heating would serve as a clean, slow-burning 
and economic domestic fuel. 

"Whatever the outcome of particular controversies in the coal fields, 
the day of cheap coal is as definitely passed as that of cheap lumber. 
From now on every day's delay in fitting the Deep River Field to 
realize its possibilities is so much irredeemable his-. 



During the last two months New England 
capitalists and mill owners have been sig- 
nificantly active in negotiating the purchase 
of cotton mills in the South. Their campaign 
to secure these Southern plants by purchase 
followed closely on the public admission last 
spring that labor and other conditions in the 
great textile regions of Massachusetts and 
other New England States made it clear 
that the industry could survive only when 
centered in the more hospitable and advan- 
tageous South. They probably calculated 
thai, a change of location being necessary. 

( ( 'unt in ucil mi page •'!. i 



Following the resolution of the North 

Carolina Geological Board < cerning the 

chestnut blight, printed in the August 25 
issue of Natural Resources, the Director of 

the Survey has discussed with Colonel 

Greeley of the United states Forest Service 
ami the c. s. Secretary "( Agriculture an 
investigation on a new line that may prove 
of value in protecting the chestnut forests 

of the Southern Appalachian region. 

This new hypothesis was suggested by 

the Investigation of the chemistry of the 

chestnut tree by C. C. Smoot III. who in the 

l Cniiliiiu, ,1 i,u i„ii/i 2.) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, free 
on application. 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Natural Resources recently had occo- 
sion to refer to the Louisiana Department 
of Conservation, which came into being 
largely as the result of the vision of 
one practical lumberman who preached 
the necessity of preserving the forests 
and, to that end, of laws which would 
enable owners of commercial timber to 
farm instead of destroying their holdings. 

In the Conservation News, the publica- 
tion of the Department, is described the 
summer school of forestry it conducts, 
including a six-weeks session open to 
high school graduates, university students 
and other qualified persons, and a three- 
Aveeks course for the special technical in- 
struction of forest rangers. The camp and 
school are located on a magnificent forest 
reserve of a commercial lumber company, 
described as the largest reforestation 
project in the South. The school itself 
is under the direction of the superintend- 
ent of the Department and a professor 
of the Department of Forestry of Louisi- 
ana State University. 

North Carolina, with a total area of 
19,000,000 acres in timber of all kinds, 
is one of fifteen States still producing 
lumber in quantity sufficient for export. 
That means that we are among the for- 
tunate few warned before it is entirely 
too late to avoid the final waste of the 
greatest natural resource except the land 
itself, and without which the land will 
in time lose the greater part of its use- 

Yet nowhere in our educational system 
do Ave provide for even elementary study 
of forestry. 

And our laws may be searched in vain 
for a single one of several recognized 
methods making it possible for the owner 
of timber lands to recognize their double 
quality of public trust and private 

Instead of a School of Forestry North 
Carolina's neglect of her timber resources 
is a School for Scandal. 


In an article in the Raleigh News and 
Observer Bion H. Butler describes a novel 
department in farm management by 
large landowners of the Sandhill section, 
who have been both operating and leasing 
tracts under the old tenant system. Now 
they have pooled their holdings and 

formed a corporation to be conducted 
according to modern business principles. 

Economies of such a policy are self- 
evident. Each tract "will be put to the 
Use for which best adapted. Buying for 
farm needs will be centralized in a pur- 
chasing department. Selling will be con- 
ducted in accordance with study of mar- 
kets and conditions. Instead of a number 
of individuals attempting to keep numer- 
ous irons hot in different fires, all farm 
actiA T ities will be related to one reasonable 

While the farm corporation in various 
forms is more or less familiar, this Sand- 
hill venture is novel in that it does not 
contemplate the abandonment of the 
ancient system of leasing to small farm- 
ers. Instead, leasing will be made as 
formerly, but with special attention paid 
to alocating the lands to cultivators 
specially proficient in the growing of the 
crops to which they are adapted, and 
Avith particular attention by the OAvners 
to the economic equipment of such tracts 
and better supervision of their treatment. 

Although it is not stated that the cor- 
poration proposes the sale of small farms, 
its policy is a logical first step toward the 
conversion of tenant into owner and 
should prove a valuable object lesson 
of 'the principle of the farm community 
which will be urged in the proposed farm 
settlement legislation. Such a corpora- 
tion will tend inevitably to introduce, 
popularize and demonstrate increased use 
of machinery. It will tend to improve 
farm, living conditions. By applying 
business methods to production and mar- 
keting it should result in an average of 
lower costs and higher returns, per man, 
per acre. In time the business plant and 
offices of such a corporation should in- 
clude central distribution of power, as 
Avell as of supplies and products. Tenants 
thus encouraged and aided in securing 
maximum benefits from their labor will 
be receiving an education in thrift that 
cannot fail to promote and help to realize 
their natural desire for independence. 




{Continued from page 1) 
line of business as a tanner has demonstrated 
the fact that the tannic acid content of 
the Southern chestnut is considerably larger 
than that of the same tree farther north, 
and that the tannic acid content of the 
chestnut in Pennsylvania and Virginia is 
intermediate between that of northern and 
southern trees, considered as extremes. 

When this discovery is taken in connection 
with the history of the blight after its first 
violent appearance in 1904. the question 
arises whether the tannic acid contained in 
the wood may not tend to make the tree 
'resistant to a disease for which there has been 
found no means of cure, eradication or 

Chestnut blight, Avhen it first appeared 

in the NeAv England States, Avent literally 
like wildfire through their forests and 
orchards, and in like manner through those 
of New York. In these states it required 
but a very few years for it to kill practically 
all the chestnut trees. 

But although the disease arrived early in 
Pennsylvania and has finally Avorked an 
almost complete destruction of its chestnut 
woods, it moved there with far less rapidity 
than it had shown farther north. As late 
as 1912, although the blight had been present 
in the forests for several years, the disease 
Avas still in the nature of a threat it was 
hoped to meet by the general conference 
that year held under the authority of the 

Subsequently, when the blight had crossed 
the Potomac and attacked the forests of 
Virginia, the same relative lethargy Avas 
noted in the manner of its spread. 

In the case of North Carolina, although 
the presence of the disease has been well 
established in a number of Western North 
Carolina counties for a period of four years, 
the damage done so far has been very small 
in comparison with the extent of its ravages 
elseAvhere and the spread far less rapid. 

Tannic Acid a Resistant? 

These facts, in connection with Mr. Smoot's 
chemical analysis, have raised the question 
in the mind of the Director of the Survey, 
whether the tannic acid content of the 
chestnut has not a definite relation to the 
difference in the rapidity of the spread of 
the blight as it extends southward. 

If this be established, may it not be 
possible in the Southern Appalachian region 
to control and retard the spread of the blight 
so as to minimize its evil effect in the forests 
and perhaps save them from the destruction 
to Avhich those of New York, the' New 
England States and Pennsylvania were 
doomed ? 

Again, may not an even larger percentage 
of the tannic acid serve so to increase a 
natural resistance as to produce an ultimate 
immunity : 

It has been noted in the journals that 
there is a chestnut tree native to the Far 
East that is immune to the blight. If this 
be true, it would be A r ery pertinent to know 
what is the tannic acid content of this 
variety. More than one plant disease and 
blight have been rendered harmless by the 
scientific modification of plant hosts. If 
the chestnut blight was. as is supposed, im- 
ported from the Far East, and there is an 
immune species, it is possible that the culti- 
\-ation of a resistant type was a natural 
process which may be repeated in this 
country, and that the principle of this re- 
sistant quality is already present in the 
southern chestnut, as eA'idenced by the slower 
spread of the disease in the more southerly 

It is also an interesting circumstance that 
there are records of several epidemics among 
the chestnut forests of the South, seeming 
at the time to prophecy their destruction, 
which nevertheless passed away in due 
course. It is true that in these ancient 
instances, some of which occurred long before 
the Civil War, there was no identification 
or eA'en classification of the disease; but the 
occurrence of the epidemics and their sub- 
sidence constitute at least a scintilla of evi- 
dence to show the hardihood of the chestnut, 
at least in Southern territory. 

Is Southern Species Different? 
Another inquiry immediately suggested is 
for a final determination as to whether the 
chestnut of the Southern forest is of a 
different type or species from that found 
in the Northern States ; i. e., whether the 


variance in the tannic acid content is a 
quality pertaining to a different type or 
species, or is simply an incident of different 
Climatic and soil conditions. 

However these questions may lie deter- 
mined, they are all highly pertinent in view 
of Hie results of Dr. Smoot's chemical in- 
vestigation and the hypothesis it suggests, 
and are well worthy of serious study and 
Investigation by and cooperation between 
Federal and State authorities. 




(Continued from page 1) 

lantern, and little if any attempt made to 
realize its economic value in the hundreds 
Of ways in which it should be utilized. 

Although these range from lighting lien 
coops to increase the waking hours of fowls, 
so that egg production is increased 30 per 
cent, through almost every imaginable appli- 
ance for farm work and household use in 
general, there is yet a dearth of farm ma- 
chinery built with the special view of its 
operation by electricity under conditions 
surrounding rural life, and there is even less 
definite information on the part of the 
farmer as to what electricity will do for 
him and its cost in comparison with the 
power of animals and men. 

With the idea of meeting the future of the 
farm power problem, investigation has now 
been undertaken by the TJ. S. Department 
of Agriculture, the American Farm Bureau 
Federation, the American Society of Agri- 
cultural Engineers and the Electric Light 
Association. This will include the amount of 
power required for farm operations, require- 
ments of different machines, a survey of the 
use of electricity on the farms and how they 
are served, whether by isolated plants or 
central station service. Once his home is 
lighted, his feed ground, wheat threshed, 
corn shelled, hay baled, cows milked, hens 
encouraged, house cleaned, meals cooked, 
clothes washed, etc., by electricity, the farmer 
will find himself able to cope with the labor 
question and to keep a place at wnrch his 
women will be content to live and his children 
to remain to carry on. 

In the inevitable ultimate electrification 
of the farm and the preparation and hauling 
of its products it is highly likely that the 
European system of farm villages and ham- 
lets will be greatly stimulated in America. 
By such a practice costs of distribution and 
transmission lines will be greatly reduced, 
tending to supply power at a rate greatly to 
enhance its economic value. A group of 
homes in a farm village, with certain coop- 
erative plants in which electrical energy 
could be supplied for the common use. would 
manifestly simplify, cheapen and render the 
service more efficient. In addition, of course, 
there would be the immense advantage of 
community life, interest and amusement 
which, by minimizing the social isolation 
of the present system, would greatly popular- 
ize farming as a vocation and promote 
larger production at a lower cost. 

As the first step toward such a develop- 
ment are the opportunities offered by small 
waterpowers abounding along numerous 
streams throughout North Carolina, which 
would lie capable of serving economically a 
limited number of farms. Such powers 
would not only afford the energy for the 
manifold needs of the farms and the farm 
communities into which their owners and 
tenants would assemble, but in addition 
would find employment in a variety of small 
industries which might soon bring into being 

,.. Hiding Intensified industry of the farm 
giving more and more return in product ion 

per man employed. 

That is the problem of both mill and land : 
and to its solution in either case the greatest 

aid and promise Is the li;i mossed stream. 




{Continued from page 1) 

it was cheaper for them to buy established 
and going concerns, even at high prices, than 
to enter on new construction and the building 
up of an organization from the ground floor. 

Commenting on one of the more recent 
and important of these deals, whereby the 
I'elzcr, the Tucapan and the Victor Monahan 
mills were purchased for an aggregate con- 
sideration of from $1 0,000.000 to .$17,000,000, 
the Manufacturers Record cautions the new 
owners that they "will need to learn very 
quickly and very thoroughly that they cannot 
manage their Southern mills and Southern 
labor in New England." Pointing out that 
one of the chief reasons for the shift of 
textile manufacture to the South is a desire 
to get away from the unsatisfactory for- 
eign labor employed in the industry in New 
England, the Becord declares that the hoped 
for end of superior results will not be ob- 
tained unless the new comers cultivate the 
personal interest in and regard for the 
welfare of their employees which have dis- 
tinguished the management of the Southern 
enterprises and been at the bottom of a bril- 
liant success built up by Southern money. 
Southern brains, and the skill of native white 
Southern hands. 

While all this is true, it is almost certain 
that the New England capitalists have real- 
ized the facts in advance. They would be 
the last to sacrifice the maintenance of pleas- 
ant and effective labor conditions to a hope- 
less attempt to subject independent Southern 
whites to treatment accorded alien and an- 
tagonistic foreign labor unable to absorb 
American ideals or to resist indulgence of 
inborn class hatreds. 

Purchase Means New Construction 

The real importance of this extensive move- 
ment of purchase is that it probably will 
result in the same increase in the number 
and capacity of Southern textile manufac- 
furies that would have happened had the 
new interests undertaken to build instead 
of buy. 

The sellers in these instances are men who 
in many cases were pioneers in the industry, 
or came to it by an inheritance become in- 
stinct. Because their business sense lias 
dictated their acceptance of profitable offers 
for their properties, it does not follow that 
they will seek to put the price received to 
new uses. Instead, it is reasonable to sup- 
pose they will reinvest, and on a larger 
scale, in the same character of enterprise 
in which they have succeeded. This will 
mean a new era of mill building, which will 
have the benefit of all the best in the way 
of new machinery, construction, policy and 
methods. It is safe to assume that every 
Xew England dollar brought into the South 
in purchase of cotton mills will find its next 
employment in the creation of new mills for 
the ownership and management of Southern 

ill. Ml. 

This new capital iii industrial expansion 
will mean \-.n- more than continued employ- 
ment aini a strong market for building ma- 
terials, it will mean a great deal more than 
tin- mill- creation of new capital values, more 
even than increased production and greater 
revenues, for it will so Intensify a demand 

for power already i':n- in excess of the 

available supplj a- to make imperative a 

new expansion of h J dro-electrlc BytetemB. 

iii addition, it will Involve the duplication 

in a short while of the army of a hundred 
thousand mill workers, from native North 

Carolina stock, ami these workers must in 
turn in- recruited from tin- farms. It fol- 
lows, therefore, thai while an Importation 
of mill workerte from; the New England 

States is .in unthinkable thing — the difli- 
CUlties with this labor being the chief con- 
sideration prompting the shift in local of 
the industry — the employment of larger num- 
bers of additional native whites will require 
important readjustments in farm life and 
methods to meet the drain on the agricultural 
forces the new demand will cause. 

Land ami Power Questions 

Beneficial as the greater textile era must 
be, it will have wide ramifications in the life 
of the State generally. On the farms there 
will be an immediate reduction in the number 
of workers which will have to be counteracted 
by a greater use of machinery, larger pro- 
duction per acre, and the utilization of land- 
suitable for cultivation in small farms in a 
manner to attract and encourage the right 
type of immigrant from other States. 

In rendering the existing farm more effi- 
cient and a better producer, water power- 
should play their important part in hasten- 
ing the revolution to come, when the farm 
as well as the town will lie a regular con- 
sumer of hydro-electric current. 

In providing farms suitable for the kind 
of cultivators who will come in from outside 
when given an opportunity to get land at 
a reasonable price with the chance to :_ r ain 
a support while working out ownership. 

there will be necessary a definite State policy 
to encourage development of available areas 
by loans secured by the land itself under a 
system somewhat analogous t<> that obtaining 
in the case of drainage districts and the bonds 
sold to finance them. 

However great and widespread the new 
mill development may be. it will not be 
uniform and will not give the return its 
importance guarantees until n shall be 
linked up by adequate support with the 
development of sufficient power and the 
equipment of the land to take care of the 
increase in workers it will require. 

Preparing for Fibi Si v-o\- 

('. J. Peterson, district forest warden of 
the Survey, has been making a number of 
inspection trips in Buncombe and other coun 
ties from his headquarter-; in Asheville, in 
preparation fur the approaching fall lire 
season in the mountain-. lie ha- been or- 
ganizing county wardens and seeking the 
cooperation of the people generally, espe- 
cially huntsmen, who in the past have started 

many destructive blaze- by carelessness 
when in the woods and in breaking camp. 

What or North Carolina Whalers? 

Who knows anything about whaling a- n 
Xo'Ui Carolina commercial pursuit? H. B. 
Schultz. of West Tisbury. Massachusetts, 

i- seeking the information in connection with 
his writing. He has heard Indefinitely of 
Whaling ships that sailed from Edenton in 

the year ls:U or 1882. 





Moser leases the trail from Camp Alice 
to the summit of Mt. Mitchell some hundred 
feet below the peak. His alert woodsman's 
eye picks an unerring way along a faint 
trail through a tangle of forest-bed and 
undergrowth, from which the primeval forest 
rises thickly. His eyes gleam with a happy 
pride and subdued excitement. He beckons 
with the showman's air. He stops at a 
small clearing, fenced in. He waves a hand. 
It is time to begin to admire. 

What one sees is a small plot of ground 
suggesting nothing so much as the toy garden 
patch of some enthusiastic agriculturist of 
the city back-yard. There are rows and 
rows of tiny plants, nicely spaced and 
weeded. They stand with military precision 
in long lines pathetic with flagrant hope. 
Upon them Moser's weather-beaten face and 
crinkled eyes beam warmly. He dilates 
upon their state of health ; he climbs the 
fence and handles them with informed 
tenderness. He tears up with his fingers an 
occasional weed. He might be giving reas- 
suring pats to sleeping infants. 

It is time to wonder when one knows that 
these infinitesimal plants, conforming with 
absurd minuteness to the form and structure 
of the great treees of the mountainside, 
are themselves fir and balsam in the third 
and fourth years from the seed and destined 
to be set about wherever in the confines of 
the State Park there is the chance they may 
attain a history of renewing and perpetu- 
ating the splendid forest from which they are 

D. L. Moser's tree nursery is his pet affair. 
If it is now chief among numerous duties 
which range from Weather Bureau observer, 
guard against fire and trail-maker to custo- 
dian of the high-flung crest of Mitchell, is 
largely because he has made it so by reason 
of his sheer love of the work and the dreams 
growing out of it. with which he lives. To 
see this brawny native of the hills fondling 
his plants, to listen toi his simple statement 
of his joy in tending them, to catch the 
almost mystic gleam in his eye as his words 
summon the vision growing out of his daily 
task, is to see made personal the vague 
sense of exaltation the average visitor feels 
when his eye gladdens with the vistas of 
ridge and valley, the voiceless message of 
color, the solemn cadence of the marching 
peaks. To the visitor these things are part of 
a breath-taking panorama. To Moser they 
are wonders in the matter-of-fact experience 
become a reverence strong enough to touch 
on intimacy. 

There are five thousand plants in Moser's 
nursery, each a tree in miniature, complete 
in every detail, waiting for a half century 
to lift its crown above the forest into the 
light. Each has been grown from the seed, 
carefully gathered on the mountain and, 
as carefully planted. Each has been trans- 
planted in its proper season and is destined 
to be again set out in its natural environ- 
ment. Here and there about the slopes 
where there has been invasion of saw or 
axe or the tongue of fire are hundreds of 
sturdy little trees waiting on long time with 
the patience that is the plan of the forest, 
that so few among men are able to under- 
stand. But one watches Moser and feels 
that he knows ; and is easy to understand 



North Carolina is peculiarly rich in quar- 
ries which produce a wide variety of high 
grade building and monumental stones, some 
of them of highly distinctive type. 

In only a relatively few instances are the 
products of these quarries given the trade 
names which should serve as a protection 
against imitation or unfair competition, and 
at the same time make them generally known 
as North Carolina materials. ' 

A list of some of the more striking of these 
stones is impressive : 


"Koyal Blue" is the trade name for a 
medium-grained marble of Cherokee County, 
which ranges in color from a light to dark 
blue, with veins and mottlings of white. It 
is used for decorative and monumental pur- 
poses. "Royal Blue, No. 1" is the trade 
name for a variety of the same stone, that 
is dark blue, crystalline in structure, and 
traversed with a few irregular white calcite 
veins, although these do not occur in all 


Trade name, "Wadesboro Brownstone," 1. 
A fine-grained sandstone of uniform texture ; 
2, a light chocolate brown, fiue-grained, uni- 
form textured sandstone, free from impuri- 

that to him the tiny spruce he strokes 
between his fingers is already great; that to 
him has come a measure of the most satis- 
fying of all human powers — the ability to 
absorb the future. 

Love Knows No Time 

It takes spruce or balsam fifty years to 
attain the growth the lumberman renders 
into timber in a few days from stump to 
mill. That fifty years Moser lives in an 
instant as he caresses the tiny plants in 
which they are held in common with the 
ages. Seeing him in his nursery, the sense 
of outrage and pity that follows a view of 
one of the great mountain scars is strangely 

There are no English sparrows on Mount 
Mitchell. Here, at least, there is escape 
from grime and smoke and turmoil of traffic. 
The very birds partake of the silence, but 
the snow-birds hunt out the seed Moser plants 
and devour with brief scratchings many a 
morsel born to be a monarch of the crest. 
Of them Moser speaks as one gently chiding, 
voicing the need of wire nettings for his beds. 

No Killing 

Gentleness, in fact, is the outstanding char- 
acteristic of this man who seems to have 
caught in his person the quiet strength 
and undertone of the heights. About his 
cabin a hundred yards from the peak red 
squirrels play, pushing over his very doorstep 
in search of food. The occasional ground- 
hog prospects his premises. At times there 
is the near-by drumming of a cock pheasant. 
Much wild life remains ; some bear, numer- 
ous grouse, the prolific and tenacious wild- 
cat. But there is never the sound of a gun 
to break the silence of Mt. Mitchell. 

"You kill wild-cats?" 

Moser replies in a low-voiced negative : 

"Maybe they ought to be killed — they are 
bad for the pheasants," he says, "but I — 1 
don't kill anything." 

One watches Moser with his little tree-to- 
be, that in fifty years is to become a monarch 
of the crest, and understands that to a man 
who holds such a faith in life killing is one 
of the few things in Nature he does not 

ties. These stones are quarried in Anson 

"Brownstone:" A sandstone of varying 
color and texture, light to dark brown and 
fine to medium coarse grained, is quarried 
in Anson, Lee, Moore, Chatham, Durham 
and Wake counties. 

"Greystone :" A sandstone of colors vary- 
ing from gray to purplish gray, to almost 
white, its texture from fine to coarse ; quar- 
ried in Lee, Cheatham and Orange counties. 

"Balfour Pink :" Trade name for a 
medium-grained, even textured, uniform 
flesh-colored pink granite consisting of quartz 
and pink feldspar. It takes a high polish 
and has a crushing strength of 51,990 pounds 
per square inch ; is extensively used as a 
building and monumental stone, and is quar- 
ried in Rowan County. 

"Balfour Cream :" Trade name for a medi- 
um-grained, even-textured gabbro rock, dark 
gray to almost black in color. It is extremely 
tough, takes a high polish, and is used 
almost exclusively for monumental stock. 
It is quarried in Rowan. 

"Mount Airy White Granite :" A medium- 
grained, even-textured, light grey to nearly 
white biotite granite. The biotite is not 
evenly distributed, and thus gives light grey 
to white colored areas. It is free from 
veins and dikes, making it very uniform. 
Quarried in Surry County, it is used exclu- 
sively for building and monumental purposes. 

"Balfour Stone :" A light gray, medium- 
grained biotite augen-gneiss. quite uniform 
in both color and texture. It is used to some 
extent as a building stone. Quarried in 
Henderson County. 

"Leopardite" is a unique stone. A quartz 
porphyry with a dense ground mass of quartz 
and feldspar, it is nearly pure white in 
color, but tinged at places with a faint 
greenish tone and is penetrated by long 
parallel streaks or pencils of dead-black 
color. When broken at right angles to these 
color pencils, the rock appears spotted with 
round, irregular black points up to one-half 
inch in diameter. When broken parallel to 
the color streaks, it presents a surface 
streaked with irregular parallel lines. Found 
in Mecklenburg County. 

Orbicular gabbro-diorite is a stone of 
dark, greenish color. Viewed in detail, it 
presents a pronounced mottled appearance, 
caused by dark green nodular spheres of 
hornblende set close together, with the inter- 
nodular areas filled with clear white, clean- 
able and highly lustrous feldspar. The 
hornblende spheres are as a rule well rounded 
and vary in size from one-eighth of an inch 
to more than an inch in diameter in ex- 
treme cases. The spheres show a tendency 
to a fibrous structure, radiating from the 
center outward. The stone takes a good 
polish and has been used for decorative 

Inquiry for Asbestos 

Charlton Ogburn, president of the Metals 
and Commerce Corporation, of New York, 
makes inquiry for data relating to asbestos 
deposits in North Carolina. 

This highly important heat-resisting min- 
eral occurs in a number of localities in the 
State, notably in the vicinity of Glenville 
and Sapphire, in Jackson county : near the 
mouth of Squirrel Creek on the North Toe 
River and on the western slope of Rich 
Mountain, in Watauga County; on Elk Creek, 
in Ashe County ; near North Wilkesboro. 
in Wilkes County. North Carolina asbestos 
is of the shrysotile variety, of a fiber of 
fair length and fineness. 

During the war there was production in 
Wilkes County, which ceased later. 



A Bi-Weckly Publication of The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 11 




Under the present organization of the War 
Department the Assistant Secretary is spe- 
cially charged with the duty of planning in 
advance for rapid, economical procurement 

and supply of the material necessary for the 
exertion of major national effort in the e\'ent 
of war. 

World War experience showed that unpre- 
paredness in military organization, while a 
serious defect in national defense, was greatly 
minimized by the adaptability of the Ameri- 
can to military training. 

Unpreparedness in the matter of munitions, 
equipment, supply and raw materials was 
far more dangerous, and was met only by 
intense effort hastily exerted in the presence 
of the emergency, with a consequent large 
volume of waste and popular loss and incon- 
venience as the result. Had it not been for 
the circumstance that the seas were in con- 
trol of the Allies and the enemy thus held at 
arm's length during the period of frantic pro- 
vision of things in connection with which 
there should have been a reserve as a nucleus 
and a definite system of procurement, the 
result might have been highly dangerous. 

Under the system now materially advanced 
in the course to perfection, plans will be 
made for instant application in crisis to an 
industrial mobilization even more rapid and 
complete than that of personnel. Every 
manufacturing plant will be available not 
only for the production of essentials, but 
what it can produce, how soon, and in what 
quantity will be definitely known. Centers 
of production, distribution, industrial and 
military management and supervision, under 
Such a system will he elaborate but readily 
accomplished incidents to preparedness as the 
World War served to define the term. 

Strategic and Cuitical Material 
Of more concern are those war materials 
which, in the verbiage of the Procurement 
Bureau, are designated as "strategic" and 
"critical," i. e., in the one case materials a 
supply of which must be imported ; and, in 
the other, materials produced in this coun- 
try, but only in limited amount. 

Lacking adequate reserves of these mate- 
rials, war effort might be seriously impaired, 
either by interference on the seas or control 
of the producing countries by enemy powers. 
or in any event seriously embarrassed by the 
difficulties incident to importing during hos- 
tilities and when the burden of war duty 
would be laid upon all .shipping. In antici- 
pation of the war effort, a detailed survey 
of what America might do under the necessity 
in the case of these strategic and critical 
materials is of the highest importance. 

During the course of a two weeks detail 
at the War Department in conference upon 
procurement plans, the Director of the Sur- 
vey was impressed with the possibilities of 
reducing the number of strategic materials 
by more extended investigation as to the 
occurrence and possibility of production of a 
number of them in the United States. Among 
(Continued on page 3) 



Reports to the Department of the Interior of travel to the National Parks 
of the West show that visitors had exceeded on August I."- the entire number 
for the year 1922. The Yellowstone had 102,926 as against 98,223 for lasl 
season. On August 11 travel into Yosemite had passed tin- 100,000 mark. 
On August 15 the number visiting Mount Ranier had reached v :;. v ^. 

These parks are isolated and can he reached only after a considerable 
journey, frequently trans-continental, at the expense of many million-, spent 
for the most part in the far Western States. Yet there was never a more 
reasonahle expenditure or a fairer return in health, interest and pleasure. 

What these great reservations are doing for the people of the nation North 
Carolina's one modest park is doing for the people of the State, and an i 
broadening army of tourists from abroad. When the figures of the State- 
Park on Mount Mitchell are analyzed, there is no doubt that they will con- 
stitute impressive evidence of the wisdom and value of its creation. 

Frequent comment this summer has noted an apparent popular preference 
for mountains over seashore. What part does Mount Mitchell Park, a popu- 
lar possession, have in this change of habit? And if, as is highly likely, 
it does tend to divert the streams of summer vacation travel, what answer 
and remedy is there except other State parks in the outstandingly attractive 
and historic East? 

Surely the State owes itself and its people the duty of some adequate 
memorial of what happened at Roanoke Island. 

Surely the beautifully located and historically important Fort Macon, now 
advertised for sale by the government, should not be lost to the State. 

Surely North Carolina should see to it that the natural rights to the rea- 
sonable use and enjoyment of the const and at least some of the wonderful 
natural lakes of the East are preserved. 

Both in the East and West there are a number of sites of natural beauty 
and historic importance which will either be lost forever to the ownership 
in common to which they are entitled, or Avhose acquisition will be rendered 
more and more expensive by delay. 




Whatever the reason there is a savor to the 
fruit of a tree that lends an instinctive imagi- 
nation to appetite. By some mental associa- 
tion the sweets that are tree-borne lie sweeter 
on the palate. Honey from a gum may lack 
the fineness, but outrivals in appeal the 
product of the best managed hive. Perhaps 
the /.est for a food that has about it the 
touch of the wild Is founded on the deep stir 
of the spirit of adventure, but it is none the 
less real. 

In the case of the syrup and sugar of the 
maple tree both have the quality of things 
taken from the lavish provision of nature 
and the Qavor of the most delicately culti- 
vated and refined article. There are two 
kinds of buckwheat, even when the batter 
and the cooking are right — those that are 
i ( 'ontinued on page I i 




Undoubtedly it was a psychologist of the 

kind that ignores experience who propounded 
the interesting theory that eyesight was the 
chief source of the smoker's appetite. 

According to his radical doctrine, the 
smoker induces in himself a mild mental de- 
lusion through the pleasure of watching the 
fragrant clouds he raises in the practice of 

his habit. Blindfold the devotee el" nico- 
tine, so that lie cannot observe the smoke 

wreaths or the glow of pipe, cigarette or cigar, 
and he will be unable to tell whether or not 
he has a "light." 

The only trouble with this ingenious argu- 
being that ir is not true witness the 
growing Dumber of blind men who are In- 
veterate users of the weed it is neverthi 
a fact thai imagination plays its great parr 
i Continued on page 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Acquiring a large financial interest in 
an Atlanta firm, one of the leading ex- 
perts in ceramics and refractory clays 
is quoted as saying that "following experi- 
ments conducted by the United States 
Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the 
Central of Georgia Railway and the an- 
nouncement that a ceramic school had 
been established at the Georgia School of 
Technology, I made up my mind to locate 
in this field." 

Naturally, the expert in question is 
highly pleased with the Georgia clay de- 
posits, which he thinks the United States 
will ultimately rely upon, but it will be 
noted how the intelligent interest of a 
railroad in exploring the State's natural 
resources in that particular, and the quick 
sympathy and insight of the educational 
system respecting an important new in- 
dustry, brought about one of the first of 
many probably heavy investments by com- 
petent men. 

It is well known that North Carolina 
produces fine kaolin in quantity, capable 
of being used in the manufacture of fine 
pottery. It is equally on record that the 
clay industry is the most valuable activity 
with respect to minerals that is carried on 
in the State. Yet it is the regrettable 
fact that almost all the kaolin is exported 
in the crude form, and that there has been 
little real effort to determine and utilize 
to advantage the refractory clays, the 
identification of which seems to close 
argument at the point where it should 

The Survey has long been impressed 
with the need of a ceramic laboratory at 
the University or other North Carolina 
college, where there could be practical in- 
struction in the uses of a rich and so far 
little developed material and industry, and 
where it would be possible to provide ade- 
quate analyses of samples and positive 
advice as to the uses for which they are 

In this, however, as in the more im- 
portant matter of forestry, our educa- 
tional campaign, widespread as it is and 
ready in most cases to embrace innova- 
tion, seems as old-fashioned as the ancient 
culture of Greek, Latin and calculus. 


A party sent out by the Survey to make 
a study of the possible water power de- 
velopment of the Hiwassee River and its 
tributaries is preparing a report of a 
nature which should be required by law 
in all future industrial use of State 

That is to say, the experts considered 
the whole Hiwassee area with eyes fixed 
upon its ultimate development to produce 
the maximum power and to avoid inter- 
ference with its possibilities in that re- 
spect. In doing so they had the coopera- 
tion and generous aid of the companies 
interested in the river, since before begin- 
ning work they wish to look to the future, 
in order to get the greatest benefit for 
themselves and the most intensive utiliza- 
tion of the various sites, considered in 
connection with their combined maximum 

This, of course, is so clearly the en- 
lightened policy that it should be made 
compulsory instead of being left to a 
foresight and discretion not every power 
interest can be depended upon to display. 
Power needs of the State are increasing 
rapidly, much more rapidly than the sup- 
ply of power is being augmented. "While 
the potential ivndeveloped water power 
is — on paper — in excess of possible re- 
quirements for a number of years, much 
of this theoretical supply is economically 
unavailable. It is of the greatest im- 
portance, therefore, that real sources of 
supply be guarded against ill-advised par- 
tial developments which would interfere 
with or prevent their use to maximum 

Such an error has been not uncommon 
in North Carolina. A commission with 
authority to investigate and pass on, to 
authorize, control or veto, every project 
having to do with a power-producing 
stream is one of the most needed bits of 
sound conservation obtainable by statute. 



J. L. Stuckey, geologist, who has been doing 
field work for the Survey in connection 
with molding sands, has concluded a trip 
of about four weeks through a number of 
counties in Eastern North Carolina, during 
the course of which he obtained and sent to 
Washington for thorough analysis some 
twenty-five samples of these important in- 
dustrial sands, development of which in a 
number of cases promises to be of consider- 
able value in the foundation of a new com- 
mercial industry in the State. 

In the course of his investigations as to 
molding sands, Mr. Stuckey visited several 
localities engaged in producing gravel for 
road and building purposes, and also a num- 
ber of places in which sand for concrete is 
being taken out. 

Only two places in Eastern North Carolina, 
Selma and Fayetteville, have been shippers 
of molding sands, although they have been 
shipped from several points in the Piedmont. 
That found at Selma is a coarse, or core, 
sand, but the quality of that at Fayetteville 
is said to be up to the Albany standard and 
suitable for the finer casting for brass and 
aluminum. There are, also, initial develop- 
ments at Chocowinity, near Washington, 
N. C, and around Kinston. 

Concrete sands are surprisingly scarce, and 
in many instances it is found necessary to 
ship them for considerable distances to meet 
the demands of road construction. There are 
deposits near Kinston, Tarboro and Gibson 
(where the sand is loaded on cars directly at 
the pits), at Goldsboro, and Lillington, where 
the industry is already of considerable size. 
These sands are also obtained at Greenville 
by dredging, which is the method of supply 
generally throughout the Piedmont section. 

Gravel plants are being operated, among 
other places, at Carthage, Garysburg, Liles- 
ville and Lillington, and one is being opened 
at Selma. At most of these plants the gravel 
is washed in order to save the concrete sands, 
which sell for around $12.50 per car, as a by- 
product. Attention is also given to the possi- 
bility of saving molding sands by the wash- 
ing process. Installation of proper machinery 
is important in this phase of gravel produc- 

Several North Carolina foundries which 
formerly sent far afield for their molding 
sands are now getting supplies at a great 
saving in freight rates, from Selma, States- 
ville, and Mount Holly. 

New Drainage Circular 

The North Carolina Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey has recently compiled and 
now has ready for distribution to interested 
persons Circular No. 8, which is a complete 
and carefully prepared codification of Chap- 
ter 94. Articles 5 to 10. inclusive, of the Con- 
solidated Statutes of 1919, as amended by the 
Public Laws of 1921 and 1923. 

This covers the various statutes now gov- 
erning the establishment and conduct of 
drainage districts, duties in connection there- 
with, issue and sales of bonds, etc. Amend- 
ments to the original laws and statutes are 
clearly indicated, annotations of Supreme 
Court opinions construing them given, etc. 

The circular will be found an accurate code 
of the law, brought up to date, and should be 
of much value to all interested in the estab- 
lishment of new districts or the maintenance 
of those already in existence on the 600,000 
acres of reclaimed land, chiefly in Eastern 
North Carolina. 





(Continued from page 1) 
these possibilities North Carolina, with its 
astonishingly high variety of resources, takes 
important rank. For instance: 

North Carolina Possibilities 

Mica. A small amount of a particular 
grade of mica is called for in certain electri- 
cal apparatus, hut at the present time manu- 
facturers consider that India mica alone will 
meet the test. The first question is whether 
it is the quality of the India mica or the 
greater ease with which it may he prepared 
for use in electrical contrivances that dic- 
tates its employment. In the latter case, there 
should he small difficulty in adapting mica 
from known deposits in the United States, 
particularly North Carolina. In the first 
case, if India mica does possess a peculiar 
and distinctive physical quality, a thorough 
investigation should he made of all mica pro- 
ducing localities to determine with positive- 
ness whether mica of the India quality may 
not be found. 

Chromite. All chroinite is at the present 
time imported, but there are in the United 
States chromium ores in some quantity, as 
well as large occurrences of basic magnesias 
rocks, with which it is associated. In North 
Carolina there are large masses of these 
basic rocks, in several of winch chromite is 
known to occur in greater or less quantity, 
and this probably is true in other states. 

Nickel. Although very little nickel is pro- 
duced in the United States, nickel silicate, 
one of the ores of nickel, are found largely 
in basic magnesian rocks. An attempt was 
made to produce nickel from these rocks near 
Webster, Jackson County, but it was not a 
financial success and probably could not be 
made so in peace time ; but it should be defi- 
nitely determined whether or not such ores 
could be produced and concentrated so as to 
become a source of nickel at a cost that 
would be approved in time of war. 

Tin. There has been very little systematic 
investigation of the deposits of tin ores to 
determine their quantity, cost of mining and 
reduction, when considered as a war measure. 
Tin deposits of Lincoln County, North Caro- 
lina, are associated with a good grade of 
kaolin, which it is believed could be mined 
profitably and the tin minerals saved as a 

Sodium Nitrate. A supply of nitrates would 
have to be obtained by fixation plants and 
from by-product coke ovens and gas works. 
In the recently developed Deep River Coal 
Field the bituminous coal contains over two 
per cent of nitrogen, and treatment of this 
coal in by-product coke ovens would give a 
considerable amount of nitrates. 

Flax Seed. Although linseed oil is im- 
ported in large amounts, it is believed that a 
sufficient quantity of flax can be raised to 
supply the quantity of raw material needed 
for its manufacture. The Southern Appa- 
lachian region, it is thought, offers many 
favorable localities for flax raising. In ad- 
dition to its use for linseed oil. flax growing 
should be encouraged as the foundation of a 
linen industry. 

Among other strategic raw materials are 
platinum, produced in the United States in 
small amount only, but having its source, in 
association with chromite, in the basic mag- 
nesian rock, abundant in North Carolina, and 
found in places in Oregon and California, a 
reserve stock of which might be accumulated 
by encouraging its use in jewelry and in 
laboratories, or by its being treated by the 
Treasury as a substitute for part of the goh. 

reserve; antimony, now almost entirely im- 
ported, but samples of which are received 
from lime to time by Federal and Stall' sur- 
veys; manganese, in sufficient quantity, al- 
though many of the deposits are of low 
grade ore; potassium salts, in large' domestic 
supply, but not yel thoroughly Investigated as 
to extent, quality and facilities for mining 

and transportation; cork, rubber, camphor, 
cocoanuts, quinine, tree-products, all of 

which are well worth investigating on the 
hypothesis of successful growth in Florida, 
Texas, the Canal Zone and Porto Rico ; silk 

may possibly be produced in the raw state. 

and in time of war silk goods in the country 
eotdd be utilized as a reserve; Sugar, the 
sugar beet industry should be more generally 
encouraged ; shellac, apparently, has bill one 
source of supply and its production syntheti- 
cally is a chemical problem. 

Another preparedness problem in which 
North Carolina is peculiarly interested is 
that of highway 8, from the point of view of 
federal construction, either entirely or in 
cooperation with the states, of interconnected, 
hard surface, interstate highways, their 
adaptation to motor transport, and an auto- 
mobile and truck census kept up from yen- 
to year by laisson with State departments: 
preparedness also contemplates complete 
maps of electric power lines, showing loca- 
tion and voltage, and of all switchboards 
with connecting lines, and the encouragement 
of more general interconnection and stand- 
ardization of voltage of connecting lines. 




(Continued from page 1) 
in the enjoyment of what is gradually be- 
coming an almost universal accomplishment. 
The label carries a large assortment of excel- 
lencies attributed to the tobacco. Exotic pic- 
tures of Turkish harems give a foreign flavor 
to much good weed of North Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, and Louisiana. A meer- 
schaum pipe is supposed to assume a pecu- 
liarly "ripe" color that in some mysterious 
way lends the fuel with which it is filled a 
mysteriously delicate flavor. When it comes to 
"briars" there is scarcely a pipe smoker who 
does not flatter himself that he can identify 
the simon-pure English and French woods. 
imitations of which may fool some people, 
but not him. 

Naturally a campaign to convince these 
psychological smokers of their error would 
not only be useless but, if effective, would be 
cruel as well. It will be interesting to all 
such to know, however, that the multitudes 
who imagine themselves connoisseurs are be- 
ing badly fooled, without being cheated in 
the sense of substitution of an inferior article, 
since they are in most cases filling up bowls 
of "briar" grown, dug and manufactured in 
the good old U. S. A. North Carolinians, also. 
may reflect that great quantities of the raw 
material for their "genuine" French and Eng- 
lish "briars" is derived from the root of the 
familiar "mountain laurel" common to any 
number of mountain counties. 

By way of the Charlotte Observer it is 
Learned that for six years there has been a 
great digging of laurel roots in all the Western 
North Carolina counties, the woods being 
shipped to dealers in New York who in turn 
ship it to the pipe manufacturers of England 
and France, who then export the manufac- 
tured article — with the foreign label — to this 
country. How this works out economically 
is illustrated in the price, which for a typical 
English briar put on the American market at 
a total cost of $1.00. is placed at a live dollar 
till ! As the Observer remarks, "Some of 

these days Watauga County will add a briar 
root factory to it- List of diversified Indus- 
tries, and the smoke maj taste all the better 

l>ec;iiisc i,|' absence of the delusion that we 

are pulling al a 'genuine* French briar wood." 

Raw Material at Sacrifice 

The lesson of the new aee oi mountain 

laurel i- thai of the fundamental error which 

lies al the root of all production and sale of 

the raw material without effort to market 

it as a manufactured product. The coot of 
the laurel manifestly brings bul an Infinitesi- 
mal price compared with thai charged for the 
Imported pipe. Bul the pipe manufactured 

Of laurel in the region in which the wood is 

produced would not only increase the price 
of the raw material, hut give a far greater 
additional return, while- selling far below 
the cost of the masquerading foreign article. 
Home Names fob Home Prodi 

In almost cvity part of the State there are 
instances of the same inattention to a great 
principle of securing and maintaining a repu- 
tation for home products in the name of their 
home. Failure to do this prevents develop- 
ment of manufacture and industry with all 
their collateral benefits, dissipates raw ma- 
terial at a tithe of its potential value, and 
generally spells a waste that a relatively 
small energy and initiative might turn into 
great profit. 

For instance, the kaolin production, in 
quantity and quality of high rank in the 
United States, is reasonably the foundation 
of what might become a vast pottery indus- 
try. The bulk of the kaolin, however, is sold 
in the crude state, and for one dollar paid 
for it, the foreign manufacturer probably 
receives ten or more in return. 

Mica is generally sold in the crude, and 
after treatment multiplies many times in 

There are thousands upon thousands of 
acres of peat lands — and but one plant pro- 
ducing peat, and that not for its most valua- 
ble use for the production of fuel and by- 

In the case of feldspar. North Carolina is 
the leading state in amount of production, 
but third in the value of the product, be- 
cause it has not been ground and prepared 
for market in a way to secure a better price. 

The list of these resources which are North 
Carolina products only in the raw state, but 
known as those of foreign communities when 
sold, might be multiplied. 

In Eastern North Carolina it is familiar 
knowledge that the diamond-back terrapin. 

the Chesapeake Bay delicacy, i- for the most 

pari "Tar Heel horn and Tar Heel bred." 
becoming a native of Maryland only when 
served as the crowning culinary achievement 

of banquets </<■ lu-rc. 

In the same way North Carolina oyster- 
start the feast as Connecticut "blue point-." 
and bivalves front Pamlico are the mainstay 

of oyster bars as "Lynnhavens." 

In Philadelphia restaurants of the higher 
grade one of the distinctive and highest 
priced delicacies i- a -mall cat-fish from a 
Pennsylvania stream that cannot produce one 

o( ten thousand of the specie.s so consumed. 
Whether the North Carolina "eat" of the 
mountain streams is drafted for this service 
is ii,. i known, but all the probabilities are 
that it is a tit recruit . 

l.o-s in price, Loss in prestige, loss in pro- 
duction and in the men and capital invest- 
ment that might he brought into the State. 
and hence lOSS to all the people Of the State 
il-olf. are incidents Inseparable from every 
instance in which the North Carolina product 
is sold for others to develop or under a name 
which gives to another section the credit of 
producing it. 




The party sent out by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey for the pur- 
pose of making a full investigation of the 
powers of the Hiwassee River and its tribu- 
taries in North Carolina has completed its 
field work and a report giving the results in 
detail will be published later, probably about 
January 1. 

The studies will enable the Survey to pro- 
pose a plan for the complete development of 
the river in North Carolina. They contemplate 
a series of dams on the Hiwassee to utilize 
a total fall of 582 feet between Appalachia, 
on the border of Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina, and Hayesville, in Clay County. Several 
of these dams will create large storage reser- 
voirs, which would have a capacity of four- 
teen billion cubic feet and serve to regulate 
the flow, enabling the flood run-off to be 
utilized for power purposes in dry periods. 

In addition, the plans contemplate storage 
and high head developments on several of 
the principal tributaries of the Hiwassee. 

Data for all these developments is now in 
course of being worked up in the office for 

The purpose of the investigations is to 
indicate the manner in which the very valu- 
able power sites in the Hiwassee district can 
be developed most advantageously, to produce 
the maximum amount of power and, if pos- 
sible, prevent developments which might in- 
terfere with the maximum utilization of the 
river as a producer of power. 

It is probable that essentially the plan pro- 
posed by the Survey will be cariied out by 
one or more power companies now interested 
in the region in which the investigation has 
been carried on. 

One of the most encouraging and signifi- 
cant incidents of this highly important inves- 
tigation has been the spirit shown by Clay 
and Cherokee counties, in the borders of 
which the power sites lie. in lending practi- 
cal aid by cooperation with the Survey in the 
making of the investigation. Cooperation 
making the investigation possible was also 
had from the Hiwassee Power Company and 
from the Carolina and Tennessee Company. 
which is assisting in the maintenance of 
gauging stations at Murphy. 

The field party, which operated under the 
general direction of Thorndyke Saville, hy- 
draulic engineer of the Survey, was in charge 
of G. Wallace Smith, of the Engineering 
School of the University, and included three 
students of the school who have completed 
their sophomore year work. Messrs. Farrel, 
Plyler and Ray. All of these were during 
the summer in attendance on the surveying 
school of the engineering department, located 
at Fetzer"s Camp, near Brevard, and at 
which there were fifteen students enrolled 
under instruction by Prof. Harold J. Janda, 
of the University. 




(Continued from page 1) 
served with maple syrup and those that are 
not. To the universal child expert in what 
a sweet should be. there are candies — but 
there is the corrugated cake of maple sugar. 
One of the few things a school child can 
be depended upon to know is where the maple 
sugar comes from. He knows because of the 
pictures of the snow-covered groves in Ver- 
mont, in which the tapped trees are being 
robbed of their juices and the pots boiling 
the syrup. His mouth waters and all his 

being cries out to be upon the scene. Ver- 
mont makes its millions every year from the 
production of its maple groves ; there is no 
telling to what extent the artists of these 
crude pictures in the primary geographies 
have contributed to the wealth of an industry 
that so far fails to meet the demand that 
the country is flooded with imitations or ad- 
mixtures of tree sugar. 

Sugak West of Blue Ridge 

It is an anomaly that one of the few 
regions in the United States fitted by soil 
and climate and the native growth of the 
trees to rival Vermont in maple-products pro- 
ducing has made little of either syrup or 
sugar, and sold only a small part of what 
has been made. Yet this condition exists in 
all that part of North Carolina on and west 
of the Blue Ridge. More abundant in the 
counties of Ashe, Watauga, Mitchell and 
Yancey on bottoms above the 3,000 foot level 
and on the mountain slopes, maple trees 
occur in quantity all through the western 
region, as far west and south as Cherokee. 
Conditions at these levels are equal if not 
superior to those in Vermont ; the trees are 
of the same varieties ; the quantity and 
quality of the sap the equal of that in the 
State made famous by them ; the art and 
method of producing syrup and sugar is an 
old one handed down through generations, 
and yet production itself is negligible. 

Contrary to general impression, there are 
several varieties of the maple from which the 
sap for syrup and sugar may be obtained in 
satisfactory quantities. In North Carolina 
the most abundant are : 

First, there is the sugar maple, called in 
the North rock maple, and in the South the 

Second, the red maple. 

Third, the striped maple, or moosewood or 
swamp dogwood. 

All of these occur generally throughout the 
State, as far east as Halifax and Wake 
counties, but except in the mountain sec- 
tions they are few and scattered, and on 
account of climatic conditions the flow of 
sap is unsatisfactory. In the Blue Ridge and 
the territory to the west of it, however, all 
these varieties of maple grow in abundance 
in groves. There is absolutely no reason why 
they should not be utilized as the source of 
an extremely valuable product. 

Ideal Permanent Industry 
In its proper soil the maple is an ideal tree 
for a permanent industry. It is hardy and 
remarkably free from any of the rots and 
blights that afflict so many other forest 
species. Its growth is exceedingly rapid, and 
it has a tendency to grow quickly in cure of 
the wounds made in extracting the sap. The 
season in which the tree juices are suitable 
for the making of syrup and sugar is a long 
one, extending from the period of the thaw 
after the first freeze until spring has well 
opened. The collection of the sap is an easy 
process, and the tapping and care of the 
trees have been well worked out. As in the 
case of the pine tree and turpentine, such 
sugar production as has been had in the 
South has been largely at the cost of the 
tree, owing to crude methods of tapping, 
which not only injure the tree, but lessen the 
flow of sap. This problem, however, has been 
well solved in practice in Vermont and com- 
paratively little study is necessary to master 
proper methods. 

Financially, there is every reason to be- 
lieve that the sugar-bearing maples of western 
North Carolina can be made into a real in- 
dustry as well as a highly remunerative 
source of extra farm revenue. Growing as 
they do on the steep mountain slopes where 



As a result of a recent interview between 
the Director of the Survey and the Director 
of the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, definite agreement has been reached 
whereby the 101 magnetic stations in North 
Carolina are to be revisited, replaced, or re- 
paired and new observations taken. 

As a result the State will have, what no 
other state can boast, a magnetic station at 
every county-seat. 

The work, which will be done by the ex- 
perts of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
has already begun, and will be pushed to com- 
pletion under a plan of cooperation between 
the Federal bureau and the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, with, the 
agreement that it will be completed and the 
results, with the new magnetic observations, 
published by the fall of 1924. 

Of the 101 magnetic monuments supposed 
to be in the State, it is estimated that about 
fifty are out of repair or need replacement. 
In some instances they have been removed on 
account of building or street or road repair, 
and in others their effectiveness as points 
from which to make observations for the cor- 
rection of surveyor's instruments has been 
destroyed. The new survey will either put 
up new monuments or so rearrange those in 
existence as to bring them back to usefulness 
and establish them in up-to-date accuracy. 

Importance of these scientifically estab- 
lished monuments to counties, surveyors and 
land owners can scarcely be estimated. Sur- 
veyors generally are asked to lend assistance 
in the proper location of the stations, and all 
surveyors or engineers wishing information 
on any question relating to the use of the new 
stations for the testing of compasses, or gen- 
eral information as to magnetic conditions, 
etc., are asked to apply to the Director of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
Washington, D. C, who will gladly give all 
assistance required along these lines. 

ordinary agriculture is difficult if not impos- 
sible, they would solve the question of the 
use of much land that is now yielding no 
return. Requiring far less care than an 
orchard, a maple grove would produce a 
product readily handled and shipped and 
in constant demand. While if handled on a 
larger and more ambitious scale, western 
North Carolina maple products should be 
readily established and gain a wide market 
as distinctive and popular sweets, the fame 
of which the increasing army of tourists 
would spread far and wide. If New Orleans 
can leap into national prominence with a con- 
fection like prawlines, what might not be the 
possibilities with maple sugar? 

In many localities throughout the favor- 
able section the maple trees occur naturally 
and large groves are standing, of which no 
use is being made. The tree, however, is 
easily grown in suitable soil and climate, and 
its rapid growth makes it possible to create 
a producing grove in a comparatively few 

In Economic Paper No. 1 of the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, 
the entire question of maple trees, their care, 
and the approved methods of treating their 
product is fully discussed by W. W. Ashe. 
Although published a number of years ago, 
the information therein obtained holds as 
good today as when first printed. The only 
difference time has made is that the market 
for maple products has enormously expanded, 
while their relative production has entirely 
failed to keep pace with the demand. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 12 


At the time the State of North Carolina 
gave its assent to the acquisition of mountain 
lands by the Federal Government for the 
purpose of National Forests the wide con- 
sideration of what the people as a whole 
would be getting from their establishment 
left a certain short-sighted contingent eold to 
everything except the trifling cost that might 
be entailed to certain counties in the loss of 
tax money. 

Since Federal lands may not be assessed 
for valuation, the preservation of the forests, 
the benefits to the watersheds of navigable 
streams, the incident of flood control and 
the promise of perpetuation of a timber sup- 
ply to a small hut. insistent minority meant 
nothing except the apparent diminution of 
county tax receipts. 

Had this loss, so-called, been sustained, it 
would have been utterly insignificant by the 
side of the advantages the location of the 
forest reserves brings to the communities in 
which they are maintained, but by operation 
of law even this loss has proved to be im- 
aginary. In fact, the counties in which the 
two National Forests of Nantahala and Pis- 
gah are located have this year received in 
money for the use of the lands an amount 
certainly equal to and probably considerably 
in excess of what they would have obtained 
had the lands been assessed as county proi>- 

Fokests Paying Their Way 

With the Nantahala Forest of 115,165 and 
the Pisgah of 224,042 acres there are now 
National Forest Reserves within the State 
of a total of .'159,(590 acres. 

They were purchased by the Government 
at an average price of approximately $5 per 
acre, or $1 ,907,450. 

Considering the character and location of 
the lands, a large proportion of which was 
not only mountainous but cut over, this was 
a liberal price and at least double the amount 
at which they would have been assessed for 
taxes had they been left to private ownership. 

Yet under the terms of the Forest Reserve 
Act the Stale receives annually for the use 
of the counties one-fourth of the gross re- 
ceipts from their administration, which for 
the fiscal year ended July 1. 1923, is reported 
al $8, 410.0:;. 

II will therefore be seen that, assuming 
that the lands were valued for taxation at 
the amount paid for them by the Government. 
they are returning to the counties in which 
they are situated a sum equivalent to a rate 
tor taxation of 44 cents per hundred dollars; 
while, based on the amount for which they 
would likely have been listed, the return is 
eipiivnlont to that produced by a tax rate of 
from 80 lo 90 cents per hundred dollars of 
taxable values. 

Counties which, will share in the amount 
set aside from the forest proceeds in accord- 
ance with the act and in proportion to the 
(Continued on page 3) 



Many a great corporation with a strike on its hands has cried aloud the 
ingratitude of its employees. 

They haven "model village.'' Each modern cottage lias all conveniei 
plus gardens and lawns. Kent is nominal. For social life there are churcl 
schools, kindergartens, day-nurseries, community centers, welfare workers, 
moving pictures. There is opportunity for self-improvement in general cul- 
ture or technical efficiency. Happiness is so easy that discontent were a sin! 

Yet frequently it is precisely this managerial provision that affords the 
irritant. The house is the company's. The pastor is paid by the mill. The 
children learn in company schools. Amusements are tinged with industrial 

All these things, in theory a sympathetic bond between employee and 
industry, too often have the feel of shackles. Kcal democracy strikes root 
deeper than wages and working conditions. Industry and politics may play 
the paternal to the point of substituting for Providence, and yet fail to con- 
vince the American individualist. The feudal baron held his serfs to the land 
by force; the qualities of ease, luxury and convenience are only disguises of a 
like compulsion. 

In North Carolina are two industrial communities illustrating the con- 
trast between a well-meaning error and a promise of a true democracy of labor. 

In the one case the worker lives in an apartment house environment of 
domestic, educational, social and spiritual super-service; hut whenever he 
raises his eyes sees on a commanding hill the huge mansion of the executive 
head of the great hive in which he has his cell — a sign as definitely possessive 
as any medieval castle frowning down upon the manor. 

In the other case also there is a great mill, a village, and community 
accessories. But here the workers have home ownership as a goal, under a 
plan by which the purchase price is saved out of earnings. In this case also 
there is a great executive, but he has no mansion so placed that its white walls 
emphasize to the village dwellers the superior estate of one whose wealth has 
summoned the duty of their hands. 

In the one case a strike might have as a palliative of its hardships the 

stimulating assertion of independence; in the other it would mean the tremen- 
dous sacrifice of true homes. 

Subject to reasonable ambition, every man should he tied to his job; but 
whether the harness galls depends upon the destination of the load. 


The wheel of the potter, the lump of clay 
thai takes form under his hand, is one of the 
hes| known literary and poetic symbols. The 
Cheerfully cynical Omar never tires of using 
the figure in many of his beautiful and uni- 
versally quoted quatrains. The Bible more 
than once refers to the craft. Homer sings 
it. Temples covered by the jungle in days SO 
(Continued on page ") 


The dramatic crisis thai occurred in Savan- 
nah, when the slow decline of the naval 
stores business culminated in a depression 
that threatened the existence o( the port, has 

caused deep concern not only in Georgia but 
other Southern Slates. 

Because t>( a failure of Cargoes for export 

there was : m immediate and serious decline 
i Continued on page 1 1 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Land and Negligence 

Relations of Norfolk and to a great 
extent the whole Peninsula section of 
Virginia with Eastern North Carolina are 
of the close nature that comes from com- 
mon blood. Virginia's most rapidly grow- 
ing port and city is so largely populated 
by former North Carolinians that the 
expression "Down Homer" has become an 
accolade in which it takes peculiar pride. 
In business, interests, sentiment and 
points of view the populations are practi- 
cally speaking homogeneous. 

Yet in the case of the products which 
enter into the life of Norfolk and should 
naturally be supplied by its contiguous 
rural territory, the bulk of them comes 
not from "Down Home," but from the 
Middle West, shipped many times the dis- 
tance from which North Carolina prod- 
ucts would have to be carried, were they 
produced, and yet monopolizing a market 
which North Carolina could have for the 
intelligent will to take. 

Norfolk, for instance, uses a solid car- 
load of butter a day, that is brought in 
from the Middle West dairies of Wiscon- 
sin and Illinois. Every pound of butter it 
consumes should and could be produced 
near at home in Eastern North Carolina, 
where there are grazing lands for cattle 
that could be used for ten months in the 
year. Yet because of a lax enforcement 
of the stock laws and a fanatical opposi- 
tion to tick control these great stretches 
of lands essentially adapted to stock-rais- 
ing and dairying are permitted to remain 
practically idle and unproductive. 

In other words, there are sacrificed to 
the demands of the owners of scrub stock 
and nomadic hogs not only the Norfolk 
market and a great potential industry 
which could be made to feed our own 
cities and build up our own shoe and 
leather factories and meat packing estab- 
lishments, with all that they would mean 
in new centers of skilled labor, but, what 
is even more disastrous, the practice pre- 
vents the renewal of the forest and the 
reclaiming of the land itself. 

In the West as well as the East the 
waste incident to neglect of properly con- 
trolled grazing lands is one of the gravest 
of our negligencies. Proper selection of 
stock and conversion to grazing uses of 
suitable areas would not only make for 
balanced use of lands, but serve for their 

With unexcelled climate and pasturage, 
the continuation of the practice of looking 
abroad for dairy products and leather 
goods is about the most expensive bit of 
thoughtlessness inconsistent with an era 
of open eyes and active minds. 

Fort Fisher Public Ground 

Squatters on the site of Port Pisher 
claiming under alleged entry of State 
lands would appear to be faced with the 
clear title of the United States Govern- 
ment, acquired by conquest from the Con- 
federate States. The point on which Fort 
Fisher stood was taken by the State Gov- 
ernment under the Confederacy in 1862 
and the fortification erected. It was taken 
in January, 1865, by the combined Fed- 
eral fleet and army after what was possi- 
bly the heaviest and most sustained bom- 
bardment known to warfare up to that 

Question of title to portions of the an- 
cient site are pertinent in view of the 
recent policy announced by the War De- 
partment of offering for sale a large num- 
ber of obsolete forts, among which is Fort 
Macon. The site of Fort Fisher would 
seem to be under this classification, and it 
is important that the fact be determined 
promptly in order that steps may be taken 
to preserve, either for the Government for 
park purposes, or for the State or some 
association, a place so packed with history. 

Shortly before the final assault General 
Lee had informed Colonel Lamb that if 
the fort fell, he could no longer subsist his 
armies. Within less than three months 
after its capture occurred the debacle of 
Appomattox. In the confusion of the 
Confederate collapse this more dramatic 
event obscured the preliminary catastro- 
phe by which it was hastened. But cer- 
tainly Fort Fisher, where the Confederacy 
received its mortal wound after an un- 
precedented severity of attack and stub- 
bornness in defense, deserves to be pre- 
served as a monument for all time. 



The demand for calcium arsenate for use 
against the boll weevil has stimulated inven- 
tion and enterprise looking to its more eco- 
nomical production in quantity. In this con- 
nection the N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey has recently received a request for 
information as to the presence in the State 
of arsenic minerals. It comes from Dr. E. 
Lee Tanner, of Cleveland, Ohio, who writes 
that he has evolved a process for the manu- 
facture of the insecticide directly from ores, 
"at the source of supply of such ore and in 
the cotton belt." 

While there has been no mining of the 
arsenic minerals in North Carolina, several 
of them have been reported, notably by Fred- 
erick A. Genth, in the early nineties. His 
investigations discovered leucopyrite, which 
was observed at the Asbury mine, in Gaston 
County, in nodula masses almost completely 
altered into scorodite at Dr. Halyburton's, in 
Iredell County, and at Drum's farm on White 
Plains, Alexander County. He also reported 
scorodite in small, leek-green and yellowish- 
green crystals at George Ludwick's mine in 
Cabarrus County, and in finely granular 
masses of a brownish or yellowish-green 
color at Drum's farm and Dr. Halyburton's, 
localities above mentioned. Genth also re- 
ported the occurrence sparingly of arsenopy- 
rite, or mispickel, and that this was found in 
"minute crystals, associated with gold ores, 
at the Lemmond and Stewart mines, Union 
County, and at the Barringer mine and 
George Ludwick's mine, in Cabarrus County. 
It has been found by General Clingman in 
Cleveland County, and by Dr. Asbury at 
Ore Knob mine, in Ashe County, the Honey- 
cutt vein at Gold Hill, and highly auriferous 
at the Asbury mine, in Gaston County. It 
also occurs near Cook's Gap, Watauga 
County, in fine, crystalline particles dissemi- 
nated through siliceous rock ; and, according 
to Hidden, at Brindletown." 

The Survey has received and examined at 
its office in Chapel Hill samples of arsenopy- 
rite from J. A. Lackey, Hiddenite, N. O, and 
J. A. Ruth & Son, Marion, N. C. 

The trend of textile manufacture is now 
definitely established for location of plants 
near to the fields in which the raw material 
is grown. It is economic logic that the pro- 
ducers of the poison now chiefly relied upon 
to control the insect that ravages the grow- 
ing crop should likewise look to the South. 



Flying from Quantico, Va., to Asheville to 
attend the funeral of his uncle, the late Rich- 
mond Pearson, Lieutenant Hayne Boyden 
found that there was no place in or near the 
city at which he could effect a landing, and 
so was forced to proceed to Brevard and 
return by automobile. 

The incident emphasizes a point to which 
every city owes consideration. Flying in 
Anjerica is still largely a sport, an experi- 
ment, or a question of military defense. All 
these things, however, are hastening the com- 
ing of commercial flying on a scale far ex- 
ceeding that already attained in Europe. 
With America's vast distances, it will be but 
a short while before air mail and air travel 
are commonplace instead of exception. 

City planners in the best sense — progres- 
sive citizens alive to the demands of the 


future — are awake not only to the need of 
city parks, but municipal forests. In their 
program a suitable landing-field for aircraft 
is one of the essentials without which they 
will lie badly handicapped. 




(Continued from page 1) 
acreage of forest are, for Nantahala Forest, 
Macon, 104,1!>7 acres; Clay, 5,780 acres; 
Jackson, 2,908 acres, and Swain, 2,220 acres. 
In the IMsgah Forest counties which share 
in the return are Avery, Buncombe, Burke, 
Caldwell. Graham, Haywood. Henderson, Mc- 
Dowell. Transylvania, Watauga, and Yancey, 
the acreages ranging from 52,:{97 in Transyl- 
vania lo .".(Hi in Watauga County. 

Incidental Revenues 
It will he observed that what is equivalent 
to a return in taxes practically double what 
the counties would have received had the 
lands in question been let alone has been 
derived from sources of revenue in manage- 
ment designed to protect and assure their 
growth in forest. These revenues arc purely 
incidental to the chief end in view and are 
so much net gain. They come from the sale 
of such timber as is removed in order to 
facilitate the renewal of the forest as a 
whole; from the issue of fishing and camp- 
ing privileges to the public; from the rental 
of grazing privileges under regulations which 
prevent injury to the forest. Meanwhile the 
lands themselves are intact and as their 
forests grow they are rapidly enhancing in 
value. With this growth of timber toward 
a renewal of the original luxuriance, sales 
will naturally largely increase and the return 
to the counties be many times multiplied. 
Long before another generation, it is almost 
a mathematical certainty that the Forest 
Reserve lands will be paying to the counties 
in which they are situated an annual sum 
which will be more than equal to the return 
from taxes assessed against the most valua- 
ble lands in private hands. 

Example for States 

What has happened in the handling of the 
National Forests presents a vivid illustra- 
tion of the economical argument for the 
ownership of tracts by the State to he dedi- 
cated to forest growth. Had these lands 
been acquired by the State and the purchase 
[nice secured by bonds at 5 per cent, the 
incidental return from their management 
already would have amounted to half the 
interest charge and demonstrated that in a 
decade it would begin to exceed it. Long 
before expiration of the term for which the 
bonds would have been issued, the increasing 
sale of limber would have taken care of the 
interest and upkeep charges and left heavy 
contribution toward a sinking fund, while 
all the time the principal of the forest itself 
would have been increasing tremendously in 
value. At the expiration of a fifty-year 
term of the bonds, the lowest possible valua- 
tion of the timber alone would have been 
$12,000,000 as against a total for purchase 
price, interest, and upkeep of $6,100,000, 
leaving a net profit, plus the land, of $5,850,- 
000. A more reasonable estimate would make 
the timber value $22,000,000 for a net profit 
of $16,350,000— and to those profits probably 
would be added from the returns incidental 
to management and preservation the entire 
cost charged against interest and mainte- 

Conservation of forests is a principle which 
has been established by the logic of unescapa- 
ble figures. 

Its adoption has been delayed largely be- 
cause the necessity of waiting a few years 
for the Investment to demonstrate itself in 
practice has made it difficult to present an 
object lesson to appeal to the kind of con- 
servatism that must have something for the 
eye lo see and the hand to touch. 

That object lesson the National Forests 
have now presented to the State. 

How long will it be before the State will 
profit by the example and through the me- 
dium of ils own forests set another for the 
emulation of owners of the commercial tracts 
whose scientific lumbering must remain the 
best hope of definitely stemming the tendency 
to forest destruction? 




(Continued from page 1) 

ancient that antiquarians can only guess at 
the era in which they were raised reveal 
examples of his work. Wherever there is a 
record of man in the debris of a civilization, 
there will be found evidence that the potter 
somewhere was "thumping his wet clay" 
while the finished jugs greeted each other, 
"Brother! Brother!" at every bright new 

Like the moon, too, are pottery and the 
potter's workmanship, ever the same, ever 
new, ever striking some fresh effect, ever 
remembered in some phase that perhaps will 
never again appear. Other arts have per- 
ished. Other manufactures have changed in 
methods until a decade makes their machin- 
ery obsolete. The potter's wheel, the art of 
molding, working, coloring and impressing 
with individuality the plastic mass, remains 
in fundamentals eternal and unchanged. Yet 
how many North Carolinians, familiar as 
they are with the cruder forms of pottery, 
such as flower-pots, urns, churns, crocks, etc., 
ever realize that these things are fashioned 
by natives of the State who are carrying on 
a trade perhaps handed down from an era 
antedating the Stone Age? Who has seen the 
clay take form? Who would know a potter's 
wheel if it were shown him without explana- 
tion of its purpose? 

Old Craft Survives 

At the Stale Fair in Raleigh this fall the 
Survey is arranging to have an exhibit of 
North Carolina pottery, with a wheel, which 
it is hoped to make somewhat complete. 
Certainly it will be novel and informing, since 
there is no considerable activity of the peo- 
ple in craftsmanship which is so hidden 
from the public knowledge. 

At Jugtown and Blackburn, in Catawba 
County, for instance, then 1 have been for two 
centuries and more a number of small pot- 
teries producing an established rough ware. 
The potters came equipped with their art 
when I bey emigrated from England and Hol- 
land and fought their way through from the 
coast to their new homes. There will be 
found in present vogue much the same meth- 
ods, machinery, hire of the craft that made 
the equipment of an ancestral line trailing 
off into the mists of time. 

In oilier sections there are here and there 
potteries on a small scale which have unob- 
trusively SOUgbt and worked the native clays 
into a variety of products, but for the most 
part strictly utilitarian in purpose. 

Putting aside for the moment the consid- 
eration of kaolin, the line china clay of which 
North Carolina is the chief producer the 
while it produces none of the finished product 
of which it is the essential base, the great 
tield and hope of pottery as an industry i- 

education of the worker- to the possibility 
of Increasing the value of their output by 
more attention to design and artistic manu- 

faCt lire. 

I'i \< E l or. Ai;i I'oi I iky 

Possibilities in this direction have been 
strongly brought out by Bacheller at Canton, 

Whose Omar Pollers has built for Itself a 
broader market than it- maker Can Supply. 

Working not only for profit but for hi- own 

satisfaction as an artist, this potter has kepi 
his production lOW, but by that fad suc- 
ceeded in getting a distinction that gives it 
the value of a thing of charm. Fashioned of 

Clays in which the iron oxide i- capable of 

imparting a st irtling \ in: it- cf \ r- id colors 
and Intermediate tones. Omar Potterj 

widely known and sought by tin- thousands 

of tourists who visit the Western North Caro 
lina section. As with any work- that carries 
the individual artistic Impress not only i- 
there a present value that liberally repays 

the personal care and touch, but the piece in 
itself Lrains additional value with lime after 
reaching the hands of the purchaser. 

<)n the same principle Hie product of a 
uumber of the Jugtown potteries has recently 

found a broader market ami a tar greater 
return through the interest and activity of 
Jacques Busbec. formerly a Ualeiidi artist, 
now resident in New York. In composition 
tin' output el' these old work- and the day 
from which they are made is the same as 
that in use for generations, but under the 
influence of new design furnished by Mr. 
Busbee what was formerly merelj a rough 

red ware for homely uses has new become 
an odd and interesting novelty which has 
attained a wide market at good prices in 
New York City and attracted general atten- 
tion throughout the country. 

Throughout the state there are various 
and ample deposits of clay- suitable for com- 
mon earthenware, stoneware, and the art 
pottery of the Omar type. The material and 
the fundamental inheritance of skill are pres- 
ent. All that is needed is inspiration and 

example and the method of l: 1 business 

which seeks to market the product in it- 
most attractive finished form. 

In the making of the highest class art 
pottery, there will always, of course, be re- 
quired the personal touch of nonius of some 
particularly gifted individual. But in work- 
ing on improved designs, there Is obtainable 
a supply of labor in whose blood there runs 
the tradition of skill and from which exam- 
ples of genius in the shape of the master 
potter would inevitably be developed, in the 
coming era in which the question ef town and 
city is bound to find solution in the small 
and self-contained community in which agri- 
culture will be linked in teamship to a vil- 
lage coordinating with it- need- in the -mall 
industry, the pottery should have a great 
and important place. 

W" 1 Mill IN KAOl 1 \ 

Kaolin, the essential to chinaware, i- an- 
other story. .North Carolina, with areas in 
which ii occurs in a rc-idual nature both 
in the Central ami Western sections, pro- 
duces it in great quantity and quality. Oc- 
curring in decomposed vein- <>( pure feldspar, 
pegmatite or granite and containing scattered 

scale- id' mica, garnet, quartz, etc.. North 

Carolina koalins an' net only among the 
purest form- of this dense, white, soapy, and 
easily mined clay, but frequently contain 
within themselves quantities of the feldspar 

and quartz necessary to mix with them before 
burning for china. 

All kaolin produced i- now shipped. It 
goes io the chinaware work- of New Jersey, 
Ohio, aud other State-, and i- then bought 
i Com inued on page 1 i 




People of Moore County, parts of which are 
embraced in the Deep River Coal Field in 
which so much interest and activity now 
obtains, have in the case of talc mining an- 
other renewal of an ancient industry that 
gives great promise. 

As in the case of the Deep River coal, the 
talc mining area is an old story, familiar to 
the State in the days preceding the Civil 
War. Like the coal mines, those for the 
production of talc have had their periods of 
activity and of somnolence, but operations 
now being pushed by two companies show a 
determination to secure from the properties 
the return their character indicates should 
be obtained. 

The Moore County talc area covers a strip 
of land twenty miles long by from two to 
five miles in width, in which the talc deposits 
occur in lenses in very old volcanic rock 
formations. At Glendon there are now in 
progress very extensive mining operations 
conducted by the Talc Product Company of 
New York, which owns there two mills, one 
of which has been run recently. At Hemp 
the Standard Mineral Company of New York 
is also doing mining in elaborate underground 

Resumption of the mining at this time 
is for the ground product, which has a ready 
and profitable market as a filler for paper, 
rubber tires, roofing, cotton ' cordage, etc. 
During the period of the World War there 
was also a large production of pencils, used 
in the steel industry, but the demand ior 
these ceased after the end of hostilities. 

Moore County talc is pyrophUUte, with an 
aluminum base as opposed to the magnesium 
base of the true talc so widely used in the 
manufacture of the "floating" toilet powders. 
It is, however, almost indistinguishable from 
the true talc and of an exceedingly fine 
quality — so much so that special operations 
to recover it in its finer and lighter forms 
recently produced over fifty tons which were 
sold for powder manufacture, at a very fancy 

In 1856, when "Gulf Coal" was at the 
height of its early fame, the Moore County 
talc was also coining into wide prominence. 
The report of a visit by Ebenezer Emmons, 
the famous geologist, in 1856 made reference 
to its being mined and to the use of the 
product as a soap filler. 

The conflict between the North and South 
stopped operations completely, and there was 
no attempt at further mining until the seven- 
ties. Since then the properties have passed 
from one ownership to another, and their 
operation has been highly irregular until the 
present purposeful management took charge. 

Talc mining is carried on both by cuts and 
tunnels in the hillsides, which are from 60 
to 70 feet deep, and at Hemp by underground 
workings to a depth of from 100 to 130 feet. 

Owing to the nature of the mineral, masses 
of which are very slippery, mining practice 
requires great care and is often difficult, 
every precaution being necessary in the man- 
ner in which the timbering of the cuts and 
workings is accomplished. 




(Continued from page 1) 

of shipping to the port as a destination, since 
the economics of commerce require that a 
vessel must take on a new cargo where it 
discharges an old one. Since there was no 
longer the old supply of naval stores for the 
world markets, not only did Savannah suffer 
acutely, but the effects of its depression were 
instantly felt in interior cities, where higher 
costs reflected decline in the amount of im- 
ports brought in by water. These effects were 
felt in business generally, in addition to the 
great loss incident to the suspension of naval 
stores operations in the forests and the trade 
in such products in the various cities. 

Casting about for the best means of pre- 
venting the damage from being irreparable, 
Georgia is now extensively interested in the 
renewal and spread of forests of slash pine, a 
species that is distinguished for its high 
production of resin, the quality of its wood 
and. above all, for its rapid rate of growth 
and the peculiar character of soil in which 
it thrives. 

Thrives in North Carolina 
The study of this tree is especially perti- 
nent in North Carolina because of the fact 
that it spreads easily and. though its natural 
range has been west to the Mississippi and 
south to Florida from a line drawn about 
Tharleston, S. C, there are in Southeastern 
North Carolina large areas of cut-over lands 
in a climate and with a soil which promises 
that the introduction of the slash pine would 
be feasible and, if accomplished, of incalcula- 
ble profit for an unlimited future. It is the 
peculiarity of the slash pine that it thrives 
best in low lands containing a large amount 
of moisture and, generally, wherever the long- 
leaf pine formerly obtained, except on the 
high and sandy ridges. Owing to its light 
and fine seed, it is not subject to destruction 
by stock, as in the case of the long-leaf, and 
therefore has a better chance of renewing 
itself, while it produces merchantable timber 
in a much shorter space of time. 

Slash pine, although differing definitely as 
a species from the long-leaf, has every quality 
of the latter which makes it of peculiar value. 
Its wood is dense and used indiscriminately 
with the long-leaf timber, and in production 
of resinous gum it is the long-leaf's equal, 
if not superior. Its habit of taking over 
lands from which the long- leaf has been cut 
gives it the role of rescuer in the business 
of naval stores, almost murdered by the neg- 
lect and wasteful methods of former years. 

Already the slash pine has spread far be- 
yond the territory in which stood its original 
forests, marching north through South Caro- 
lina. Like the loblolly in this State, it has 
shown a peculiar affinity for former long- 
leaf pine forests, but is, of course, much 
preferable because of its value for turpentine 
and on account of the superior quality of its 
wood. The great barren areas of the south- 
eastern section of the State are in respect to 
this tree in the same relation of easy host 
to species native to lower latitudes as they 
are to other flora and fauna. If the adoption 
can be made general and permanent, there 
will be added to the State's resources im- 
mense acreages capable of renewing an all 
but vanished industry, affording new and 
quickly realized supplies of lumber, and 
through provision of new grazing areas stimu- 
lating the raising of cattle. 

Fastest Growing Conifer 
How rapidly the slash pine grows is shown 
by authentic figures of the J. S. Department 

of Agriculture, which give one-year seedlings 
8 to ±0 inches and trees of five years a height 
of from 6 to 10 feet, with an increase in from 
five to ten years of 2 to 3 feet annually. 
If the trees have grown openly, stands of 
twenty-five years of age are frequently from 
10 to 14 inches in diameter at breast height 
and reach up for from 50 to 70 feet. The 
tree not only grows rapidly, but in dense 
stands, which can be thinned by turpentining 
for three-year periods and then cutting, pro- 
ducing a double source of revenue and pre- 
serving the forest. In the modern turpen- 
tine practice of making a light single face, it 
is found that they may be farmed for long 
periods, since the wounds tend to heal 
quickly. When properly thinned, the slash 
pine forest furnishes an ideal grazing ground, 
promoting the growth of the annual and more 
nutritious grasses. Its forests, therefore, 
would serve the triple ends of turpentine and 
naval stores production, cutting for saw and 
other high-grade timber, and grazing for 

That the slash pine stands the North Caro- 
lina climate well and can be grown with fair 
success even in soils to which it is not pecu- 
liarly friendly was shown several years ago 
by experiments of the Survey at Sanatorium ; 
experiments in the better adapted lands of 
the southeastern section, under reasonable 
fire protection, can be confidently predicted 
as successes. 

Naval Stores for Ports 

It being conceded that a North Carolina 
port is a necessity the State will not much 
longer consent to be without, there applies 
in North Carolina the same obligation now 
felt in South Carolina, Georgia, and other 
Southern States to strain every effort to re- 
establish the naval stores trade, whose prod- 
ucts lend themselves peculiarly to export. 

Not only should the slash pine be experi- 
mented with and, if possible, introduced for 
spread over the low, flat and moist lands of 
the State, and the slower and more difficult 
processes of rehabilitating the long-leaf of 
the sandhill areas be encouraged, but there 
is also a great field in the working for turpen- 
tine of the stumps remaining from the cut- 
over areas. 

Especially might this latter method be fol-_ 
lowed in connection with the process of 
clearing cut-over and drained lands in prepa- 
ration for their division into farms. Whether 
the turpentine return from such stumpage 
would or would not be profitable when con- 
sidered as a single operation, there is no 
possible doubt that if considered in connec- 
tion with the cost of land clearing, it would 
materially reduce, if not actually eliminate it. 




(Continued from page 3) 

back at a great enhancement in price in 
much the manner that calico from Southern 
cotton once enriched New England by the 
multiplication of the price for the manufac- 
tured article over that paid for the raw \ 
material. It is not consistent with the State's 
new principle of economic energy that this 
anomaly should continue, any more than the 
demand of the cotton field for a factory was j 

Chinaware works will, however, be a new , 
industry calling for much capital and initia- 
tive, and an element of risk ; but potteries 
are elemental and instinctive — it only re- 
mains in their case to link them to a natural 
development long overdue. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1. 


N... 13 


The Forestry Reclamation and Immigra- 
tion Conference, to be held in New Orleans 
November 19 to 22, will be national in its 
scope and pointed to a revision of the whole 
subject of legislation for reclamation and 
land settlement by whatever means and in 
whatever section. 

It. will thus include plans and views as to 
the continuation and extension of the work 
of irrigation of arid lands in the West and of 
reclaiming to settlement and agriculture the 
even more extensive areas of swamp and cut- 
over lands in the South. 

It will furnish a symposium of national 
thought on the subject of forest conservation 
and the reforestation that must be firmly es- 
tablished as a principle in the next few years, 
if the United States is not to be forced to the 
expensive expedient of becoming an importer 
of timber. 

It will deal with the practical problems of 
suitable immigration, both from abroad and 
by a readjustment between the states of am- 
bitious home-owners so as to permit them to 
find anywhere in the country the opportuni- 
ties for which they are best fitted. 

In these aspects the New Orleans Confer- 
ence will be of national importance as fur- 
nishing a guide for the development of the 
reclamation principle as recognized in irri- 
gation legislation in the West; as correct- 
ing mistakes and extravagances and the ten- 
dency towards paternalism which have been 
demonstrated ; and as putting reclamation 
as a whole on an economic basis which will 
provide the aid of State and Government in a 
rational financing that will be self-supporting 
and stop what has already become a serious 
drain on the national treasury. 

South Must Be Sharek 

To the Southern States the aims of the 
Conference are of particular importance be- they contemplate the desectionaliza- 
tion of government aid in land reclamation. 
When the original Ncwland Act was passed 
in 1902, providing for the irrigation of vacant 
public lauds in order to make them available 
as farm homes, it became a law only because 
members of Congress from the South aided 
those from the West in the pioneer work of 
demonstrating the benefits of reclamation as a 
national policy. The South then had and still 
has some 7(i, 000,000 acres of unused lands 
more fertile and far easier of development 
than the arid sections in the West. While 
these vast tracts have been waiting for their 
future as productive areas, the arid lands of 
the West have had expended upon them $140,- 
000,000 at a cost that has risen from $30 to 
$40 per acre to an estimate of $100 per acre 
for the Latest projects, and although the 
original act provided for payment by settlers 
in ten annual installments without interest, 
even these terms have been modified and ex- 
tended, so that the net result is that the 
Government has recovered little on the prin- 
ts Continued on page 4) 


Friday, November 2, is Arbor Day in practically every State in the 

There is no popular celebration which tends to serve better tin- ends of 
social and economic health and at the same time to inspire and encourage in 
the individual the esthetic sense. 

The tree is instinct with poetry. Its thousand leaves breathe romance. 
To the man whose life has included a normal experience of the out-of-doors 
it is the key to memories that invigorate instead of sadden. To the growing 
army of children whose lives are encompassed by the steel and masonry of 
cities, the tree and its suggestion of air and space, its gift of shade, is reve- 
lation invaluable to the civic welfare of the future. 

If the individual tree is a symbol of happiness and freedom, the meaning 
of trees in the relationships of life and work, of industry and economics, is a 
fundamental imperatively demanding mass instruction. Even those states 
wdiose early struggles so largely consisted of clearing super-abundant forests 
for agriculture are now importing at high prices the timber to build their 
homes. In an age that is beginning to utilize the power of "white coal" the 
once unfailing streams are being rendered uncertain in flow and dangerous 
in flood by reason of the denudation of the forests which protected their 
watersheds and stored the rainfall by which they are sustained. These are 
commonplaces which, like the commonplace, take a long while to sink into the 
common consciousness out of which true and comprehensive conservation 
must be born. 

There is no better way by which this instruction can come than the 
Arbor Day exercises in thousands upon thousands of schools. The child does 
not forget that which firmly takes bold of his interest. How much he will be 
interested in trees on the approaching day of celebration depends upon the 
arrangement of the exercises and the extent to which the individual child i- 
encouraged to participate. Each of the multitude of trees to be planted 
should be made to serve as memorial to some worthy man or great cause to 
which each child can feel a personal contribution; each of them should he 
planted in token of the preservation of the forest, whose manifold use by man 
carries with it the clear obligation of restoring for the future that which he 
consumes for the needs of the present. 

am;., m 




The new travel via automobile bus gives 
the passenger with an car open to the com- 
ments of his fellows an accurate' idea of the 
immense value the State is receiving from 
ils modern highways, outside of the self-evi- 
dent advantages of easier communications, 
more available markets, and more general 
intercommunication between the population, 
rural and civic. 

The commercial ambassadors formerly 
termed drummers, in particular, form an 
army of enthusiastic boosters of North Caro- 
lina throughout every State in the Union. One 
hears them in constant praise of the roads 
and (lie way in which they have facilitated 
(Continued on page 3) 


Taper manufacture in North Carolina has 
been a tardy development of the use of the 
forests for pulp wood, in which the Cham- 
pion Fibre Company of Canton has been a 
pioneer and operator on an extensive scale. 
While large areas have been cleared with 
the thoroughness of an industry thai finds 
Use for many species of weed- down to four 
inches, the resulting product has in the past 
been shipped em of the State to the paper 
plants ie receive i i -^ final and most valuable 

application. The covering of mountain slopes 
new bare has gone into paper of all kinds, 
much of it the tine book paper produced by 
Ohio mills. 1ml like 50 many other products 
(Continued on page 3) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Desectionalize Reclamation 

"Reclamation," as known in Federal 
Government practice, means irrigation of 
arid government-owned lands in the West. 
It Avas entered upon under the authority 
of the Newlands Law as a means of open- 
ing to settlers and converting to agricul- 
ture large tracts permitted to go to waste 
through many years on account of a lack 
of sufficient moisture. As originally con- 
ceived, the cost of reclamation was kept 
low, thus confining operations to areas 
which could he purchased hy settlers on 
easy terms and within a reasonable period. 
But as time went on and the benefits of 
increased values became evident, less and 
less attention was paid to the economic 
feature and more and more pressure 
brought to bear to secure such projects as 
would give the newly entered lands a 
speculative value. 

As a corollary to this perversion of the 
principle, exceptions were made and ex- 
tensions allowed in the terms of payment, 
so that the net result is that the Govern- 
ment has expended in the neighborhood 
of $140,000,000 on irrigation projects, 
which in large part have not so much 
encouraged economic agriculture as they 
have been used as a means of increasing 
speculative values. In other words recla- 
mation in the West, nobly inspired, has 
been made the tool of politics. 

This generally recognized fact is now 
on the point of being criticised in detail 
by a non-governmental commission ap- 
pointed by Secretary of the Interior 
Work, which is to inquire into and thor- 
oughly investigate the methods, policies 
and operation of the Federal reclamation 
agency. Its membership, in which are 
included such men as Julius Barnes, Oscar 
A. Bradfute, Thomas E. Campbell, Dr. 
John A. Widtsoe and David W. Davis, 
assures that there will be no attempt to 
cover up the extravagance and follies it is 
suspected have crept into the service. 

Out of this investigation it is to be 
hoped that there will emerge the clear 
principle that, important as government 

aid must be in reclamation, it must no 
longer be given in the form of appropria- 
tions directly from the Treasury. That 
were permissible in the case of a navigable 
water or a great government enterprise 
for the common good, but not for a project 
where the chief benefits are bound to be 
individual, however much the project it- 
self may incidently benefit the public. In 
the latter case, it is the interest of the 
public that government aid what it is 
beyond the power of the individual to 
accomplish, but only in a manner whereby 
the individual will be held to a strict ob- 
ligation to repay the cost. Reclamation, 
in other words, should be first of all a 
matter of well secured credit, with the 
debt to be- amortised by individual enter- 
prise and labor. 

So considered, reclamation will no 
longer be sectional, as at present. It will 
be applied, on the contrary, to waste lands 
anywhere, in case they can be shown to be 
susceptible of improvement that will bring 
them into use as homes. If the report of 
the commission shows negligence and 
Avaste in the administration of the irriga- 
tion projects of the West, it should result, 
not in the abandonment but the enlarge- 
ment of the reclamation principle. The 
South, Avhich aided the West in securing 
the initial appropriations to redeem the 
arid lands of the West, is now seeking a 
reciprocal service — not in the way of pa- 
ternal donations from the Treasury, but 
through the extension of national credits 
for the development of SAvamp and cut- 
over lands after full and complete in- 
vestigation of the security upon Avhich 
such credits AA'ould be based. 

The Conference on Forestry, Reclama- 
tion and Immigration to be held at JSTew 
Orleans in November Avill contemplate the 
needs in these respects of the country as 
a Avhole — but it Avill be emphasized to the 
extent of a demand that in future the 
South should in these particulars be recog- 
nized as an important part of the country. 

In common with other Southern States, 
North Carolina once had thousands upon 
thousands of acres of pine lands which were 
the most prolific producers of naval stores 
the world ever knew. By tapping the trees 
in a manner to cause them speedily to bleed 
to death and exposing the inflammable tur- 
pentine forest to fire, naval stores production 
has been so cut down that France now pro- 
duces one-fourth as much on one-tenth the 
area. While the United States was destroy- 
ing the long-leaf France was reproducing the 
maritime pine. It is still true that "They do 
some things better in France." 



The Survey recently had for analysis an 
exceptionally fine sample of glass sand, which 
came from Gen. J. S. Carr, the location in 
which it Avas found being given as near 
Bessemer City. The incident suggests that 
there is room in many mining localities for 
attention to be paid to silica sands as a by- 
product that should be valuable in any event 
and might even be developed into an effective 

The quartz (silica) that, associated with 
feldspar and mica, occurs so abundantly in 
Avery, Mitchell and Yancey counties, offers 
splendid possibilities of becoming a source 
of quartz for the manufacture of glass. While 
it is not in the form of sand when mined, it 
is believed that it can readily be crushed and 
prepared for use in the form of glass sand 
without seriously contaminating it with im- 
purities from the crushers and rolls. At the 
present time the practice is to save the felds- 
par and mica and permit the quartz to go 
unused to the dump. Yet much of this 
quartz has shown under analysis that it is 
99.9 silica. In Cherokee County there are 
large deposits of quartzite, which are nearly 
all silica. 

Where the silica sands are white they are 
the basis of manufacture of the finer grades 
of plate glass. But where there is a mineral 
stain, as the trace of iron from adjacent 
veins, the color is harmless in the large field 
of production of glass in which absolute 
transparency is not a requisite. In the manu- 
facture of bottles and a wide variety of glass 
vessels these siliciferous sands are widely 
used and possess great commercial value. 

Wherever there is a mining operation in- 
volving the taking out of quartz in any 
quantity, it is Avell worth while to investi- 
gate the possibility of having it crushed for 
the sake of the glass sand by-product. In 
case of manufacture in a local plant or near 
such a mine, there would be the distinct ad- 
vantage of having the raw material on the 
ground, to which only the fuel would have to 
be transported. While it is doubtful whether 
the production and shipment of glass sands 
would be profitable, the manufacture of the 
glass itself might well prove to be so, and to 
offer an opportunity for utilization of mate- 
rial now almost entirely wasted and the 
establishment of another of the small in- 
dustries so much needed for the uniform de- 
velopment of every section of the State. 

Not only do forest products constitute 
seven and a half per cent of the total tonnage 
carried by the railroads of the country, but 
these railroads themselves spend approxi- 
mately half a billion dollars annually for 
forest products. A mileage of 250,000 and 
28,000 ties to the mile mean 700,000,000 ties 
in use, upon which replacements amount to 
$110,000,000 per year. The more the forests 
are diminished, the higher the price of ties 
and the stronger the tendency to higher 
freight rates. If ever it is necessary to re- 
place the wooden tie with steel, the en- 
hancement in an already burdensome cost of 
living will be material ; and this is only one 
point at which a failure to conserve forests 
is a waste which must be paid for in a per- 
petual tax as a penalty on folly. 





(Continued from page 1) 
business. In fact, what these alert hustlers 
have to say regarding conditions in general 
in the State goes far beyond the claims of 
the average example of the Tar Heel newly 
proud of his land and ready to proclaim it 

One Highway Defect 

In one respect only do North Carolina 
highways suffer by comparison with those of 
other states, and that not in the roads, but 
their surroundings. For mile after mile the 
ribbon of concrete stretches away, a busy 
artery of the active life it serves. Yet too 
frequently it passes through a landscape of 
a monotony to which its construction has 
needlessly contributed. On either side are 
bare fields. In the summer the sun scorches 
down on a road that radiates the heat. In 
the winter icy blasts howl down or across 
it unimpeded in their sweep. The road, as 
often as not cut through forest or heavily 
wooded land, is for the extent of its sixty- 
foot right of way and beyond, bare and 

Such a highway is utilitarian at a great 
and extravagant price, which in many other 
States has been done away with and turned 
to profit, both intrinsic in the upkeep of the 
road and real, if intangible, in the resulting 
pleasure and comfort of travel. 

Reserve Roadside Trees 

Arbor Day observance should this year take 
note of and begin an agitation for the 
remedy of (his glaring exception to the prac- 
tice of roadbuilding in the State. The aver- 
age highway is eighteen feet, the right of 
way sixty. This should leave space in plenty 
for the preservation of natural roadside trees 
and shrubs, which should be preserved in 
suitable species and with attention to proper 
spacing in the interest of a highway that 
would grow more beautiful with time, in- 
stead of becoming progressively cluttered 
with telephone and telegraph poles and wives 
and the incongruous and often dangerously 
placed signs erected by highway advertisers. 

Methods followed in many states put this 
matter of road beautification into the hands 
of a bureau of the Highway Commission or 
in charge of local or sometimes State com- 
missions charged not only with the duty of 
proper preservation of native roadside trees. 
but the planting and suitable distribution of 
a number of foreign species peculiarly 
adapted to the purpose. In addition the au- 
thority given includes that of seeing that 
roadside trees are not mutilated by public 
service companies and that the advertising 
sign-board nuisance is held under proper con- 
trol. Up to date in North Carolina, not only 
is there a practical dearth of legislation 
tending to promote roadside ornament, but 
such legislation as there is gives the right of 
destruction and positive protection to prac- 
tices which elsewhere are subject to restraint. 

In the territory traversed by practically 
every new road project in the State there are 
any number of native trees which could be 
reserved from cutting and in time produce a 
highway curtain that would add infinitely to 
its attractiveness. Among these are oaks, 
ashes, elms, beech, hackberry, sweetgum, linn, 
sycamore, sugar maple, yellow poplar. Among 
the nut trees that might readily be preserved 
are such species as black walnut, i>ccan and 
the shell-bark hickory. Placed well back 
from the road and properly spaced, all of 
these trees lend themselves admirably to pur- 

poses of beautification and the shade that, in 
the case of concrete, macadam and shell 

roads, prevents too rapid drying out and so 
delays decomposition. Objection to shade 

I rocs, that they prevent proper drying of dirl 
and sandclay roads cannot hold good with 
proper attention to distance and spacing and, 
in case of the latter, keeping such roads clear 
on the south side. The other objection, that 
trees obstruct the view and promote accl 
dents, could be easily met by intelligent treat- 
ment of curves and attention to the species. 
The many gorgeous shrubs available, dog- 
wood, sour-wood, wild cherry, crabapple, etc., 
could be made to give a seasonal glory to 
many highways, and confined to straight sec- 
tions, would be entirely deprived of the ele- 
ment of danger. 

Need Tree Nursery 

In sections where the native trees have 
been sacrificed, there should be individual 
planting of nursery stock of species adapted 
to the soil and the purpose, either through 
the State, the counties or the cooperation of 
cities and societies. In this connection there 
is again emphasized the need for at least the 
beginnings of a tree nursery, without which 
planting of highways, provision of suitable 
stock for shade trees in parks and cities, to 
say nothing of the larger projects of re- 
forestation, would be unduly expensive. 

Arbor Day, designed to promote especially 
among school children the knowledge and love 
of trees out of which must grow the sound 
general sentiment necessary to the preserva- 
tion of the forests, can find no better means 
of illustration of the lesson than the splendid 
roads which, for lack of natural ornamenta- 
tion, are become simply means to the quickest 
travel between points, rather than the ave- 
nues of rest and beauty they could be made 
into with a modicum of care and a minimum 
of cost. 




(Continued from page 1) 
derived from natural resources, it has been 
utilized by the State of its origin in a rela- 
tively crude state. 

The departure of the Canton Company into 
paper-making, with a plant that will be in- 
creased in capacity from fifty to one hundred 
tons a day and producing a product of a 
grade that is suitable, for instance, for post- 
cards, is of double significance as promising 
increased value from (be forests and tending 
to promote close study of methods of secur- 
ing a continued supply of the raw material. 
A corporation that controls the timber rights 
on approximately all of the 40,000 acres of 
spruce ahd balsam forest now remaining in 
North Carolina and that uses three times as 
much wood as it obtains from its own hold- 
ings is not an enterprise to contemplate 
going out of business in twenty-five to thirty 
years, which it will have to do unless there is 
devised some means of securing a continuity 
of forest growth. 

On a smaller scale two corporations at 
Roanoke Rapids, the Roanoke Rapids Beaver 
Hoard Company and the Halifax Paper Cor- 
poration, are now using (he pulp from second 
growth pine, and in case of an expected ex- 
pansion in scope of operations also must be 
interested in securing tracts of land which 
may be worked in rotation. 

Use in the manufacture of paper of the 
woods unsuitable to lumbering in the gener- 
ally accepted sense should be hailed with 
satisfaction, as it will emphasize the necessity 
of permanence in the pulp wood industry. 

create another important industry In Itself, 
and excite more thought and a better policy 

in the USe ami perpetuation of timber lands. 
A PBODl I i ' 3 BA( COBOl KD 

Paper, i he commodity of ,-i thousand usee 
ranging from the morning newspaper through 
all ibe detail of the housekeeper's day, has a 
complicated background of manufacture. 
Loggers, flumes, sawmills, furniture facto- 
ries, freight cars, pulp mills, paper mills — 
all figure in ibe processes through which the 
unregarded cardboard, or the damp (-beet 

thai shouts Ibe result of a prize light in 

"extra" form, has gone before it attains it- 
destiny, in case the basis of the pulp has 

been acid-bearing wood, as the Chestnut, it- 

juices have first been extracted and used in 

the tanning of the leather (bat goes into 
shoes. If it is a paper line enough to pre- 
sent a smooth surface, ir carries with it in 
the form of a filler the product of .-, mil 
kaolin, the rosin from a turpentine camp. A- 
a young I ree it may have been chewed up 
directly in the pulp mill : as a sawmill 
product, the slabs left from its preparation 
for building or furniture have found a similar 
destination. As lumbering for pulp wood 
eats the forest alive, as it were. SO paper, 
with its catholic appetite for timber, brings 
the forest in some form into daily touch of 
every one of the millions who make up the 
population of the country. 

Delivered at the pulp mill, the tree, waste, 
or whatever scrap of suitable wood gee- first 
into the chipper, a rotary mouth of steel 
teeth that reduces it to bits of perhaps a half 
inch in dimensions. From the chipper it 
passes into the digesters, where with steam 
and hot water and sulphates, sulphites, or 
sodium as the process may be, is subjected to 
a hot acid bath which breaks down the cells 
and leaves the fibrous matter known as pulp. 
This, in turn, is washed, pressed, rolled, and 
dried to emerge as wood pulp, or primary 
paper, rough, thick, unfinished, the raw- 
product of the paper mill. 

It is this roughly described but scientific 
and complicated process that the Champion 
Fibre and the Roanoke companies are now 
carrying on through the additional steps 
necessary to make a finished manufacture in- 
stead of a mere basic manufacturing mate- 

Problem oi Replacement 

I low to secure the replacement of the 
woods so used up to the last shred is one of 
the important challenges modern industry has 
issued to the forest expert. In the case of 
spruce and balsam in the Southern Appa- 
lachians reproduction is not only a matter 
of long time in any event, but is faced with 

(be peculiar difficulties of the special en- 
vironment required for its growth. These 
include shade, a proper covering for the 
forest floor, and freedom from fire all con- 
ditions much more difficult to obtain in the 
Southern Appalachians (ban in more northern 
latitudes where the early and heavy snows 
conduce to spruce reproduction and mini- 
mize the danger of tire. In the cut-over 
areas in North Carolina the best hope of the 

limited reproduction of these species lies in 

the preliminary growths of cherry and birch. 

which a fiord the protective covering needed, 

although there is always the need of extreme 
care against tire. Anticipating the passing 
commercially of spinet- and balsam, the "best 
bet" in the areas in which they are now 
being cut is yellow poplar, a highly useful 
tree of great reproductive junver and rapid 

i (out inued on page -D 




Owing to extensive range in altitude and 
climate, and to the nearness of the coast to 
the Gulf Stream. North Carolina was marked 
originally by almost as great a variety of 
wild life as that pertaining to its possessions 
of timber, minerals, and resources generally. 

On the mountain forests it was compara- 
tively recent history that the animal life in- 
cluded, besides abundant deer, herds of elk 
and many examples of the larger carniverous, 
as well as fur-bearing animals. The traveler 
in the hills was familiar with the wailing 
cry of the panther; there was scarcely a 
locality that did not have its "beaver dam" ; 
venison was plentiful on the markets, and 
the smaller game so abundant as to be a 
commonplace of the table. 

A day when it has been found necessary 
to restrict the taking of all game species and 
absolutely to prohibit the sale of others needs 
no warning that only extraordinary diligence 
will prevent the addition of many now fa- 
miliar animals to the melancholy list of those 
which survive only in folk lore and an occa- 
sional stuffed specimen. 

In case of birds the migratory habit has in 
a degree prevented the destruction that has 
overtaken so many mammals. Included in 
the summer residents that breed in the State 
are many species belonging to the Canadian 
Zone, these occupying only the tops of the 
highest mountains and persisting, by reason 
of their isolated range. There is, of course, 
full representation in bird life of the species 
peculiar to the Alleghanian, or Transition 
Zone, which occurs at elevations of from 
2.500 to 4,500 feet, and of the Carolinian, or 
Upper Austral Zone, in which are included 
the central portion of the State and the lower 
mountain valleys ; while in the Lower Austral, 
or Austro-riparian Zone of eastern and south- 
eastern North Carolina, the variety and pro- 
fusion of aquatic and other bird life is be- 

What is not generally appreciated is that 
in the lakes and waters of these regions (in 
which the conditions of climate frequently 
are so nearly tropical as to make alligators 
common phenomena) there are occasional 
breeding places of birds considered the pecu- 
liar inhabitants of frankly subtropical sec- 
tions. Not only do these examples of exotic 
birds migrate to and visit the State, but in 
specially favored spots find conditions which 
tempt them to become residents for the pur- 
pose of breeding. In fact, it is owing to a 
lack of protection and a general indifference 
to the interest they afford that several so- 
called tropical and Florida species are not 
firmly established. 

At Great Lake in Craven County, for in- 
stance — one of the bodies of water originally 
belonging to the State, but transferred to 
and afterwards alienated by the State Board 
of Education — there has been for years a 
noted haven for several species of birds ex- 
tremely rare in so northern a latitude. There 
are to be found the peculiar colony of Florida 
cormorants, sometimes maintaining eighty 
nests, and a colony of the Great Blue Heron, 
standing sentinel-like at a height of five feet. 
Although the cormorant is a bird of some- 
what unpleasant habits — a tree selected for 
nesting soon being killed — it constitutes a 
museum piece of State ornithology it would 
be highest folly to permit to perish. The 
suggestion of the presence of such birds is 
that the natural conditions making it possi- 
ble may, with proper protection, induce other 
so-called purely tropical species to find there 
and in other similar lakes and waters new 
havens for their breeding. 

Of greater interest than that of the cormo- 
rant is the case of the egret and its smaller 
cousin of the heron family, the snowy egret. 
Owing to the campaigns of the Audubon 
Society to save these beautiful birds from 
total destruction for the sake of their plumes 
for millinery purposes, their tragic story has 
been well and properly advertised. But it is 
not so well known that it is in this State 
they are making one of their last stands. 
On Orton Plantaton, owned by James Sprunt 
of Wilmington, there is Crane's Neck, a sanc- 
tuary for numerous species of fish hawk, 
ospreys and herons, where there still are each 
year a few pairs of nesting egrets, and a 
sprinkling of the even rarer snowy egret. A 
few pairs of birds formerly nested at Lake 
Ellis and a pair located at Jones' Millpond, in 
Craven County, fell victims to plume hunters. 

These birds, slain for the "aigrette" plumes 
which occur only at the breeding season, are 
literally facing extinction in spite of the agi- 
tation and laws secured against a cruel prac- 
tice. Instead of one place in North Caro- 
lina in which to breed, and that a private 
plantation, they should be afforded the pro- 
tection which would be incidental to State 
use and development of the remaining lakes 
in North Carolina, whose alienation is now 
prohibited by statute. 

There is no telling what would be the dis- 
closures of the possibilities of this border- 
land of bird life between the Temperate and 
Tropical Zones, were its natural possibilities 
intelligently safeguarded. 




(Continued from page 1) 
cipal of its investment and nothing in the 
way of interest, the natural tendency being 
to throw the lands into speculative hands and 
to encourage the very tenancy which the 
original act was drawn to relieve. While 
reclamation as a means of promoting farm 
home ownership must be continued, it should 
not only be made to apply to all sections of 
the country, but so revised in method as to 
substitute for appropriations a reasonable 
credit system through Farm Loan banks or 
other agencies whereby the settler would have 
the moral advantage of self-achieved owner- 
ship and the Government avoid the mistake 
of a paternalistic attitude toward new groups 
of dependent wards. While it favors the 
uniform extension of reclamation projects 
wherever located, so that they be economi- 
cally administered, the interests of the South 
will be emphasized to the end of serving 
notice that the special advantages of irriga- 
tion must be ended in a manner to give an 
equal chance for the development of lands 
suitable for settlement in all sections. 

Place for Sound Credits 
Avoiding the mistakes evident under the 
past policy in irrigation of arid lands, the 
comprehensive system of reclamation gener- 
ally would involve the cooperation of the 
State and Government in their preparation, 
not only by irrigation or drainage, but by the 
rougher work of clearing them for agricul- 
tural purposes. This could be achieved 
through regular credit agencies after scien- 
tific planning of the land to its best uses, its 
sale to suitable settlers on liberal but definite 
terms for which the lands themselves would 
be adequate security, and the application in 
the work of development of by-products 
which would materially reduce its cost. 

Tims in the case of a large proportion of 
the 1,500,000 acres in North Carolina there 
would be opportunity of establishing in many 
development districts plants for the recovery 

of turpentine from stumpage, which would 
serve not only to cut down the amount of 
bonds to be issued upon the security of the 
land, but help in the revival of a much- 
needed naval stores industry. 

The Conference will have the plans and 
advice of representative experts in such mat- 
ters as forest preservation, reforestation, the 
growth of the slash and perhaps maritime 
pine for turpentining, selective immigration 
and colonization ; but all of these matters and 
questions will be linked with and embraced 
by the general purpose of reclaiming waste 
lands for farm homes and settling them 
with' men of independent stripe capable of 
carrying out the work of development and 
ready to assume and pay through hopeful 
labor a reasonable obligation. In contrast 
to the original concept governing the irriga- 
tion projects as recognized in the Newlands 
Bill, there will be no pressure for a dollar of 
additional appropriations ; what will be 
asked is that the credit of government, State 
and national, be afforded to do for these 
thousands on thousands of potential farm 
workers and home-owners what neither they 
nor private corporations have the capital to 
do for them. 

Drainage Law Example 
North Carolina, with its 600,000 acres of 
land reclaimed by its drainage districts 
financed through bonds which are sought on 
the financial markets, affords to the South 
and the country as a whole a practical illus- 
tration in a relatively small way of what can 
be done in reclamation when once recognized 
as a national policy to be achieved by the 
states and the United States working together 
on business lines for the social good of the 
whole pople, rather than on a paternalistic 
theory necessarily confined to a few bene- 

The tentative program of the Conference is 
to be presided over by Senator Joseph E. 
Ransdell, of Louisiana, and includes many 
nationally known experts in conservaion. 



(Continued from page 3) 
Pine as a Pulp Wood 

In the East the development of paper manu- 
facture is even more important because of 
the fact that it relies for its basic woods on 
the second growth pine, which is prolific and 
almost universal in occurrence whenever 
given a chance. There are also great quan- 
tities of gum, which in paper-making has 
alluring possibilities as a wood to be mixed 
with pine for a finer and whiter paper than 
the pulp from the latter is capable of pro- 

On the whole the relation of land to paper 
manufacture contemplates the care of all 
timbered and cut-over areas in a manner to 
prevent their going to waste, either from fire 
or the running at large of destructive stock. 
Incidentally it contemplates use of the land 
for such non-timber destroying practices as 
controlled grazing, which would promote 
dairying, cattle raising, ultimately shoe and 
leather manufacture, a long line of profitable 
and neglected occupations and industries. 

These benefits are spoken of as incidental, 
because while great in themselves, they would 
serve as nothing else could toward populariz- 
ing and enforcing the revision of the entire 
theory of law and taxation regarding timber, 
without which there can be no general or 
satisfactory movement toward the replacing 
and perpetuation of the forests in a form 
approaching their former magnitude. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1. 



NTo. 1 1 


Now outcry in the section of the State 
press thai specializes in personal journalism 
goes hlilliely in for abuse Of .lames B. I Mike 
on no better ground than his statemenl thai 
further extensions of his hydro-electric de- 
velopments depend upon permission to in- 
crease rates for primary power from an 
average of 1.25 to 1.40 cents per kilowatt - 
hour. Existing developments, he asserts, pay 
less than four per cent on their value. As is 
well known, construction costs have tremen- 
dously increased since the present plants 
were built. According to his contention, 
based on business experience, extensions to 
supply additional power needs cannot be made 
economically with the legal return limited 
as it is. 

Yet this statement is seized upon as the 
excuse of pillorying as an alien aiming at 
industrial dictatorship through monopoly of 
a natural resource and blackmail of govern- 
mental agencies a native North Carolinian 
whose pioneer vision in hydro-electric serv- 
ice has had the result of establishing in the 
State an industrial primacy that has been 
the national sensation of the last decade. It 
will be observed, also, that the gravamen of 
these wanton charges is not. anything Duke 
has done, or is threatening to do, in the use 
of his property, but merely what he stipu- 
lates is necessary if he is to increase his 

Such a preposterous reaction to a purely 
business-like attitude must have one of two 
motives. Either it is founded on an utterly 
selfish purpose of playing politics for ulterior 
demagogic ends; or it is the beginning of a 
serious effort to commit the State to the 
gamble of public ownership and operation of 
its water powers. 

Water Tower — Not Duke 

This is one long familiar phase of what has 
become a distinct "Buck Duke" hysteria, so 
far minimized in harmfulness because the 
man against whom it is directed has bad the 
patience to assume an indifference it is not to 
be supposed he is humanly able to feel. 

Another side of the same obsession is the 
attitude of a smaller clique that attempts to 
fit Mr. Duke to a halo that must be ex- 
tremely uncomfortable to the natural in- 
stincts of that once red-headed and still red- 
blooded democrat. 

Between the two there is a real clanger that 
a man of great capital who has been engaging 
in the fine game of constructive business with 
no chief view of profit, but with no intention 
of accepting loss, will become disgusted be- 
yond all question of rates and so be definitely 
alienated from extremely helpful plans. 

In such a clash of evil agitation no better 
service can be done the interests of the State 
than to encourage impersonal treatment of 
Mr. Duke and his power company, to be 
based upon the two factors of adequate serv- 
ice and reasonable return — n treatment at 
(Continued on page 3) 



Water runs down hill. Its source of strength is a- sure as gravity. No 
power can resist its impulse toward ;i common level. It is subjeel t" miracle 
change, yet indestructible and ever renewed. Most valuable of all resourc 

its descriptive adjective is "free." 

The temptation to take the poetical view of water has much to answer 
for in loose thinking as to its use in the production of the electricity thai 
carries the primary impulse of the running stream to the mill hundreds of 
miles distant. Between the water wheel in tin- -t ream and the current de- 
veloped, transmitted, transformed and distributed an- a hundred p 
reflecting inventive genius, demanding expert knowledge, involving capital 

It is common hearing that there is sufficient undeveloped water power 
in North Carolina to make the State independent of coal. A- a gem nil thing 
the estimated horsepower thus ''running to waste" is placed at 2,000,000, 
and, assuming it installed, higher mathematics at one- becomes a brilliant 
and easy feat. The clear inference is that somebody is guilty of a sheer 
wickedness and sloth in tile refusal to accept a prodigal gift of Providence. 

While it is possible that there may he 1,000,000 undeveloped potential 
horsepower in the streams of the State, nothing like that amount is at presenl 
economically available. Many sites can he developed only at a cost which 
would make their product unsalable in competition with cheaper plants in 
other States. Many are so isolated that distribution for commercial use 
would not be feasible. All this power is "potential" in a sense, but the con- 
tingency in which it can be used has not yet happened. Even that already 
harnessed is made a variable quantity by drought and flood. As for coal, no 
well planned hydro-electric plant is considered complete without its steam 
auxiliary. The goal of power-production is maximum of supply at minimum 
cost plus certain delivery. It is an equation for engineering skill plus capital 
investment. Bombast is futile in the face of its exactitudes. 

The State's water powers are entitled to the true conservation of abundant 
use, adapted to varying economic possibilities and objections, calling in each 
case for special expert knowledge and analysis. 

Just now their greatest danger lies in the fact that the politician has 
added "kilowatt" to his vocabulary. 



For several years one of the great meat- 
packing establishments has been maintaining 
a plant in a Georgia town in which it was 
sought to carry out the sound economic prin- 
ciple of manufacturing for market from a 
source of supply adjacent to the territory in 
which the product was to be sold. 

For years the farmers of Georgia have 
considered and planned for such plants. For 
years the chambers of commerce of various 
cities have encouraged capital to seek invest- 
ment in enterprise which would make it 
profitable to put the land to the use of stock 
raising. When stock raising was not fol- 
lowed in accordance with the inducements 
the land held out. the explanation given was 
(Continued on page i.' i 



Far better than talking about Prohibition 
is thinking concerning the fact and its Impli- 

of the talk nine-tenths i- essentially idle 

and the rest expressive of the concern of 
polit icians. 

In the thinking, one of the mosl apparent 
things is that, soon or late, there will arrive 
in the United States the equivalenl of the 

British "tea hour." 

Among the numberless commercial develop- 
ments to which the alcoholic drought is the 
pointer, one of the most fascinating is the 
discovery and adaptation of a true substitute 
for tea. 

Think of the barren bar- of sand, the 
"Banks" that have cut off the mainland of 
i < 'ontinued on page -4 i 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Rate Controversy Non-Personal 

Amid the clamor of contention and 
abuse raised by Mr. Duke's dictum that 
he can develop no more waterpowers un- 
less permitted to raise rates from 1.25 to 
1.40 per kilowatt-hour, one might sup- 
pose the question was one vitally affect- 
ing the living conditions of the masses of 
the people. 

As a matter of fact, it is literally true 
that not one citizen in a hundred — per- 
haps not even one in a thousand — has the 
remotest direct interest in the controversy, 
notwithstanding the large proportion of 
the population dependent upon electricity 
for use in the home. 

The hydro-electric rates at issue have 
to do with current furnished in large 
amount for manufacturing purposes. The 
difference between such current and that 
put in use when one snaps on the switch 
is the difference between 1.25 or 1.40 
cents, when the factory is buying, and ten 
cents when the homeowner engages in run- 
ning up his light bill. When the town, 
for instance, buys from a public service 
company, it proceeds to charge the indi- 
vidual consumer something like seven 
times the price it pays. There are many 
sound reasons for such an increase, owing 
to expenses of transforming and distribu- 
ting the current, upkeep of installations, 
connections, etc., but the difference of 
one-sixth of a cent per kilowatt hour to a 
man who buys light for his home at 10 
cents is simply not computable. 

What hydro-electric companies should 
be allowed to charge for their product is, 
of course, a matter of sound valuation of 
plant, investment, and reasonable rate of 
return. They are public utilities whose 
regulation and control are proper inci- 
dents of public policy. But it is worth 
while, when thinking of rates for electric 
current, to consider the return to the in- 
dustry this current has done so much to 
build up and sustain. Mr. Duke believes 
that his millions invested in hydro-electric 
enterprise have returned him not to ex- 
ceed four per cent, and that extensions 

now would cost so much that present rates 
would not yield even that modest divi- 
dend. But what rate of return on invest- 
ment does the industry largely founded 
upon the current Mr. Duke supplies ex- 
pect? Four per cent? It is common 
knowledge that normally it looks to 
profits three times that large, and that in 
prosperous periods it earns — and takes 
without question — dividends of from 25 
to 50, and even 100 per cent ! 

The power 'charge in industry is, next 
to labor, the largest figure in its expense 
sheets. Cheap power is what enables in- 
dustry to grow great, to expand, to be- 
come prosperous. Industry is now using 
all available hydro-electric power, and is 
faced with the danger of having to secure 
additional amounts from coal at twice, 
three or four times the price. In that 
event the power charge in industry will 
be an item difficult to reconcile with divi- 

Justice for the power companies should 
be dispensed with the same abstract virtue 
that governs in other relationships. Ex- 
cept in the broadest view, the average citi- 
zen has little interest in whether their 
rates to industry are too high or too low. 
But to fail in justice to the power com- 
panies would be to work to industry an 
injury irreparable. 



Press reports of an "earthquake" in the 
neighborhood of Asheville. Saluda and Hen- 
dersonville reflect that sensitiveness to news 
which is grandly superior to fact. There 
may have been a tremor of a minor char- 
acter, caused by a landslide, even the pass- 
ing of a heavy freight train, but the geologi- 
cal formation of the mountain regions is not 
favorable to the occurrence of a true earth- 

Western North Carolina mountains are 
composed of the oldest crystalline rocks, 
gneisses, granites, schists and diorites of pre- 
Cambrian age, greatly folded and turned on 
their edges. An earthquake is caused by a 
slip of rock in a fault. In the case of these 
most ancient formations of the mountain re- 
gions, Time has done with its changes and 
produced the acme of the eternal. On the 
west and east of the mountain region, in- 
cluding the Blue Ridge and the Great Smokies 
and the intervening country, there are 
younger sedimentary rocks, limestones, shales, 
marbles, quartzites, etc., of the Cambrian 
age, but all rocks of Western North Carolina 
are old geologic formations, the most ancient 
of which is called the Carolina gneiss. There 
are formations of less antiquity, but all 
of them are done with the changes, chances 
and adjustments out of which earthquakes 
are born. 

In the Piedmont earthquakes are possible, 
and in the sandhill section and Eastern North 
Carolina it is conceivable that a great slip 
might produce a considerable shaking. When 
the mountains seem to shake- — if they really 
do — it is the shudder that runs through their 
taut construction, by analogy as wind over 
a wire. 



(Continued from page 1) 
that markets were distant and carrying 
charges prohibitive. 

Yet the latest news from one of the most 
prominent plants established to meet these 
difficulties is that it faces the necessity of 
closing down because the farmers for whose 
benefit it was built will not produce the cat- 
tle and pigs with which it must be kept 
busy ! 

What is true of this Georgia plant un- 
fortunately reflects a strange indifference as 
to stock-raising in North Carolina and other 
Southern States — lands that in vast acre- 
ages possess such advantages of food, range 
and climate that they would seem to have 
been destined for the flocks and herds they 
have either never known, or have permitted 
to decrease to the vanishing point ! 

Cattle Basic Vocation 

Cattle raising is, of course, a basic industry 
only slightly less important than agriculture 
itself. In food it contributes the staples 
that are the fundamentals of necessity second 
only to the "staff of life." In clothing its 
leather products are in use almost as uni- 
versally as those of the cotton plant. The 
variety of its by-products, fats, extracts, 
medicines, soaps, chemicals, ornaments, is 
so great it has passed into a proverb that all 
of the slaughtered pig that escapes the use 
is his squeal. In addition, well managed 
stock is the only natural product of the land 
which enriches the soil upon which it feeds. 

Cattle raising, one of the primary uses of 
the land, should be the foundation of a great 
chain of interlocking and inter-dependent 
system of vocation, industry and manufac- 
turing of almost endless ramification and 
possibility. Instead of which only tanning 
and the production of tannic acid has had 
noticeable development, and in the case of the 
tanneries they are compelled to import their 
hides, while the market of the acid plants 
is largely outside the borders of the State. 

North Carolina Tanneries 

From a pioneer plant in Morganton in 
1801. the tanning industry now embraces 
twelve large and progressive plants, all keenly 
alive to the scientific developments of an 
intricate business. There is a capital invest- 
ment of $8,300,00, and the annual output of 
product is of more than $10,000,000 in value. 
Of these plants nine are treating hides and 
also producing their own acid in whole or in 
part, while three are devoted to the produc- 
tion of the tannic extract alone. Four of 
these plants, at Andrews, Sylva, Rosman, and 
North Wilkesboro, are million-dollar con- 
cerns, both in point of view of capital and 
value of their output. 

In the manufacture of leather new chemi- 
cal discoveries, new methods of improving 
the product, new demands of fashion and new 
uses for a commodity that has a wide and 
growing hold on the custom and life of the 
people, make the industry one that is under 
the constant spur of scientific and economic 
management. The modern tanner, in addi- 
tion, must look to his new formulas and up- 
to-date methods ; have concern not only for 
a supply of hides, but the source of the 
woods from which his acids must be ob- 
tained. The chestnut blight, for instance, 
that is of such serious moment on the ques- 
tion of forest conservation, is to the tanner 
a threat that questions his very existence. 
(Continued on page 3) 




(Continued from page 1) 
once deaf to the apparently insane clamor 
against the man and the flutter of the syco- 
phants circling in the glare of his wealth. 

li is water power and nol Duke thai is the 
issue. Iii iis consideration there are certain 
salieni points worthy of far more attention 
than Uiey have been receiving: 

Some Power Facts 

In the first place North Carolina now ranks 
lit'lh among the Slates in magnitude Of water 
power development, and is second to New 
York alone among States east of the Missis- 

In the four years 1010-1022 the annual 
output of its generating plants in kilowatt- 
hours increased from 5N1,S(SN,000 to Ni:;,5:!2,- 

In the same four years the output from 
fuel increased from 70,907,000 to 103,707,000. 

The striking fact about these figures is 
that while the total output was vastly in- 
creased, there was a decrease in per cent of 
output generated hy water power from a 
maximum of 93.2 in 1920 to 89.2 in 1922. 
While this was due in part to droughts, its 
greater significance lies in the notice it gives 
that the demand for power is now exceeding 
that which is available from existing hydro- 
developments. The extent of this demand 
was clearly indicated hy the quickness with 
which industry contracted for the output of 
the Southern Power Company's Mountain 
Island development, far in advance of its 

The practical question as to water powers, 
therefore, is whether their development may 
be counted upon to keep pace with the de- 

As to (lie industrial demand, statistics 
through a number of years show that mini- 
mum power requirements in 1025 will he 
1,219,645,000 kilowatt-hours, and 1,964,250,- 
000 kilowatt-hours hy 1930. 

To meet such a demand, which in all prob- 
ability will he even greater than indicated, 
there will he required an installed horse- 
power of 570,000 hy 1025 and 010,000 horse- 
power hy mm 

Tremendous Development Needed 
If, therefore, water powers are to he de- 
veloped on a scale to meet the demands of 
industry, the next two years must see 120.- 
000 horsepower installed, and the next five 
years an additional 400. 000. At a conserva- 
tive cost estimate of $100 per horsepower, this 
will mean a capital investment of $12,000,000 
in two years, to he followed hy $46,900,000 in 
the five years following. 

In other words, there must he made avail- 
able in seven years for North Carolina more 
horsepower than has yet been installed in 
the whole State since development of hydro- 
electric properties began. 

Where is this supply of installed horse- 
power to come from? In part it will be 
brought in from plants in other States — 
South Carolina. Alabama, and Tennessee — 
where the output is now greater than the de- 
mand. In part it will come from the installa- 
tion of steam plants (necessary complements 
of all hydro-electric systems to insure con- 
stancy of supply), but from that source at 
an expense of from two to three times the cost 
of power produced by water. Cut in the 
main, unless industry is to receive a sicken- 
ing blow, it must come from tin 1 maximum 
development of North Carolina rivers and 
streams; and in the provision of hydro-elec- 
tric power for general commercial uses the 

i ower ( 'omp.i ii,. i luck I >uke ba 
.. y ji iyed the leading role in t he p 
activil les const itute the best hope ot 

dale lilt inc. 

Of a total of 212.0(10 horsepower available 

'or genera] primary power needs, the South- 
ern Power Company has developed a total of 
l 13,000 in North Carolina, and <>\ the in 

crease of horsepower in the Stale of 90,000 

in the last two years. this one interest pro- 
vided 80,000! 

This. then, is the situation with which in- 
dust rial Xorl h ( 'arolina is faced ; 

That the one company thi • man. if 

that suits better which at once possesses 
the capital, experience and available sites to 
bring quick expansion declares that high con- 
struction costs, expense of transmission lines, 
steeper operating charges render further con- 
struction economically impossible at the 

present rates. 

Where Politics is Recklessness 

in the examination of this contention 
there is nothing that can lie brought into 
politics except through sheer recklessness. 
demagogism or wickedness. It is true, or ir 
is false. It should he tested expertly and 
scientifically for the facts. If Mr. Duke be- 
lieves it to he true, there is nol the shadow 
of an obligation upon him to increase an in- 
vestment in the execution of projects which 
in his opinion would involve financial loss. 

Cut North Carolina must have the de- 
velopment of water powers, up to the point 
of economic availability. The public interest 
is clear. How can the State serve it host V 
The alternatives are to regulate private com- 
panies subject to their right to a reasonable 
return, or itself to take over the wafer pow- 
ers, condemning the millions of dollars worth 
of private properties at their replacement 
values, and itself undertake development and 
operation of new sites. Merely the sugges- 
tion of such a program brings into view a 
thousand difficulties, of expert knowledge, of 
detailed surveys, of unprecedented bond 
issues and of fifty-seven varieties of half- 
baked campaign anil legislative debate and 
hocus-pokus. On the point of delay alone. 
State ownership of water powers could be 
counted on to hold up indefinitely a program 
nol only needed, but needed so imperatively 
as to take rank as a crisis. If the private 
companies are to be looked to to supply the 
need, the necessity of allowing them a re- 
munerative rate for their product is an ele- 
mental proposition. 

There is no reason, however, why regula- 
tion cannot be made to go constructively far 
beyond the question of rates. It can pro- 
vide, for instance, for such a limitation of 
the right to condemn power sites and the 
necessary land as to force their development 
and use within a reasonable period. It can 
provide a system whose chief end would be. 
nol io establish an arbitrary and doubtfully 
equitable maximum price on an industrial 
commodity insufficient in amount, bu1 to en- 
courage its production in maximum quantity. 

It could by other regulations insure that no 
one development would be such as Io injure 

the potential capacity for development of any 
power-producing st ream. 

After all. i he question id' the rate of hydro- 
electric current, when there is noi enough 
current ami the only alternative of steam 
power could be had only at a practically pro- 
hibitive price, is of relative insignificance. 

The real question the provision of power 
in the largest amount ami at the lowest prac- 
ticable rate— is one beside which any mailer 
of hatred for or hypnotism by the name id' 
Duke is in the highest degree irrelevant and 




ii inm d from - 
O m , ll i I ' , i 

Important a< it is, ii should be kept in 
mind that tanning is but a phase of the 
leather business, and an even smaller incident 
to cattle raising, [ts hide- should come from 
native herd-. They should be worked inlo 
the fine leathers the existing tanneries are 
able io produce ami thence passed on to the 
manufactories of boot- and shoes and other 
leather goods, which the presence of the tan- 
neries implies. To import a hide for tan- 
ning, and then to ship il from the Slate for 
manufacture, is to lose two distinct profits 

in what should he the logical utilization of 
the hide. To make and sell tannic acid for 

shipment outside the state, when it should 
be used in tanning hide- from native grown 
cattle, is another essential loss. Going fur- 
ther back, we have the state importing dairy 
products by the millions of dollars sent 
abroad for what the lands are waiting to 
provide. We have land- lying idle, subject 
to lire, denied the hope of reforestation, 
which could be utilized through proper graz- 
ing methods as ideal ranges for cattle, not 
only of great value in themselves, but prom- 
ising the virtual reclamation of the area- on 
which they would be grown. We have in 
the impulse for the continued and increased 
production of tannic acid the spur to the 
protection and preservation of the fo ■ 
from the bark of whose tree- ii is derived. 
We have in the establishment of packing 
plants a recourse against the scandal of Chi- 
cago meats as a staple North Carolina diet 
and an industry that in its possibilities of 
employment promises much in city building 
and financial growth. 

Great as the tanning and tannic acid in- 
dustry has become, it is in its infancy pro- 
vided that the lesson of cattle raising lie 
digested and acted upon. The question is 
Slate-wide. In the lands of the East there 

is a luxuriance of f 1 and a benignancy of 

climate almost unequaled in the world. 
There opportunity is thrown away by reason 
of a stubborn folly of letting scrub stock 
range at large to destroy potential pine 
forests and spread the tick that causes 
Texas fever. In the West ureal areas of 
mountain lands, once in forests and capable 
of sustaining new growth, are now left idle 
and at the merry .if lire-, when they might 
be turned into rich ranges. 

[NTERLOCKING Am xi ii - 

Tanning is an important but a -mall part 
of the cattle question, as tannic acid is an 
important but relatively small part of the 
problem of the forests, in whose protection i- 
involved the utilization of water power-, the 
check or the liberation of manifold manu- 
facturing enterprise, Touch any one of the 
great resources and it expands into a net- 
work of employment in which are Included 
practically every product and activity. What 
is true of tanning and cattle raising i- true 
in different ways of many other things whose 
relation has been missed or lost to sight 
Self sustenance is an intricate mallei- whose 
principle is the use in whole instead of in 
pari. It is in part use that there is waste. 
The miracle of complete employment of force 
or material is that in such consumption 
exists the best hope of renewal and replace- 




The visit. November 15-16. of the United 
States Senate Committee on Reforestation to 
Asheville, N. C, for the purpose of holding a 
hearing on forestry needs of the Southern 
Appalachians, will he an occasion of first im- 
portance to the future of the conservation 
program in the South. 

This committee, composed of Senators 
McNary, chairman, Moses, Couzens, Fletcher, 
and Harrigon, already has held hearings in 
the Gulf. Western and Northern States, and 
the meeting at Asheville probably will be the 
last before a final one at Washington, if that 
be considered necessary. By its report to the 
next Congress will be largely determined the 
future policy of the Government in connec- 
tion with maintaining the appropriation for 
forest reserves, carrying on the principles 
laid down in the Weeks Law, aiding in fire 
protection and establishing reforestation, not 
only on public, but privately owned lands. 
There will also enter into the scope of the 
hearing discussion of the important policy 
of road building through National Forest Re- 
serves and measures necessary to develop and 
popularize their use as recreational areas. 

Although there are in North Carolina no 
less, than 2.143.000 acres within the "pur- 
chase area" of the Forest Reserves— of 
which 323,110 have been acquired and 349,- 
870 approved for purchase— increase in the 
prices of lands, purchases by large holders 
interested in perpetuating the supply of tim- 
ber, and other factors, make it necessary that 
increasing emphasis be put on the question 
of cooperating with private owners in secur- 
ing the benefits of protection and reforesta- 
tion. Col. W. B. Greeley, United States 
Forester, Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director of the 
Survey, and many Southern men prominently 
identified with the question in other States 
will be in attendance. It is also expected that 
the meeting -will attract the interest and par- 
ticipation of a number of representatives of 
large owners of commercial timber lands. 

Much as the Government has done toward 
forest preservation through reserves for the 
protection of watersheds, and valuable as 
these reserves are in themselves, they must 
be considered as pointing the way to methods 
of protection, reforestation, scientific lum- 
bering, etc., which must be adopted by private 
ownership, if conservation is to get the im- 
petus its economic importance demands. For 
this to happen cooperation of Government, 
State and National, is necessary, in order to 
enable owners to consider their holdings in 
the light of a public trust as well as a purely 
personal investment. Of all lands in North 
Carolina, for instance, probably one-third 
should be classified as primarily adapted to 
the growth of timber and so considered in 
the laws governing their development, treat- 
ment and assessment for taxation, in a man- 
ner to make possible their larger usefulness 
as a public resource. 




(Continued from page 1) 
North Carolina from the sea, as lands brought 
under cultivation of a plant to take the place 
of the beverages under the ban of Volstead, 
when the time comes that the dream of their 
return is weakened by their absence ! 

So far from being the vision of a hop 
fiend, the plant that suggests the idea has a 
history in the use extending through cen- 
turies, so far as any one knows a history as 
ancient as that of tea itself; and, not only 
that, but it already has an established market 
in South America, and experiments in the 
United States have shown that it may be 
readily manufactured not only as a commer- 
cial tea, but as a syrup for use in soda- 
fountain drinks. 

Wild Product of "Banks" 

This plant — Ilex Vomitoria or Ilex Cassene, 
or in the common usage in Virginia and 
North Carolina, Yaupon — already grows wild 
and vigorously on practically all barren and 
sandy lands of the coast region from the 
James River to the Rio Grande. On the 
windswept reaches of the "Banks," where 
the sand billows change their form and posi- 
tion overnight, it digs in stubbornly in places 
where almost all other vegetation gives up 
the fight. A shrub whose purpose has seemed 
to be that of defiance of the desert — a species 
of vegetable camel — it laughs at storms and 
the starvation of the soil and makes shift 
to live and flourish. 

Prohibition already has achieved the trans- 
formation of the drug store into lunch 
counter, confectionery, and "fizz parlor." In 
Atlanta there is a new aristocracy of mil- 
lions founded on a cloying and perhaps 
slightly stimulating drink now better known 
than "Manhattan" or "Martini" in their 
palmiest days. Millions on millions are 
lavished by Americans on this and other tip- 
ples of aerated sweetness, but the tremendous 
change in habit is only the first of others that 
may be confidently expected. Prohibition will 
create for itself other more specific and more 
generally used palliatives — and of these it is 
a practical certainty that the base and prin- 
ciple will be caffeine. 

Caffeine Privileged Drug 

Caffeine is a drug. Caffeine stimulates. 
Caffeine gives a distinct, if gentle, answer to 
the age-long demand of mankind for some- 
thing with a "kick" to it. 

Not even Mr. Volstead or the States which 
have undertaken to enforce the prohibition 
of nicotine when the tobacco is wrapped in 
paper have yet reached the degree of pa- 
ternalism necessary to proscribe tea and 

Caffeine is safe from the law, for genera- 
tions at least. With alcohol on the run, its 
use must necessarily expand and multiply. 
Both tea and coffee are limited in supply. 
Both are imports. When the hundred and 
ten millions in this country once are set 
definitely to the new fashion, advancing 
prices will demand that the source of supply 
be made domestic. 

When that clay comes, Yaupon will come 
into its own. Yaupon has the caffeine. The 
"Banks" have the Yaupon. 

Old History of Native Tea 

Yaupon has a strange and unfamiliar sound 
to modern ears, but the Indians, who knew 
little of alcohol before the white man came 
along, were acquainted with its qualities 
when cured and brewed. There are au- 
thentic data showing its use by American 
tribes, both as a kind of tea and as a drink 

used in religious rites. A South American 
species of the same plant was popular in the 
ancient and more highly developed civiliza- 
tions of Peru and other countries, and under 
the common name of Yerbe Hate, is still ex- 
tensively cultivated and used, notably in 
Brazil, Paraguay, Uraguay, and the Argen- 
tine. In Argentina alone the consumption 
now amounts to something like 140,000,000 
pounds per annum, or twenty pounds per 
capita. As to the caffeine content, its im- 
portance will appear by comparative analyses 
of tea, coffee and cassina, the latter averag- 
ing 1 per cent, and running as high as 1.65 
per cent against a caffeine content in coffee 
as high as 1.8 per cent, to 3.5 per cent in some 
variety of teas. 

Not only by the Indians, but by the hard 
driven people of the South during the Civil 
War, was Yaupon and its product, cassina, 
practically applied. Many homes unable to 
get tea or coffee brewed its leaves for a table 
drink. There were times when the "Incom- 
parable Infantry" found in it a measure of 
relief in campaigns in which the commissa- 
riat was all but bankrupt. Long since for- 
gotten as a war-time expedient, there are 
now signs that cassina is coming back as an 
important factor following on the scarcity, 
the high price and the more than dubious 
quality of available potable liquors. 

New Stuff for "Soda Jerker" 
This future has to do not only with a 
cheaper substitute for tea and coffee, but 
with place in the stock of syrups on which 
the omnipresent soda fountain depends. As a 
result of experiments conducted by the United 
States Bureau of Chemistry, it has been 
found that different methods of manufacture 
produce three distinct varieties of the 
product — green and black cassina, and Cas- 
sina Mate — and at a cost very much cheaper 
than that attending the preparation of tea. 
All the leaves, instead of only a few as in the 
tea plant, yield the active principle of caf- 
feine. The pruned branches may be stripped 
by the use of live steam. The number of 
processes is much smaller, and less hand labor 
necessary. At Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, 
there is already a pioneer in the commercial 
use of cassina in Alfred Jouannet, who has 
been highly encouraged ; and the syrup is 
reported by the United States Department of 
Agriculture as being manufactured for sale 
by the National Research Laboratories of 
Union Hill, N. J. Cassina to the extent of 
5,000 pounds, manufactured during the past 
summer, is now on the market in half-pound 
containers as a test of its commercial value. 
The presence of Yaupon on the "Banks" 
may have another significance than that at- 
tending its cultivation for the manufacture 
of cassina. For the barrenness of the "Banks" 
is unique in that it is largely due to sands 
that blanket and prevent the productivity of 
the soil. Not only that, but the constant 
change in their topography, due to the shift- 
ing hillocks, makes extremely difficult their 
development as resorts, for which their situa- 
tion in respect to climate, the attractions of 
sea and sound, and nearness to fine fishing 
and game grounds otherwise fits them per- 
fectly. Investigating this feature of the 
"Banks," it is found that among the shrubs 
which must be depended upon to get a grip 
in the treacherous sands and act as a binder 
for reclamation of the land, the Yaupon has 
an important rank. 

It would be in keeping with the fantastic 
role which these sandbars have played for 
centuries in the history of the State, should" 
the sumptuary drought of Volstead bring 
them into their own as the home of planta- 
tions devoted to the cultivation of the plant 
to produce the drink of the future. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1. 


No. 15 


The greatest achievement in utilizing natu- 
ral resources, in stimulating industry, and in 
encouraging production of the soil in North 
Carolina, still stands, practically at a halt, 
marking time while it awaits the command 
of destiny. 

That achievement was the release of the 
State from the strangle-grip of "The Banks," 
the bars of sand that for generations served 
to keep as inland territory a State with an 
ocean frontage of hundreds of miles. For 
while the ocean lapped all the eastern border 
of North Carolina, only at Beaufort Inlet and 
the mouth of the Cape Fear was there a 
navigable deep water break in these isolat- 
ing barriers through which the State and its 
products could reach the highway of the 
seas. The Inland Waterways, through which 
Beaufort Inlet and Cape Henry have been 
linked with Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds, 
is literally the key by which the commerce 
of a great State can hope to be unlocked for 
practical touch with the world. 

Into these two great sounds empty six of 
the State's great rivers, tapping immense 
reaches of the richest lands, the most valua- 
ble timber, the most adaptable sites for in- 
dustry and manufacture of every kind. The 
Neusc, Pamlico, Roanoke, Chowan, Curri- 
tuck and Pasquotank, although they linked 
the sounds with the mainland of the State 
and were for many miles navigable, missed 
their effect because of their lack of direct 
connection with the sea. It was only when 
the untiring efforts of John H. Small secured 
from Congress the construction of the twelve- 
foot waterway from Norfolk to Albemarle 
Sound and Beaufort Inlet that the physical 
imprisonment, of all that section of Eastern 
North Carolina north of Beaufort was po- 
tentially ended. With the ultimate exten- 
sion of the Intracoastal Waterway from 
Beaufort to the Cape Fear River, every sec- 
tion of Eastern North Carolina will have not 
only direct, but alternative egress to the sea. 
When that is done, there will be in existence 
a continuous intracoastal waterway of twelve- 
foot depth from Boston to Beaufort, a route 
avoiding all the perils of the Capes and open- 
ing to the country at large a safe and easy 
coastwise commerce to Florida, the Gulf and 
the West Indies. 

A Problem of Use 

The vision, plus the energy and persistence 
of one man, has resulted in the practical 
realization of what began with the dream 
finding expression in the Dismal Swamp 
Canal of 1700. A hundred and thirty-three 
years after the first step of liberation had 
been taken, the inland waterways are much 
like the open doors of a cage of which a 
long captive bird hesitates through sheer 
habit to take advantage. 

In other words, the present problem of 
inland waterways is not so much their ex- 
tension as their use. All the towns on the 
(Continued on page 2) 


— + 



It may be assumed in safety that a State which has set the pace in making 
hard-surface roads to meet the ever widening future of motor transport and 
intercommunication is not going to be trailer in recognizing the duty to 
utilize the commercial possibilities inherent in the development of adequate 
port facilities. 

Good roads have impressed and given practical illustration of true State 
unity as nothing else could have done. They have made an essentially homo- 
geneous people sectionally sympathetic. When Piedmont and Eastern Xorth 
Carolina become able to see the advantage of "Lost Provinces" railroads in 
terms of North Craolina as a whole, surely Piedmont and Western North 
Carolina understand that a port, say at Southport-Wilmington, is as much 
their concern as that of the Eastern counties. What Baltimore, Mobile, New 
Orleans have done in the creation of ports North Carolina not only can dare, 
but cannot afford not to do. 

Port equipment, however, is but the first means to the great end to which 
it points. The port is but the mouth to an interior whose every artery of trade 
must be in turn nourished and drawn upon. It must feed the roads, and by 
the roads it must be fed. It is a pleasant and spectacular feat when a touring 
party sets forth at sea level and reaches the mountain country between suns, 
but the good road will not have attained its true economic use until it has 
become a highway of products rolling two ways along its smooth surfaces, dis- 
tributing the cargoes of the port cheaply and quickly, and delivering to tin- 
docks for transport the agricultural and industrial products upon the export 
of which the port relies for its success. 

Altogether too much emphasis has been laid upon the port as a weapon 
with which to force lower railroad freight charges. Were this automatically 
possible through equipping a port, the port itself would be stifled In its 
infancy. Once the port has come into its own through a developed industry 
linked with it by hard-surfaced roads and inland waterways, the railway rate 
question will take care of itself. 

Magnificent as it is in comparison with the past, the highway system is 
only on the eve of realizing its greater economic use. It is time wo began to 
consider it not only as a means of quick travel, but as the necessary comple- 
ment to port, waterways and railroads in a unified scheme of transportation, 
intensive and creative. 


To the superficial observer the day of high 
costs means nothing. Apparently the mass of 
the people, who are called on to pay for 
everything far beyond former price stand- 
ards, are achieving (he miracle of adding to 
I ho sum of two plus two. Clothes, "(ho 
front." wore never more expensive — or more 
plentiful. The automobile, once a sign of 

wealth, is now a symbol by (ho lack of which 

comes the confession of poverty. Yet in many 

(Continued on page 3) 


On the Cherokee Indian ro-orvation of 
48,000 acres ami the 15,000 acres owned indi- 
vidually in Swain. Graham and Cherokee 
counties, there are now l i \ i n u: prosperously 
2,500 representatives of one of the oldesl and 
sirongosi of all the aboriginal bribes. 

Like all Indians of the present day. there 
stretches behind them a tragic history o( war. 
rapine, and gradual decimation .-^ they first 
attempted to bo friends, then became the 
deadly enemies of the white '.matt, "finally 
' ■ (Continued <">i": ptrge t ; ' ' 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Industry and Spiritual Values 

North Carolina's new prominence as an 
up-and-coming agricultural and indus- 
trial State lias here and there attracted 
discriminating foreign comment upon two 
facts in which is found the explanation 
of what, standing alone, would be a phe- 
nomenon of progress almost approaching 
a miracle. 

These are that of the white population 
more than 99 per cent is Anglo-Saxon 
stock and native born, and that the birth 
rate exceeds that of any other State in 
the Union. In these truths lies the best 
assurance that what has been done in the 
way of material expansion of wealth and 
industry is a continuous conservative ex- 
pression rather than a speculative display 
of nervous force. What superficially has 
the appearance of a boom is in reality the 
slowly cumulative power of natural and 
orderly development. 

But along with this material advance, 
this racial vigor and independence, it 
should not be forgotten that the Anglo- 
Saxon stock of North Carolina has been 
shouldering ahead and lightening by ac- 
cepting the burden of the negro race. In 
the calm achievement by which the ne- 
groes are being educated to their future, 
made in increasing numbers independent 
and self-sustaining home-owners, nursed 
into knowledge and practice of better 
standards of health and morals there is a 
spiritual supplement to business success 
that is its clear explanation. 

It is a happy circumstance, also, that 
when it comes to its treatment of the real 
American, the hardy Scotch-Irish Tarheel 
stock can point to a record of justice and 
consideration as respects the Indian in 
sharp opposition to the usual manner in 
which the aboriginal has generally been 
exploited, tricked of his heritage, left 
finally to ' beat himself into oblivion 
against a civilization forced upon him 
with a cruel and wanton lack of under- 
standing. In the presence of the great 
tragedy of the American Indian, the ex- 
ception of the Cherokees of Western 
North Carolina makes a bright chapter of 
relief. It is true that the Cherokee loved 
his home and his field far more than the 
members of the other great Indian 
nations.' .*But;that he should have been 
held safe ihroi'igh thief -quarters of a cen- 

tury, still racially distinct, still true to 
ancient custom and yet won to adopt the 
methods and safeguards of the white man 
is a point of honor emphasized by the 

It is the fate of primitive peoples every- 
where to sicken, to die, to disappear in 
futile desperate struggle toward reversion 
to type and conditions no longer possible. 
Yet the 2,500 Cherokees who lend pictu- 
resque color to the counties beyond the 
Blue Bidge are not only gaining in happi- 
ness and prosperity, but accomplishing 
the miracle of positive racial increase. 

The Cherokees are worthy of study and 
reflection. Our high birth rate among our 
Anglo-Saxon stock is a point of pride to 
be recorded with a clearer conscience be- 
cause the virility and contentment it re- 
flects is once more shared by the repre- 
sentatives of the tragic people the march 
of the Anglo-Saxon displaced. 



(Continued from page 1) 
commercially strategic rivers, notably New 
Bern, Washington, Plymouth, Edenton, Hert- 
ford and Elizabeth City, now have free navi- 
gable outlets of a depth of twelve feet, both 
north through the Elizabeth River at Nor- 
folk and south by way of Beaufort Inlet. 
But it is noticeable that neither these cities 
and towns nor the territory with which they 
are in touch have begun to travel the high- 
way prepared for them in any degree com- 
parable with the advantages the highway 
itself extends to them. 

In part, at least, the reason for this neg- 
lect lies in the idea that the Inland Water- 
ways should serve to fix a lower rate for 
transportation — not by water, but upon the 
rail. Since this contention has not mate- 
rialized in fact, there has been an apparent 
hesitation to utilize the services of the great 
canals for the purpose for which they were 
constructed — water transportation to sea- 
ports. Not only does the inland waterway 
depend on its use for its justification, but it 
is only when it shall be fully employed that 
the really secondary matter of low competing 
rail rates can be logically expected. 

Distribution by Truck 

Why on these safe and adequately deep 
waterways are there not the barge and 
truck lines which in many sections furnish 
mobile transportation from sea to interior? 
Why are they not utilized, as elsewhere, by 
the loaded truck body removed from its 
chassis, placed on the barge, transported to 
a central point, again placed on wheels and 
sent whirring over hard-surface roads into a 
far interior brought cheek by jowl with quick 
markets? Why do not these truck lines radi- 
ate from every Eastern North Carolina river 
port to all adjacent territory, traveling full 
load from either direction? Where are the 
farms whose products could thus be brought 
into easy touch with avid markets? Where are 
the dairies, the small industries, the wood- 
working establishments for which all this 
section is adapted, which would give the 
inland waterway the work for which it was 



A preliminary report by F. O. Bartel, 
drainage engineer of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, of a proposed drain- 
age district, including the watershed areas of 
the upper portions of Sevenmile Swamp and 
Great and Little Coharie Creeks, in Sampson 
County, is to the effect that proper drainage 
presents no particular difficulties, the chief 
need being the straightening and deepening 
of natural watercourses as outlets for farm 

The general surface of the district is 200 
feet above sea level. Practically all the land 
in the district which is not too wet is now 
in cultivation, and the remaining 75 per cent 
is in cut-over timber, practically of no value 
in the present state. Cut-over land is valued 
at from $5 to $10 per acre, while that in 
cultivation is worth $100. According to esti- 
mates there will be required about 13 V£ 
miles of improved canal to afford drainage 
outlet for a watershed area of about 10,500 

It is recommended that the district be 
organized under the State Drainage Law. 

With a State-equipped port at Southport- 
Wilmington, plus the waterways feeding dis- 
tributing points in the interior and the Cape 
Fear River made navigable to Fayetteville as 
now authorized, the time will come when the 
through bill of lading by water will be an 
established custom. That obtained, the con- 
troversy over railroad rates will be largely 
a matter of self-solution. 

Port -Waterways Partnership 

But it must not be forgotten that when the 
State port is achieved there will be the same 
obligation toward it that it is now important 
to have observed with respect to the inland 
waterway. It must be used — and used both 
ways. It must be port of call for the vessel 
with cargo to distribute — but also point of 
export for cargoes to be drawn in from the 
State at large to fill the bottoms of the ships 
lying at its wharves. When the State port 
is functioning, the waterways through the 
sounds will make all of Eastern North Caro- 
lina easy contributor to its business — if 
Eastern North Carolina is prepared to con- 
tribute. It will bring into the State products 
from the manufacturing East and from 
abroad, distributing them cheaply where 
needed for ends of living, manufacturing or 
industry. It must carry out of the State the 
products grown and manufactured to meet its 
ends. Once the State port is functioning in 
alliance with the completed waterway, it will, 
for instance, multiply the trade with the 
South and the West Indies, over calm seas 
available for almost any fairly seaworthy 
craft. But it will not be functioning until it 
has become a double funnel of trade, with 
two mouths and two necks gathering and 
dispersing from sea and land. 

Nor can there be the ultimate development 
of Southport-Wilmington which its former 
prominence prophesied until the lands from 
which it drew its naval stores shall once more 
be forested and set permanently to work at 
the industry whose totally unnecessary de- 
struction cancelled the promise. 




What has been known as the Jackson 
County Rhodolite, which is found in quantity 
near Willetts, is now being thoroughly ex- 
plored hy tiie Perry Corporation of New 
York, process and mining engineers, for the 
interests who have acquired the property. 
The product of the mines is being handled on 
the hasis of its value as an abrasive material 
of the garnet family, without reference to 
Rhodolite as a gem. 

In the development now in progress air 
compressors and rock drills are being used in 
blasting into the unaltered mineral and trial 
runs are under way to determine the results 
of crushing. 

Rhodolite, distinguished for its rose-pink 
color and therefore named for the Rhododen- 
dron of the mountain counties, has long been 
known as a remarkably beautiful gem. Its 
occurrence and characteristics have not, how- 
ever, been such as to give it great economic 
importance when mined. The case is different 
if it be established that the Rhodolite mineral 
has real qualities as an abrasive. This is the 
theory upon which the operation at Willets 
is being pushed. 

Operators of the Willets property are con- 
vinced that the material in their mine is 
distinguished radically from the Rhodolite 
gems — the true Rhodolite — of Macon County. 
In the case of the latter Rhodolite is declared 
to be of the garnet family equivalent to two 
molecules of pyropc and one molecule of 
almanMte; whereas the Jackson County Rho- 
dolite at Willets is equivalent, to one molecule 
of pyro>pe and three molecules of almanMte. 
As an abrasive pyropc is not considered to 
be of great value, while that of almanditc is 
economically very high. The Macon County 
mineral's characteristics are more in the 
nature of pyropc, while that of Jackson 
County is nearer almmiriite. 

On account of these differences in the 
character of the minerals, both of which have 
been called Rhodolite, it is likely that the 
product of the Willets plant will he called 
"Abrasite (Jackson County Rhodolite)." 

high cost of living 

has made shooting 
rich man's luxury 

(Continued from page 1) 

unseen but inevitable ways the price is being 
made up in dangerous deprivations. 

One of the most graphic of these changes 
from a former order of living directly affects 
the youth. Fields are brown again. The 
hoar frost lies crisp in the bottoms on chill 
mornings. The bird-wise dogs seek out the 
likely spots on sunny hillsdies of broomstraw. 
The coveys gather at noon in the branches or 
the copse. Guns are sounding. The old 
autumn sport still has its enthusiastic devo- 
tees, but they come now from a sternly re- 
stricted class. In the fields are no more 
examples of the hoy who saved bis pennies 
for ammunition, loaded his own shells, 
trained his own dog, taught himself deeply 
in nature as a matter of experience and of 
right. Present-day hunters pay for all the 
paraphernalia of their sport. The keep of 
a dog equals that of the boy himself in the 
long ago. The range is a reserve, or a rented 
privilege. The automobile is an indispensa- 
ble adjunct. Hunting, with all that is im- 
plied in acquiring its lore in practice, is one 
of the distinct luxuries of life which only the 
few can afford. 

The pity of it is that there is more than 
pleasure missed, more than the loss of what 
was almost a universal joy, more than the 
lack of a general healthful zest and exercise 
in the open air. The injury goes deeper than 
this, in that it lessens understanding, initia- 
tive, independence. It makes even courage 

and resourcefulness more difficult and less 
instinctive. It threatens character. 

Game Laws at Beginning 

In one way the change was both inevitable 
and necessary. Had it not come there would 
by this time have been no game left. As it is 
we had a close squeak in the matter of the 
quail. Such laws as were passed for the 
protection of this most common game bird, 
indifferently enforced as they have been, 
worked with the quail's habit of semi-do- 
mesticity to stave off extermination. Change 
in habit, reduced acquaintance with firearms, 
less roving of the near-by woods and more 
playing of "cowboy" in drug stores have re- 
sulted in every city and town suburb support- 
ing its coveys, rarely seen, but as sure of 
themselves as if they were composed of 
chickens. Farmers realize the value of hunt- 
ing privileges. Traps are no longer set. A 
beginning has been made. 

It is, howve'r, the barest of beginnings. 
True, there are State laws which prohibit the 
killing of buffalo and elk, the use of aero- 
planes in hunting waterfowl, tire-hunting and 
the export of quail, partridge, grouse, pheas- 
ant, wild turkey, woodcock, etc. The Federal 
Migratory Bird Law also makes illegal the 
destruction of many species once considered 
"game" simply because they furnished a fair 
target or made a toothful tidbit. Thus the 
slaughter of robbins has ceased, and the held 
lark — that invaluable assistant to the farmer 
— is no longer shot down when the hunter 
"kicks it up." A limited number of counties 
come under the provisions of the State Audu- 
bon Law. An increasing number of hunters 
pay licenses in various counties. But there 
is little about the laws that is not per- 
functory : but few wardens to discourage 
violations ; almost universal ignorance as to 
what the game laws are. Indeed, a digest of 
North Carolina game laws shows a curious 
collection of frequently inconsistent statutes. 
Here and there a county is going through a 
supposed period of absolute prohibition of the 
killing of this or that species of game. Closed 
seasons vary widely in many counties 
throughout the State. There are sections in 
which the game laws are nothing better than 

Particularly with regard to the Federal 
Migratory Came Law. killers of various 
waterfowl and beach birds treat the statute — 
if they have heard of it — with the utmost 
contempt. Duck shooting is still a recog- 
nized summer pastime in numerous sections 
in the Fast. Came in general, waterfowl and 
quail particularly, may be increasing, but in 
nothing like the degree in which it would 
multiply it it were once considered a prop- 
erty worthy of real protection by the State. 

The method by which the end of plentiful 
game may be achieved is well established. 
A number of States now maintain game sanc- 
tuaries, where breeding is absolutely unin- 
terrupted, and in connection therewith tracts 
of land on which public hunting is permitted 
and encouraged within proper seasons. The 
result is that not only is game conserved 
and the cost of protection more than met by 
Hie hunters' fees and licenses, but the sjMirt 
of hunting reestablished among those to 
whom it is natural privilege and exercise Im- 
portant to the manhood of the individual and 
the fibre of the nation. 

Restore Spobt to People 

The shots, in pairs or singly, are resound- 
ing in the fields all over the State, calling to 
the listener of days when life was at the 
morn. Bui too many to whom the memory 
is keen have long since given oxer the Bport, 
of whose delights they can only speak to 

their children without providing them. It i- 

the peculiarity of the situation thai nevex 

will the game of the woods and field- l,e 

again established as common property except 

by restrictions upon its taking with the idea 
of again putting it into the common reach. 

North Carolina needs game law- which will 
apply sensibly and scientifically to all specie. 
and be enforced by well organized and 
financed central authority. Since game is 

independent of movement, if should no Longer 

be possible for one enmity In be protected by 

law while the game it saves may be indis- 
criminately slaughtered <>r misused by an- 
other and adjoining county. In addition the 
State needs sanctuaries for breeding anil 
well-managed reserves for public hunting pur- 
[Mises. and these can be provided incidentally 

so soon as it is realized that there must be 
more State parks and areas in which timber 
will be encouraged to reproduce itself. 

Always it has been an incident of autocra- 
cies that game and its pursuit were matters 
for the aristocrats: it should be the care of a 
democracy to see that the game N used by 
the people without lieiny consumed by them, 
and that such a common heritage never shall 
retrograde into a special perquisite of wealth. 



In every part of North Carolina this year's 
Indian Summer approached the perfection 
with which the poet endows it. Everything 
conspired in aid of its tradition of charm 
and beauty. Warm sun. mellow winds, the 
color-magic of the dying foliage made a long 
progression of glowing days. Reluctant 
leaves, clinging past their day to the green 
of summer, melted into shifting tones of 
brown, russet, yellow, orange, gold. Ir was 
the requiem of a season satisfied, but holding 
tight to happy memories. 

This exceptional Indian Summer ha- done 
more, however, than stir a familiar poetic 
impulse. As a result of the lateness of frost, 
what is called the "lire season" in the forests 
has been greatly delayed, and it is possible 
that its annual cost may be minimized. An 
early killing frosf followed by the usual 
drought of the fall turns the woods into SO 
much tinder. Leaves fall in cloud- of glory, 
but ready to start into flame at a spark. 
Trees from which tlie sa]» has fled are liter- 
ally so much Brew 1. Wherever there is 

timber the risk is constant and imminent. 
A passing locomotive, a tossed match, a 
smouldering camp-fire and flames leap up 
as a beast at its prey. Because of the excep 

tionally benignant October the forests this 

season have had a quality of resistance they 

do not usually possess. The annual tires are 
to a large extent postponed. It is possible 

that rains will complete the work of protec- 
tion, and thus produce a year without its ••lire 

In the twenty-three counties of the State 
that cooperate with the Survey in the tire 

protection work of its foresty department, 

wardens and deputies are alertly watchful. 
Year by year these forces become better 
acquainted with conditions and more highly 
skilled in meeting emergencies. Fires that 
■night readily become forest conflagrations 


are in many cases stopped in their tracks. 
Those that get a start are frequently held 
within small limits. New tools and appli- 
ances are being brought into play and are 
frequently demonstrated by the fire wardens 
of the Survey. While the delayed frosts un- 
doubtedly have held down the number of sea- 
sonal fires, reports of county organizations 
show that the service has greatly aided a 
natural condition. One instance, in particu- 
lar, in which a menacing fire was held to an 
area of five acres illustrates the possibilities 
of the service in affording protection. 

Both in the mountain areas and in Eastern 
North Carolina the danger of the fire season 
is foolishly augmented by the practice of the 
old custom called "light burning." By tradi- 
tion this habit of setting fires in undergrowth 
is supposed to serve the double purpose of 
rendering destructive fires less likely and of 
promoting the growth of grasses. Modern 
knowledge, however, shows that the notion is 
false in both particulars. Not only does 
"light burning" greatly increase the risk of 
accidents resulting in serious destruction, but 
it retards the growth of the very grasses that 
are most nutritive for grazing purposes. But 
its greatest evil, especially in the East, is 
the destruction it works in the young growth 
that would naturally replenish cut-over lands. 

Demonstrations conducted in the Sandhill 
region this fall by District Warden F. B. 
Merrill sharply illustrated this truth in the 
case of the long-leaf pine. On areas which 
had been free of fires and "light burnings" 
millions of hardy young plants were found 
surviving from the last good seed year, 1921. 
On other areas where these supposedly bene- 
ficial fires had been permitted, practically all 
of this seedling stock had perished. Since 
the long-leaf pine is of slow growth and has 
seed years only at intervals, it is clear that 
all hope of its reproduction is lost wherever 
"light burning" is persisted in. Seeded once 
in three years, preyed on by ranging cattle, 
killed by "light burning," the wonder is, not 
that there are great long-leaf areas which are 
now barren of their native covering, but that 
there are any seed trees left. 


Although peat from North Carolina hogs 
was briquetted experimentally with entire 
success as long ago as the Jamestown Expo- 
sition in 1907, practically nothing has been 
done toward the utilization of the many de- 
posits of this valuable material, scattered 
throughout the State, but especially abundant 
in Eastern North Carolina. 

Recent reports indicated that only one peat 
plant was operating in the State, and that 
was using the product for fertilizer, with no 
consideration for its value as a fuel or pro- 
ducer of important by-products. Peat sam- 
ples from a number of North Carolina locali- 
ties show a high carbon content and volatile 
matter which could be made to produce wood 
tar, methyl, or wood alcohol, amonia com- 
pounds and illuminating and lubricating 

Many of the objections to the peat in- 
dustry, such as expense of drying, etc., have 
been eliminated by the patented "Morisite" 
process, which provides a plant in which the 
raw material is fed to gas producer engines 
which generate all the needed power, these 
manufactured by the Morisite Corporation 
Engineers, of Detroit, Michigan. 

There has lately come on the market a 
peat fuel machine manufactured by the C. A. 
Willmath Co., of Tecumseh, Mich., which is 
said to be simple in operation and economical 
in cost, 'particularly- suiied to the small bog. 




(Continued from page 1) 

found their peculiar civilizations and customs 
destroyed, their lands confiscated, and them- 
selves sent forth from one pillar to another 
post in order that the Anglo-Saxon instinct 
for pioneering and settlement might be satis- 

But unlike most of the other tribes which 
have either died or are dying, either actually 
or by repeated dilution of blood, the North 
Carolina Cherokees not only managed to 
resist determined efforts to deport them from 
their native soil, but have adapted them- 
selves to their surroundings with a good faith 
and energy, making them a happy exception 
to a sad rule. 

Proof of this is had in the fact that since 
1913 they have increased from 1,900 to 2,500, 
are making rapid strides in agriculture, are 
learning sanitation and right living, and have 
a long tradition of literacy. The reason 
doubtless lies in the fact that the Cherokees, 
while expert in the hunt and terrible in war, 
were from the beginning only partly nomadic. 
The Cherokee loved his field as well as his 
grounds on which to follow the chase. With 
him the tilling of the soil for the sake of 
saving food for winter was ever one of the 
cardinal virtues ; and the straightly descended 
representatives of the old Cherokee nation 
have the advantage that what they have they 
hold by virtue of a moral victory won against 
the United States Government itself, and the 
express orders of no less a person than the 
renowned "Old Hickory" Jackson. 

Strong and Ancient Race 

As known by the early pioneers, Spanish 
and English, the Eastern Cherokees occupied 
lands whose boundaries embraced 40,000 
square miles, from the head streams of the 
Kanawha to Atlanta, and from the Blue 
Ridge to the Cumberland range, with Isati, 
or-Eehota, on the South Bank of the Little 
Tennesee, their capital. It is an interesting 
fact in connection with the fanciful theory 
that the Indians may be the descendants of 
the "Ten Lost Tribes" that this capital was 
in all respects a "City of Refuge," such as 
was maintained by the Jews in Old Testa- 
ment times. Although there is no history of 
an earlier race than the Cherokees in the 
North Carolina mountains, they themselves 
have a tradition of a preceding white race, 
and of a tribe of white dwarfs who, accord- 
ing to fable, lived on the site of the ancient 
mound on the Hiwassee River at the mouth 
of Peachtree Creek. For themselves the 
Cherokees claim the building of the mounds 
at. Grave Creek in Ohio and those near 
Charlottesville. Va. But they have no record 
or tradition of connection with the ancient 
mounds and petroglyphs in North Carolina, 
Tennessee and Georgia. 

Exodtts Through Force 

Contemporary history began with the 
Cherokees along with the introduction of 
guns about 1700 and of small-pox, carried 
to Charleston in a slave ship, about 1738. 
This plague ran through the tribe with de- 
vastating effect, and association with the 
white man took the usual course of partici- 
pation in his wars — Oglethorpe's expedition 
against the Spanish at St. Augustine, for in- 
stance^ — and then war with the white man. 
with a succession of treaties, each of which 
further limited their territory, as the result. 
There followed in time several proposals and 
attempts to place the Cherokees in foreign 

reservations, all of which were scorned, and 
finally by treaty of 1835 the Cherokees were 
required to remove to the area already occu- 
pied by the Western tribe in what was then 
the Indian Territory. As the treaty was 
drawn, exceptions were made of those indi- 
viduals who might be expected to make useful 
citizens, but this met with the opposition of 
President Jackson, who insisted that all be 
removed together. 

This treaty having been made by the chiefs, 
practically none of the 16,000 Indians in- 
volved willingly consented to remove from 
home, and at length General Wingfield Scott 
was sent with a military force to remove 
them by force. It was while this plan was 
being executed that a Cherokee named Old 
Charley, and several other younger Indians, 
attacked their guard, killing two and wound- 
ing others, and then fleeing to the Smoky 

Blood of "Old Charley" 

Two tales are told of the result of this 
tragedy — one that Old Charley and his band 
voluntarily surrendered and paid the death 
penalty on the understanding that their 
tribe would not be expelled ; the other that 
they were captured by their own people and 
delivered to the troops on a promise to the 
same effect. At any rate, although there is 
no record of an agreement, a compromise was 
arranged as a result of their sacrifice, and 
their blood it was which bought for the North 
Carolina Cherokees the privilege of remain- 
ing in their ancient homes. The tribe was 
afterwards recognized by both State and 
Government, and during the Civil War a 
Cherokee command served faithfully in the 
Confederate Army. 

As the result of the teachings of the re- 
markable Sikwayi (Sequoya, for whom the 
giant red-wood of California was named), the 
Cherokees have been literate in their own 
language for more than a century. It was 
Sequoya who invented the Cherokee alpha- 
bet, which proved a remarkably easy means 
for reading. As long ago as 1848 the Chero- 
kees were noted for this ability and its con- 
sequent culture ; for agriculture ; for arts, 
including the making of clothing, farm im- 
plement, even guns. Old Charley's blood, 
whatever the bargain under which it was 
shed, had not been spilled in vain. 

Tribe's Future Bright 

Present day Cherokees are thrifty, indus- 
trious and healthy. In addition to agricul- 
tural pursuits they practice the ancient arts 
of pottery making and basket-weaving, and 
their annual fair is an event of growing 
interest in Western North Carolina. They 
have schools, churches, health instruction and 
constant medical supervision. Of their reser- 
vation approximately 30,000 acres is in tim- 
ber, a source of wealth which is being hus- 
banded in a manner to set an example of 
remedy for a negligent policy of waste to 
which the State is just awakening. On the 
Cherokee timber-land, due to the care of 
police and fire wardens, there has not been a 
fire in twenty years. 

The story of the Indian in North America 
is one of the saddest and most cruel examples 
of a race apparently unable either to adapt 
itself or to be assimilated. The North Caro- 
lina Cherokees make the happy exception of 
a people still true to their type set for a 
future worthy of themselves and useful to 
the State. 

Among the many things in North Carolina 
a newly interested world can be stimulated 
by seeing is the modern Cherokee, who while 
neither "sight" nor "scenery" is one of its 
most worth-while and pleasing exhibits. 


A Bi-Weckly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1. 


No. L6 


Natural Resources recently called atten- 
tion in a brief note to the need of municipal 
landing fields for aeroplanes, as evidenced by 
the fact that a flyer paying a visit to Ashe- 
ville found no place there in which he might 
"park his bus." 

Since then the need of such fields in West- 
ern North Carolina has been sharply empha- 
sized by the impending arrival of the United 
Stales planes which are to fly above the upper 
French Broad, reproducing photographically 
the river, (he mountains through which it 
flows, the topography of the adjacent terrain, 
in fact every detail of a broad and to a great 
degree inaccessible region, in order that there 
may he obtained exact maps showing where 
and how it may be developed in order to con- 
serve the water supply of the river itself and 
make available heavy reserves of hydro-elec- 
tric power. 

Circling above peaks where a few years 
ago only an occasional eagle was able to 
venture, these modern engineers of the air 
will produce maps that will be panoramic in 
effect; that will nevertheless bring out with 
startling distinctness every natural and arti- 
ficial detail ; that will bring literally into the 
office as working plans what in all essentials 
.is a reproduction in miniature of hundreds of 
square miles of stream, forest, gorge and 
mountain. Instead of being a possibility of 
fancy this bit of practical poetry of science 
is a part of a day's work with engineers who 
for more than two years have been engaged 
in bringing to hand for precise analysis the 
whole of the Tennessee River Basin. 

Landing places for their planes will soon 
be as necessary as a cook tent in a construc- 
tion camp. 

Picture Touching Six States 
What is known as the Tennessee River 
Basin, starting in Virginia, spreads out into 
North Carolina, includes much of the Eastern 
end of Tennessee, dips into Georgia, embraces 
a considerable area in Alabama, and a small 
corner of Mississippi. 

This area in six States includes a great 
part of the Appalachian Mountains, the ridge 
of the Southeastern section of the United 
States that ifi Nature's device for catching 
and precipitating the water from the clouds 
that furnishes the rivers, irrigates the plains, 
in the elemental economy of man carries com- 
merce to the highway of the seas. 

By authority of Congress the Engineer 
Corps of the United States Army has for two 
years been engaged in a survey, the end of 
which is to discover the possibilities as to 
navigation, flood control, and power develop- 
ment of all the immense territory drained by 
the Tennessee River and its tributaries. In 
the matter of rainfall the section is unique 
in that the mountains catch and precipitate 
the warm, moist winds from the Atlantic on 
their eastern and from the Gulf on their west- 
ern slopes. Yet because of the absence of 
lakes, the heavy rainfall of the spring and 
fall runs quickly to waste, and in the sum- 
(Continued on page 4) 

— + 



Originally the Reclamation Act contemplated the appropriation of the pro- 
ceeds derived from the sale of public lands to irrigation of arid homesteads 
for which settlers would pay in easy installments. Jn theory such moneys 
would thus constitute a revolving fund to remain intacl when all necessary 
projects had been completed. Since practically all the public lands and those 
open to homesteading were in the Western States, the practice of reclamation, 
while physically sectional, was justified by the fact that the funds for reclaim- 
ing arid lands came from and were expended in the States to bo benefited. 

Since amendments of the original law and failure to collect the assessments 
due by homesteaders have long since destroyed the "revolving fund" character 
of the appropriations, it has come to pass that reclamation projects for the 
sole benefit of arid lands in the West have become a public burden for a sec- 
tional benefit. If reclamation is to continue as a policy, it must be made 
national in scope. 

Revision of the original Newlands or Reclamation Act in a manner to cure 
this injustice, not by halting worth-while irrigation projects in the West, but 
by extending the principle in an economic manner to every part of the country 
in which potentially useful lands are now lying idle, is one of the high points 
in the campaign to be undertaken by the Forestry, Reclamation and Home- 
making Conference, which has recently met in jNTew Orleans. It is of vital 
interest to the South, in which there are ten acres susceptible of reclamation 
to one in the West. In North Carolina alone, it is estimated that there are 
at least 1,500,000 acres of wet and cut-over lands which could be developed 
into farm homes through the properly safeguarded extension of credit, based 
on the value of the lands themselves, through the National Farm Loan Bank, 
after expert determination of their fitness for settlement and the character 
and fitness of the prospective settlers themselves. 

The Newland Act never contemplated the gift of anything to the bene- 
ficiaries of irrigation projects, but the result has been a continual pressure to 
relieve these beneficiaries of their debts to the Government. Nationalizing 
reclamation — which would make suitable for farm homes a Southern empire 
of the richest lands in America — means no more than providing the facilities 
of a reasonable credit to a selected class of ambitious and efficient home- 
makers, wherever the opportunity occurs. 


The National Association of Cotton Manu- 
facturers, composed almost entirely of New 
England concerns, recently met in its 115th 
annual session. 

The chief subject under discussion was not 
any means of expanding New England's tex- 
tile industry or broadening its markets; but 
nil her the question of survival. 

It was recognized with the candor of the 
business mind that the mills this association 
represents faced the necessity of securing 
hotter conditions at home or surrendering 
linally to Southern competition. In this con- 
nection the president, Mr. Robert Amory. 
pointed out : 

(Continued on page 12) 


Under the enlightened policy liehiL.' followed 
by the Fisheries Commission Board, there Is 
excellent prospect thai the New River Oyster. 
once the pride of Eastern North Carolina 
shell fish, inn practically eliminated from the 
markets by reckless methods in supplying 
the demand, Is to make a famous "come- 
back." The denuded beds are being syste- 
matically planted and a fine growth is shown, 
.lodging from results obtained and the in- 
crease of the oysters planted, it should be 
only a relatively short while before this once- 
famous bivalve comes Into its own again. 
When it does, the proper advertising, use of 
a distinctive name and modem methods ,»i' 
(Continued on page •"• l 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Frank Page, chairman of the State 
Highway. Commissioners, recently gave 
out some graphic figures showing the size 
of the general scheme of road improve- 
ment 'and the manner in which it is eco- 
nomically carrying itself in operation, not 
taking into account the more indirect 
benefits to the whole people of the high- 
way system itself. 

Thus, though the expenditure has been 
averaging $2,000,000 a month, and has 
attained a total of $52,000,000, with other 
millions yet to be spent to complete the 
present program of 3,569 miles, users of 
gasoline are not only paying for the work 
through the collection of the tax, but have 
been themselves saving through good roads 
the amount of their automobile licenses. 
While this tax produced in July $294,000, 
in August $304,000, and in September 
$338,000, the figures show that 142,284 
drivers of cars in 1920 used an average of 
520 gallons of gas at a cost of $130.00 
per car, but in 1922 181,955 cars were 
operated on an average of 463 gallons at 
a cost of $115.75 per car. 

The gratifying significance of such evi- 
dence is that it is conclusive not only of 
the investment character of good roads 
expenditure, but of an immediate profit 
in use of the roads themselves, which 
promises their development to the point 
that every highway need will be met in 
the provision of an intricate and all- 
embracing network of intercommunica- 

Such a development, including great 
hard-surface trunk lines for truck traffic, 
lighter feeders, varied construction based 
upon present and probable future traffic 
needs, will not only carry itself, but in 
values, industry and commerce pay infi- 
nite dividends and provide the solution 
for innumerable economic and social 

The fact that the innumerable machines 
that skim the thousands of miles of Worth 
Carolina good roads are both burning and 
saving gasoline looks the paradox, but is 
in reality the easiest of sums. 

Rural Virginia, enamored of mud, could 
come to North Carolina for a scientific 
explanation of the new way of "paying as 
you go." 



(Continued from page 1) 
For the last year and a half there has been 
practically no new construction. There has 
not even been sufficient replacement of worn- 
out machinery. Mills are operating at ninety 
per cent and less of full single shift produc- 
tion. In the Carolinas operation was for 
full and overtime. In the last two months 
for which figures were available Massachu- 
setts ran 66 and Carolinas 121 per cent ! 

Southern Mills and Raw Materials 
Seeking the causes which have precipitated 
such a crisis, Mr. Amory attacks as a fallacy 
the idea that Southern cotton mills owe their 
increasing predominance to the fact that they 
are "located in the cotton fields." In the 
great cotton mill district of the South, the 
Piedmont (Virginia, North and South Caro- 
lina and Georgia), in the year August 1, 1921, 
to August 1, 1922, consumed 3,016.000 bales 
against 2,087,000 bales produced within the 
states in which its mills are situated. Not 
only did it import 929,000 bales for manufac- 
ture, but was forced to get the cotton grown 
in its own states by a fairly long railway 
haul at heavy freight charge. Since New 
England's cotton can come from almost any- 
where in the cotton belt by water, the differ- 
ence in the freight rate is negligible and, in 
addition, the New England manufacturer has 
all the advantage in obtaining the foreign 
cottons of India. Egypt, Brazil, China and 
Peru. Yet the difference in cost of production 
has meant that New England mills have 
suffered intermittent operation, partial em- 
ployment, and a loss of profit that threatens 
not only the primacy but the existence of the 

Further analyzing the situation, Mr. Amory 
denies the statement that New England labor 
is inferior in quality, or that management is 
inefficient. His explanation, finally, is that 
politics is the cause. The mills are ham- 
pered by a superfluity of laws, nominally 
humane and beneficent, which in practice 
prevent the operation of two shifts and thus 
minimize production, prevent competition in 
the cheaper grades, and make it impossible 
to secure adequate utilization of plant. The 
only remedy he suggests is an appeal to the 
law-making bodies to repeal these restrictive 
statutes — a dream and a delusion desperate 
on its face. 

Power and Piedmont 

It will be noted, however, that there is 
one question on which Mr. Amory does not 
touch — a matter that explains why the Pied- 
mont empire of textile manufacture has been 
able to expand and run full time and take 
on the character of magnet to a basic in- 

That is the incident of hydro-electric power. 
Next to labor, power is the chief production 
cost. Given abundant and relatively cheap 
power, freight charges for raw material be- 
come a secondary factor. In the case of 
cotton goods, where the product is of light 
weight, distribution is fairly independent of 
location, so that production costs are reason- 
able. Look at any railroad map of the Pied- 
mont and one will see the dots indicating 
cotton manufacture clustered like a pattern 
of shot from a choke-bored gun about the 
power lines. So long as it was a mere ques- 
tion of distance to the cotton fields, New Eng- 
land's advantages of water transportation 
gave her something better than a competing 
chance. Now that it has come to the point 
where the Southern mill has the advantage 
of hydroelectric power, the latter can haul 
its cotton long distances from its own fields 

and import it from other states and abroad, 
meet a competition seeking enough business 
to run part time, and still find enough to do 
to keep going overtime. 

Political Drawbacks 

Concede that what Mr. Amory says about 
hostile legislation is true, and it will be found 
that his defense of New England labor is 
disingenuous. That labor is not so much 
independent as hostile, in contradistinction 
to the cooperative spirit displayed by the 
native industrial labor of the South. If New 
England mills are hampered by hostile legis- 
lation, it is because New England labor has 
been playing politics instead of teaming up 
with industry, and so has been killing its 
own goose. 

If that is true, what a warning it is to the 
Piedmont of the several states and to North 
Carolina particularly to see that the crip- 
pling process applied by New England labor 
is not here adopted in a different form to 
the same effect. Carolina mills are not oper- 
ated by a class amenable to agitators. As 
to the native labor, the acceptance of the 
rule of live and let live has procured good 
living and working conditions without the 
punishment of the industry by which its 
living comes. It is necessary that in the 
case of power, the next essential, the State 
be preserved from the reckless political in- 
terest that would artificially limit the expan- 
sion of the mill industry by prohibitive re- 
strictions upon the allied enterprise upon 
which it must depend for the economical 
turning of its wheels. 

Keep the Edge Sharp 

If the logical permanent ascendancy of the 
Piedmont in the textile world is to work 
itself out to a conclusion, there must be a 
quick multiplication of power resources. 
Capital requirements to bring this about will 
be even greater than those to take care of the 
addition of textile manufactures which would 
be response to the development. The Pied- 
mont now has the edge. It is a question of 
dulling or keeping it sharp. 

The dream of bringing the New England 
textile mills to a South ready to absorb and 
furnish them release from alien labor domi- 
nation is rich but justified. 

But it must be remembered that the prepa- 
ration for such an economic adjustment is a 
tremendous task — of which hydro-electric 
development is the chief incident. 

To the first question of labor, the State 
can answer satisfactorily. It must make sure 
that it can answer the next question of power 
in the affirmative. 



Owing to its range of altitudes and cli- 
mates, North Carolina probably maintains a 
wider variety of bird life than any other 
American State. Not only is it favored by 
the great migrations, but many of these birds 
find in it a satisfactory intermediate zone, in 
which they compromise their customs by 
breeding and becoming practically residents. 
In the mountains this is true in the higher 
altitudes of species that normally breed only 
in much more northern climes ; along the 
coast there are found subtropical conditions 
which attract species that as a general thing 
are not found north of Florida. Throughout 
the State generally all seasons witness the 
presence in the woods of thousands of speci- 
mens of interesting bird life, of which the 
average observer knows nothing. 

Knowledge of birds, their identity, charac- 
teristics and habits, is strangely enough one 
of the rarest qualities even among those 


whoso lives are lived in circumstances that 
make it most easy to acquire. Familiarity 
too often breeds blindness as well as con- 
tempt. Like the colors which distinguish the 

seasons, birds make scarcely more than a 
blur to the superficial eye. 

In a day when sport is not only empha- 
sized, but complicated in Indulgence, there is 

open to every North Carolinian, dweller in 
the city or otherwise, a realm of healthful 
interest and pleasure in the study of the bird- 
life that everywhere waits to disclose its 
secrets at no further cost than that of still- 
ness and observation in its haunts. Take 
to the fields or the woods at any season, dress 
Inconspicuously, cultivate passivity, and the 
number of things to be seen is well-nigh 
miraculous. Almost any wood, apparently 
empty, yields to quiet watching rich returns 
ill surprise at the life it harbors. The eye 
notes a multitude of movement. The ear 
catches in minor tones a veritable babble of 
feathered conversation and comment. Be 
quiet, and the most timid and retiring inhabi- 
tants of the trees and grasses gain courage 
and go about an infinity of affairs otherwise 
not to be dreamed of. With field glass and 
notebook — a good observation book may be 
obtained from the National Association of 
Audubon Societies — it is a short time only 
before the amateur acquires a quantity of 
lore that initiates him into a veritable con- 
fidential fraternity with outdoor life. 

In cataloguing and identifying birds, points 
of observation are size and characteristic 
marks; build and shape and size of bill; 
Length and shape of tail — long, short, square, 
rounded, or forked — and its differences, if 
any, from the general plumage. In color the 
observer notes particularly the shade and 
markings of the head, back, wings, and tail ; 
of throat, breast and belly. Flight peculiari- 
ties are also important, manner of feeding, 
nesting, etc. Hundreds of birds have charac- 
teristics that make their identification certain 
when definitely noted. A good book like 
Reed's Bird Guide, for beginners, or Chap- 
man's Birds of Eastern North America, for 
advanced work, is indispensable for the best 
results. North Carolina is peculiarly for- 
tunate in possessing fhe Birds of North Caro- 
lina, a publication of the N. C. Geological 
and Economic Survey, the editors of which 
were T. Gilbert Pearson, C. S. Brimley, and 
H. H. Brimley, with full descriptions and 
profusely illustrated, with many plates in 

While spring is perhaps the most favorable 
time for observing birds, the climate in much 
of the State lends itself to the practice during 
the fall and on many mild winter days, and 
bird life at these seasons is prolific and in- 
teresting, as well as it is in the more intense 
period of "New Talk" and mating. Although 
the compilers of the "Bird Book" and other 
investigators have done a great work in 
classifying and describing the State's bird 
life, it is realized that there were once pres- 
ent species which are no longer found, and 
that there may be other species of rare ap- 
pearance which have escaped definite detec- 
tion. The amateur bird observer does not 
have to be presumptuous to hope; that he may 
be the one to discover and prove the presence 
of some new species with which the State is 
not now credited. In case of anything of this 
kind, the Survey would appreciate copies of 
notes kept by any one in North Carolina. 

The chief value of bird observation, how- 
ever, is the opportunity afforded of a heathful 
and quiet form of exercise that carries with 
it an education in sympathy. Once let the 
people really .sec the birds that too frequently 
exist for them only subconsciously, and the 
problem of protecting and encouraging the 
increase of songsters and countless highly 
useful species will be vastly simplified. 




(Continued from page 1) 

distribution should readily make it a brand 
as famous as any of the nationally known 
oysters of Chesapeake Bay or the more 
northern waters. 

Scientific oyster planting, while a matter 
calling for exact knowledge and much care 
and caution, is, if the rules are followed and 
protection afforded, the most certain of all 
conservation efforts. This is due to the fact 
that the "spat" — the oyster principal in non- 
technical language— is carried in vast quanti- 
ties in the waters. It seeks only lodgment 
and a place in which to survive and grow. 
The initial necessity, therefore, is provision 
of bottom conditions which will give a safe 
harbor for the sinking spat, upon wheh it 
may develop. While young oysters are 
planted, the same result is in great measure 
obtained simply by the planting of the shell, 
on which the spat comes to rest in the pro- 
vision of nature. Afterwards control of the 
method of harvesting, regulations as to the 
size of the oysters to be taken and a regular 
system of restocking can easily make the 
supply and quality perpetual and uniform. 

Oysteus Ckeatuke of Environment 

This is possible because the oyster is en- 
tirely, instead of only partially as in the case 
of other life, the product of its environment. 
That is to say, the spat from which it grows 
is utterly responsive in its development to the 
conditions in which it is placed. According 
to the food the water brings it, the quantity 
of salt in the water, a hundred conditions of 
temperature, etc., it is the one thing or the 
other, in size and flavor. Thus a small and 
tasteless oyster from one locality, if its spat 
falls in better ground, becomes the aristocrat 
with no taint of its humbler origin ; by the 
same token the finest oyster, unfavorably 
placed, will speedily deteriorate. In truth, 
throughout all the range of the bivalve, it 
seems to be one oyster in reality, with a 
quality of quick evolution or devolution as 
the case may be. While a species of game 
may be extinguished and become as the Great 
Auk, while a prolific fish like Hie shad may 
be made rare, while a forest tree may be cut 
so ruthlessly that it becomes practically a 
memory, the oyster needs only comparatively 
slight encouragement in order to be restored. 
It is this that the Fisheries Commission is 
beginning in the case of the New River Oyster 
and in those of many natural beds through- 
out Eastern North Carolina that were strip- 
ped before the State awoke to the waste. 

Planting New Riveb 

In New River the Commission planted in 
1922 between 2,500 and ^,000 bushels and this 
year over 22,000 bushels and reports thai 
the catch of spat on old shells and other 
spat-catching material has been good and the 
growth of young oysters excellent. In last 
May and June there were planted in the 
various waters of the State 475,952 bushels 
of small oysters and 25-1,800 bushels of oyster 
shells, rules have been passed lor their pro- 
tection, and it is the policy of the Commis- 
sion to plant as many more next spring. 

Planting of oysters by the Fisheries Coin- 
mission has been in progress ever since the 
passage of the law establishing it in the year 
1915. The amount at first ranged from 10,000 
to 12,000 bushels per year, as available funds 
would allow. The results of the "set" on 
these shells have been uniformly good. From 
2.000 bushels planted at Poinl of Marsh near 
the mouth of Neuse River in 1920, there were 

obtained when the ground was thrown open 
io the public in November, 1922, an average 
of 2oo bushels per daj ol the finest oysters 
to 43 dredges, in the Fourth Biennial i; 
port of the Commission, Commissioner Nelson 
says in part of the oyster planting policy 

that 80,000 bushels of -hell- and 20,000 

bushels of oysters were planted in 1921 al 
a cost of $0,998.01, and ii is believed thai 
from 25.0110 bushels of these shells planted 
at Poinl of Marsh there are now growing 
LO0.O00 bushels of small oysters from 2% to 
:: inches, ready (or market this season, and 
worth, ai conservative estimate, from 50 to 
75 cents per bushel, in 1922 83,000 bushels 
of small oysters and 20,000 bushels of -hells 

were planted and are doing finely. There i- 
plenty of bottom land, the commission says. 

and almost the whole of the sound botb 

could be made into oyster rock. How an 

unmarketable oyster changes it- character 
when placed in proper conditions is illus- 
trated by the case of rVysocking Bay, in 
Hyde County, concerning which Mr. Nelson 

says there is a rock of about 500 acres that 
produces "an unknown quantity of oyster 
plants and will make good oysters if trans- 
planted, but will nut grow to marketable 

oysters if left there. After catching these 
plants and removing them from this particu- 
lar rock one season, there are ju-t a- many 
there the next season, it seems they restock 
or replenish themselves in one season. We 
have the same conditions at the south end of 
Roanoke Island where the salt water and 
fresh water meet. 

"The oyster planting, in my opinion, does 
not cost the State anything fur the reason 
that we collect two cents per bushel from 
the dealers, while the cost of planting is ten 
cents per bushel, and we get from five to six 
bushels of oysters hack for each bushel 
p. anted, thereby getting, in the way of taxes, 
an amount equal to the cost of planting. It 
also furnishes employment to about 250 men 
in planting them and about 500 men in catch- 
ing them when they are ready for the mar- 
ket, and furnishes the citizens of the State 
with a supply of line sea food. 

"Since the Commission has adopted the 
policy of planting oysters, the private citizens 
have caught the idea, and we have leased to 
them 178 acres of bottom and now have ap- 
plications for 250 acres. Our rental for this 
leased bottom is SI per acre per year, and 
ibis feature of the industry bids fair to in- 
crease our revenue considerably." 


For the two years. December 1. 1920, to 
November 30, 1922. the amount of oysters 
reported by dealers to the Commission was 
500,000 bushels with a value to the producer 
of $125.0(10. other shell fish clam-, escal- 
lops, crabs, etc. broughl the total value ,.1 
this variety of sea food to $677,775.50, and 
the total value of water product- was placet 
at $2,074,177.50. While this is bul a small 
part of the actual value of water products, 
a conservative estimate for the two years 
placing them at from four to live million 
dollar-, the future of the oyster indu-tr\ 
alone can be estimated by the fact that last 

Season there were planted o\cr a hundred 
thousand more bushels than were reported as 
(hull in by dealers in the two years pie- 
ce, ling. . , 
At present prices paid to the oystermen 
range from 50 cent- 10 si per tub for the raw 
stock ami from 25 to 30 cents for factory 
1 canning 1 stock. With an adequate appro- 
priation for shell-fish and fisheries and the 

enforcement of protective Laws, water prod- 
ucts promise soon to be the great industry 
indicated by the peculiar advantage of the 
State's sound and river ami coastal regions. 



Publication in Natural Resources last 
.summer of an account of the policy of timber 
conservation adopted by General A. J. Bowley 
in the conduct of the 125,000-acre reservation 
of Fort Bragg created wide interest and 
comment. Preservation of a surviving stand 
of some 500 acres of original long-leaf pine, 
coupled with protection of mast and young 
seedlings, has already shown that this area 
can in the course of time be reforested as it 
was in its natural state. When that is done, 
the Fort Bragg reservation, although fully 
performing its function as a military post 
and artillery range, will prove an investment 
which will easily return to the Government 
the immense cost of the land and the im- 
provements placed upon it. For a military 
commander to see and utilize the economic 
possibilities of the ground and treat it as an 
object lesson was a practice so nearly unique 
as to excite nation-wide notice. 

Exercises at Fort Bragg on November 2, 
Arbor Day, showed that the Fort Bragg com- 
mander does not intend to stop with the wise 
measures taken to promote the growth of the 
long-leaf pine. His program includes, also, 
beautitication of the ground and experiment 
with various species of trees that may have 
highly important influence on North Caro- 
lina's timber future. In celebrating Arbor 
Day this year the entire command was put at 
work securing and replanting various trees 
on the residential portions of the grounds. 
Maples, sweet gums, water oaks, pines, cedars, 
dogwood and holly were carefully selected 
and placed in replanting where they would 
do most to add to the beauty of the Fort and 
its buildings. For several years this has been 
the annual practice at the Fort and visitors 
who return are quick to mark the improve- 
ment in its appearance from year to year. 

New Home foe Eucalyptus 
A more significant experiment, however, 
was the planting in the reservation of 100,000 
eucalyptus trees, grown from stock person- 
ally secured by General Bowley on a visit to 
his home in California. These small trees 
and a considerable quantity of seed were 
brought in and planted by the General last 
year, and on Arbor Day this season it was 
seen that they had prospered. In the nur- 
sery beds several thousand seedlings are now 

Eucalyptus, widely known for its great 
value in many respects, is erroneously con- 
sidered to be either native to California or 
peculiar in the United States to that section. 
This has been true in the sense that Cali- 
fornia is the only state in which the tree has 
been grown to any extent, but it does not 
follow by any means that it cannot be grown 
in other sections and climates to which it is 
adapted. Logically the eucalyptus should 
grow readily in North Carolina, and what 
General Bowley has done at Fort Bragg 
seems about to demonstrate the fact. 

Eucalyptus is of special value in the two 
points that it attains a great size and grows 
with astonishing rapidity. Indigenous to 
Australia, it was early introduced to Cali- 
fornia, where it grew as if native to the soil, 
attaining immense size. Iu that state it is 
in wide use as a windbreak for orchards and 
homesteads, but its wood is used widely for 
railroad ties, baseboards, waiuscotings, and 
furniture, as well as for firewood. It is also 
gaining extensive use as a veneer in lieu of 
poplar, and the oil derived from it is a well- 
known and valuable product. A peculiarity 

of the eucalyptus that makes it of peculiar 
concern to Eastern North Carolina is its 
quality of absorbing moisture. It thrives in 
wet places. On farms that have wet pockets 
and bogs too soggy for crops the eucalyptus 
should be found an ideal tree, which would 
return profit in many ways. If cared for 
during the first winter, it is not believed 
that frosts such as are known in North 
Carolina would afterwards endanger the tree. 

Encouraged by the success of his initial 
experiment, General Bowley has recently im- 
ported a large quantity of eucalyptus seed 
that will soon permit the planting of a quar- 
ter million trees. It is his idea and intention 
not only to increase the planting at Fort 
Bragg but to distribute them throughout 
Eastern North Carolina to selected- persons 
who may be interested in reforestation and 
trusted to give the new idea a fair try-out. 

The chief difficulty in arousing more than 
a surface interest among individuals in the 
prospect of growing long-leaf pine is the fact 
of the very long period it requires to obtain 
its growth. Eucalyptus, however, is one of 
the very few trees that can be contemplated 
for the future by those who have not a great 
supply of patience. The Fort Bragg experi- 
ment is the first time that the tree has been 
successfully grown in North Carolina, but 
it has been so emphatically successful that 
there is no reason why reforestation with 
this species should not speedily become an 
established custom. 



(Continued from page 1) 
mer months a stream that might be a great 
channel of commerce is, practically speaking, 
dried up. The engineering question that must 
ultimately be decided, therefore, is the plac- 
ing of the huge dams to provide storage of 
water necessary to get uniform flow and pro- 
vide reasonable stream depth at all seasons. 
Heretofore the idea has been merely flirted 
with because of the prohibitive costs involved 
in creating artificially a mean low water 
depth sufficient for transportation. It re- 
mained for the hydroelectric age to suggest 
that these great reservoirs, economically im- 
possible when considered from the point of 
view of transportation alone, might be justi- 
fied in the double use of establishing uniform 
stream flow and producing power. Even then, 
the task of surveying and mapping a great 
mountainous area was in itself appalling in 
its demands, preliminary that it would be to 
the work contemplated. 

Ready for French Broad 
In the survey authorized, of which Major 
Harold C. Fiske, Corps of Engineers, has di- 
rection, the aeroplane was chosen to do 
quickly and with far more thoroughness what 
surveying parties in the old sense could not 
hope to accomplish in years. Since the work 
was undertaken great areas have been flown 
over, photographed, and the maps in proper 
scale and contour produced to show the re- 
gion of the river, its tributaries and topog- 
raphy in the minutest detail. The parties 
have now almost finished the basin of the 
Clinch and Powell and are preparing to take 
photographs on the French Broad River 
above Asheville. It is possible that by the 
time this article appears the aviators will be 
at work, although much depends on the con- 
dition of the weather and the extent to which 
earlier work has been completed. 

Aerial Mapping War Process 
Aerial photography is, of course, one of 
many things developed by the necessity of 

the war in Europe. As trench warfare set- 
tled into the long stage of siege, the aeroplane 
camera was more and more depended upon to 
search with its revealing eye for the location 
of batteries concealed far in the rear. From 
this developed the "mosaic" picture — numer- 
ous views overlapping and pasted together to 
give a working, if somewhat inaccurate map, 
for military purposes. In the more precise 
work of a survey, however, the aerial photo- 
graphs are worked over and made exact by 
hand, contours written in, etc., though the 
saving in time and expense of field work is 
tremendous, since the photographs themselves 
are used as the prints on which the finished 
map is produced. 

Power Company Surveys 

Although aerial mapping of the Tennessee 
River Basin is in a way experimental, the 
same or improved process is being success- 
fully used by at least two power companies 
in the Southern Appalachian region in prac- 
tical development work. One of these is the 
Alabama Power Company on the Tuscaloosa 
and Coosa Rivers in connection with Lock 12 
on the Mitchell Dam. In North Carolina the 
Blue Ridge Power Company has used planes 
successfully in connection with developments 
on Green River, where there is to be con- 
structed a great reservoir in connection with 
two already existing plants. This latter work 
is especially interesting because of the use of 
stereoptical devices, by which it is claimed 
that not only do the photographs give an 
accurate map, but indicate the contours as 
well. The Green River terrain, consisting of 
deep valleys and sheer drops from which it 
was necessary to swing surveyors and their 
instruments by ropes, was surveyed by the 
plane method in a week, and although the ma- 
chines necessarily flew high to avoid treacher- 
ous currents, their work was so complete as 
to include fifty feet contours. On more level 
ground it is claimed that five-foot contours 
can be made. It is estimated that the Green 
River survey, had it been undertaken by the 
old method of field parties, would have re- 
quired perhaps two years to complete. 

Photographic maps in this class of work 
show with vividness what lands must be 
acquired for reservoirs, all adjacent terri- 
tory, on which farms, roads, bridges and other 
topographical details stand out. In addition 
to the saving of time and expense, maps so 
made have the virtue of appealing instantly 
to even the unschooled eye. In litigation, for 
instance, where damages are sought for prop- 
erty flooded out by dams, they provide for 
the jury the precise knowledge that could be 
obtained in no other way. 

Wide Use for Air Camera 

Not only in hydroelectric developments, 
hut in working out a system of flood control, 
in planning civic improvements, in mapping 
highways, the practically universal use of 
the aeroplane is indicated within a very few 
years. It is only from the air that may be 
obtained a view of the real facts as to coun- 
try, city, or even a building. A map by the 
old method is something that the expert has 
to work out by formula ; the new map taken 
from the air is a thing that even the layman 
can see and instantly understand. 

A city planning for the day ahead when the 
air shall have been put to its use as the 
greatest and most unobstructed highway can- 
not neglect its landing field. When the time 
comes that, except for the smallest project, 
the aeroplane will be the most familiar in- 
strument of the surveyor, scarcely a village 
can afford to respect itself and do without 
this essential facility. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1. 


No. 17 


For many years the private car that was 
the office on wheels of a famous railroad 
executive in the South carried a staff that 
had all the material for a useful fable. 

The executive himself was of the vanishing 
type of born constructionists, intensely prac- 
tical, yet with an abiding vision of what he 
wanted to do and a genius for command that 
got it done. 

His assistant was a keen young man who 
has since won the stars of generalship in his 
profession, but whose eyes at that) time 
seemed to be growing together with his 
mental concentration to smother the ten 
thousand details of his job and its opportuni- 

The third was a male stenographer-secre- 
tary with a dazzling mechanical ability and 
a sense of importance that led him to ape 
his employer's walk, manner, gruffness of 
voice and the air of rudeness that in him 
was a symptom of absorption. 

The fourth, a gentleman of color, was a 
combination cook, butler, valet and factotum 
who sometimes wondered what would happen 
to the road if he should happen to break 
a leg. 

In the end the secretary found himself 
seeking another job, because he had raised 
the issue of his importance relatively to that 
of the assistant, and the obsequious wearer 
of the white apron, having become too expert 
with his master's Bourbon, suddenly found 
himself watching the private car roll away 
without him. 

In other words, the railroad office on wheels 
had been carrying two railroad men and two 
men on a railroad. "There is a difference." 

An Impossible Miracle 

Apparently it is a far cry from the private 
car of a pioneering railroad builder to the 
Southern farm, yet there are similarities in 
the setting. Except themselves, no one im- 
agined that either the stenographer or the 
porter were railroad men. simply because 
they spent a large part of their time riding 
on the rail. True, the assistant was a rail- 
road man, bis future clear to him and others, 
and he had started with a broom in the office, 
but then he was working for the road and 
the others on it. Why, then, should it be 
imagined that the man with the hoe is — or 
ever can be — a farmer? Or that the prob- 
lem of the tenant farmer is ever to be solved 
through some miracle which will make him 
into a farmer who has only the capacity to 
be a tenant? 

The question of farmers and the lands for 
them to employ is now being given national 
significance by the insistence of the Southern 
States that the time has come when "Recla- 
mation," to endure, must mean something 
more than irrigating arid lands in the West. 
Reclamation has equal application to land 
overflowed, in swamp, cut-over, gullied and 
eroded, peat, steep mountain lands, lands that 
are worn-out, lands that are in marsh, as it 

lll—aa aa aa aa „i, a. an ». a. aa na .a aa aa aa aa aa aa .. aa a. aa • *+ 




There is now under way the annual despoliation of woods and forests of 

holly, fir and other evergreens for the purpose of use as Christmas trees. 
What used to be a custom in the homes when the Yule Log was a blazing fact 
instead of a verbal symbol has with the growth of cities become something of 
an industry. In the effort to realize the Christmas holiday spirit, there is in 
course of delivery a severe blow to that other sentiment which would preserve 
for wood and forest their natural beauty. 

It would, of course, be unreasonable to hope for or expect any general 
movement tending to deny to Childhood the experience of the bright tree that 
has such deep root in the popular heart. It might, however, be worth while 
to consider as sparing a use as possible of this beauty of the evergreens which 
serve for a few days in decoration before being destroyed. Already the ex- 
haustion of what a few years ago seemed inexhaustible supplies of these trees 
is to be noticed in the woods and reflected positively in the prices at which 
they are marketed. Already there is possible a disconcerting vision of the 
time when there will be no natural Christmas trees because of an unbridled 
and greedy consumption. 

With the advent of the large Community Tree as an expression both of 
general holiday making and of common good-will and charity, some towns 
and cities have hit upon the expedient of planting instead of cutting. Thus, 
in place of destroying an irreplaceable tree for a single night's entertainment, 
the happier idea is its removal from the native forest and careful transplant- 
ing as a permanent part of the civic equipment. On Christmas Eve the living 
tree is decked with gifts and made to blaze with lights in keeping with the 
old and joyous custom; for the remainder of the year it stands as a pleasing 
ornament, a constant reminder for all the days of the Spirit we are too apt 
to forget after squandering it on one. 

The Community Christmas Tree idea has served a fine end in emphasizing 
the brotherhood by which the day itself is measured; there is scarcely a town 
or city which does not have a suitable place for "some one of the spech - that 
carry the symbol of life eternal in their green that never fails; how much 
better to show it forth in terms of life instead of death. 

has to the arid or semi-arid lands to which 
the national experiment has heretofore been 


The Bkoadek Reclamation 

Reclamation, in the new sense in which it 
is being brought to the attention and con 
science of the country, now includes the 
super-need of all land in the economic value 
which is citizenship. Reclamation will here- 
after look to the man as well as the farm. 
but it will not be satislied in theory if land 
is to be called a farm simply because a man 
any sort of man — is on it. 

Farming, to keep pace, must now be con- 
sidered as a profession. Improved farming 
methods and machinery, home economics, 
labor-saving devices, electricity, good roads, 
automobiles are making farming a vocation 
is satisfying, if measureahly as difficult, as 
aw. medicine or science. Its rewards In- 
clude prosperity along with freedom, health 

(Continued on page 2) 


The Wilmington Chamber of Commerce, in 
addition to actively prosecuting the claim- of 
the city as a pert before the State Ship 
and Water Transportation Commission, is 
undertaking a campaign to establish fact- to 
shew that the proposed link of the Intra- 
coastal Canal from Beaufort to Wilmington 
would he justified by commerce passing 
through the same in two directions norih and 

south, originating on points touched by the 

Canal and delivered to the Canal for trans- 
port from interior points. 

To prepare data for presentation to Gen- 
eral Lansing Beach, chief of Engineers, in 
an effort to secure his approval <•( the pro- 

i Continued on page 3) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. 0., by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Hiding Light Again? 

At the recent International Textile Ex- 
position and ISTational Power Show, held 
in Boston, there were illuminating ex- 
hibits by Alabama Power Company, 
Georgia Railway and Power Company, 
the Chambers of Commerce of Greenville, 
Spartanburg, the Georgia Industrial Bu- 
reau, and the Manufacturers Record. 

North Carolina is the leading Southern 
State in textile manufacture, challenging 
Massachusetts. In the increase of its 
consumption of cotton in manufacture it 
has been leading the country. JSTorth 
Carolina has established its primacy in 
the development of hydroelectric power. 
In the manufacturing belt of the Pied- 
mont there are miles on miles in which 
the traveler on the trains sees the cotton 
mills operated by "white coal" flash by 
with almost the effect of a city street. 

With the jSTew England mills casting 
their eyes to the South as the solution of 
their difficulties, with more hydroelectric 
power development, and more mills to use 
its product, and more capital to finance 
expensive industry the most evident means 
by which that primacy is to be main- 
tained and emphasized, this great exposi- 
tion apparently showed nothing officially 
from this State, either in textiles or water 
powers ! 

In spite of a good deal of horn-blowing 
and self-congratulation, omissions like 
these seem to show that not only does 
North Carolina neglect its "press agent," 
but at times actually reverts to the old 
practice of hiding under a bushel the 
light for which the world is looking. 

Growing up With Trees 

The principle of catching the interest 
and imagination of the boy in the prob- 
lems he must face and either conquer or 
fail before as a man cannot be too widely 
extended. The clubs that have done so 
much to relieve the farm duties of the 
young from the drudgery inseparable from 
a task to which a vision is lacking already 
have paid immense dividends, but promise 
a veritable revolution in the understand- 
ing of the next generation of its relation 
to the land. In the case of the Boy 
Scouts there has been a wonderful success 
in giving direction to the natural instinct 
of youth for outdoor exercise and knowl- 
edge and the sound morality that goes 
with these qualities. Although thousands 

of boys are now introduced to the Avoods 
who formerly knew nothing practical con- 
cerning them, the result has been that 
woods and the animal and bird life they 
harbor have been protected instead of 
being injured by the invasion. 

Louisiana, which continues to set the 
pace in the South in all matters of true 
conservation, has now applied the boys 
club idea to the practical study and prac- 
tice of reforestation. Many parishes 
have their demonstration acres on which 
these boys are studying methods of forest 
reproduction and protection, fire preven- 
tion, proper seeding of cut-over lands, etc. 
On tracts properly thinned and protected 
by fire lines are such signs as "Boys Re- 
forestation Plot; Grow a crop of trees in 
thirty years and pour money into Sabine 

Reforestation and fire prevention are 
now in the stage which matters of public 
health, education and social "sanitation 
have recently passed through. They are 
in the difficult position where it is im- 
possible to raise an argument. Their 
necessity is admitted as a theory, and for 
this reason they encounter a paradoxical 
spirit of indifference. 

But when boys who have learned how 
to combat the waste and perils of the 
forests and have helped to demonstrate 
in flourishing timber how they might be 
preserved themselves come to direct the 
public policy, what is now more or less 
nobody's business will become a matter of 
the general welfare. 



(Continued from page 1) 
and comfort, but they are not to be won by 
men who are not trained for the job, who 
do not like the work, or who are content 
to labor without real understanding at a task 
appointed by others. To call the man who 
merely labors on the land a farmer, to adapt 
a practice to that assumption, is as foolish 
as it was when a horse doctor was allowed 
to experiment with human life, a chiropodist 
was called "Professor," and school manage- 
ment was left to men whose qualification 
was success in country stores. 

Men to Master Soil 

At the recent Forestry, Reclamation and 
Home-making Conference held in New Or- 
leans, not only was there a gratifying attend- 
ance by and promises of support from the 
West, but the emphasis of the movement for 
a national policy was placed upon the de- 
velopment of now unused lands in a manner 
to put them in the use of settlers well 
equipped with the necessary intelligence and 
ambition to create the farm homes of the 
future. For the future the farm home is 
necessary for the continuance of the coun- 
try, and it must therefore be so managed 
as to give adequate returns, not only in 
money but in the satisfaction in life which 
is a part of the American standard. Since 
the home is a necessity for production, it 
becomes a logical end of government to en- 
courage and establish it. The chief problems 
of reclamation are therefore of a secondary 
character, avoidance of waste, classification 

of lands, selection of competent men. The 
true farmer is the educated man who under- 
stands the land with which he works. Other 
men will work for him, in one way and 
another, on the land, as he tells them. Care 
for their condition, their wages, their com- 
fort is matter of popular concern, but to the 
farm they are incidents always becoming less 
and less necessary. The ideal of mechanical 
operation of the farm now contemplates some- 
thing like one month of actual labor in pro- 
ducing the crops of a year. So far, of course, 
that is a feat of the imagination, but it is 
justified by the trend, and the future is one of 
the farm home of scientific management and 
large production at reasonable costs returning 
a reasonable profit. In that age farms will be 
run by men who make their work a profes- 
sion. There will be more and more such men 
and more and more such farms, and that 
result is the end of the new Reclamation. 

Utilization of Lands 

In addition to selection of the settler ac- 
cording to his ability to farm and the needs 
of his family, Federal and State governments 
which will cooperate in home-making must 
safeguard the utilization of lands for recla- 

Thus, while practically all overflowed lands 
become valuable for agriculture by drainage, 
this does not apply to swamps, because the 
soil is often very peaty and incapable of being 
used immediately in agriculture. The peat 
is apt to become fired and burn to a con- 
siderable depth and unless the peat itself is 
commercially available drainage of these dis- 
tricts is often so much waste. Other swamp 
lands, not available for agriculture, should 
be partially drained and kept in forests, 
while on the other hand there are millions 
of swamp acres which could be made into 
the finest farms in the country. Lakes and 
marshes, before being drained, should be 
considered in the light of their usefulness in 
preserving water fowl. Cut-over lands must 
be considered in relation to their use for 
agriculture, for forestation, or for grazing. 
Reclamation districts created as political sub- 
divisions of the states would create the ma- 
chinery for determining the uses and the 
possibilities of all these lands before the 
work was begun, but in all these cases prepa- 
ration is a financial task that must be under- 
taken by some agency other than the indi- 
vidual. In the mountains the lands of the 
steep slopes that are still in timber should 
be preserved and no attempt made to clear 
them, and gullied and eroded cleared lands 
should be treated with the idea of their 
reforestation. Several of the states, of which 
North Carolina has been a leader, already 
are cooperating with their citizens in re- 
claiming swamp and overflow lands, but there 
is need for extended cooperation and the aid 
of the Federal Government, acting with the 

A Governmental Function 

Colonizing and the economic utilization of 
reclaimed lands is more difficult than recla- 
mation, but the nation as a whole is bene- 
fited by improvement of agricultural condi- 
tions and must see that there is adequate 
provision for the peoples' food. Some violent 
objectors to the proposed plans state that if 
farming does not pay or the settler has not 
the means to get a start, he can stop farming 
and go into something else, not realizing that 
somebody must farm if the nation is to live. 
While there are vast areas of reclaimable 
lands in all parts of the United States, it is 
now the South, rather than the West, which 
is the pioneer region for settlement. It is in 
the South that the new farms must be cre- 
ated, but for every real farm there must be a 
real farmer, and he, instead of an indigenous 
weed, is a cultivated product. 




The extraordinarily favorable fall of mild 
weather has resulted, as hoped, in a much 

less disastrous "lire season" than is usually 
the case. Delayed frosts kept woods and 
forests green much longer than usual, with 
the result that the usual period of drought 

did not' provide the tinder of fallen leaves. 
Since frosts came rains have increased and 
much timber thai WOUld have been .subjected 
to lire in ordinary course has escaped. 

While the mild fall has been largely re- 
sponsible for this gratifying condition, reports 
to the Forest Department of the Survey in- 
dicate that the lire prevention forces in the 
cooperating counties have been very diligent 
and efficient. In a remarkable number of 
cases it is shown that when tires started they 
were extinguished after burning over negli- 
gible areas of from one-half acre to an acre 
and a half, the damages being nominal. In 
almost every one of these instances, the early 
concentration and effective action of the war- 
dens acted as a preventive of a fire that was 
getting headway to work serious harm. The 
total of property saved through this prompt 
fashion of performing duty is incalculable. 

"Three Bites at Cherry" 

There were, however, several reports of a 
neglecl to follow through a job well begun 
that can serve as warning to all lire-preven- 
tion forces. In these cases fires had started, 
the wardens had organized and put them 
under control, only for new fires to start from 
smouldering embers. 

For instance, a typical fire of this kind 
started in Monfford's Cave Township in Mc- 
Dowell County, on November 12. It was 
promptly reported and attacked and yielded 
to the efforts of two men working a total of 
three hours. The estimated damage to one 
acre burned over was only $4. 

But on November 13, fire which started 
from the remnants of the first blaze burned 
over twenty-live acres, doing damage of $100 
and requiring hours of work on the part of 
four men to bring it under control, and on 
November 19 still another fire started from 
the lirst two. which required a total of 21 
men working an average of two hours to 
bring under control. 

The contrary practice was shown by the 
action of the warden at Black Mountain, who 
after extinguishing a small fire which burned 
two or three acres in the mountains took the 
precaution to leave one deputy and a helper 
to watch the burned area through the night, 
with the result that the fire, once "put out," 
"stayed put." 

Correct Fire Practice 

In every business it is a problem of man- 
agement to inspire in the officers and em- 
ployees generally the spirit of sticking to the 
particular task until it is definitely con- 
cluded. Most things are easy to begin and 
most men carry on efficiently when there is 
something definite to attack. It is. however. 
far more difficult to secure the service of 
thoroughness which leaves no odds and ends 
left over to be picked up. reassembled or 
corrected after the job finely begun should 
have been put in the class of finished busi- 
ness. In the science of forest lire prevention 
this virtue of sound caution is one of the 
most important features. Before leaving any 
burned area the line of fire should be thor- 
oughly inspected to see that there are no 
smouldering places liable to start up again, 
or standing stubs still burning which may 
fall across the line and spread the flames. 

One hour spent in this way may save several 
hours of fighting later. Many tires should be 

patrolled until there is nol the slightesl dan- 
ger of their breaking out again, especially 

in dry seasons. Tin 1 expense of keeping a 

man or two on patrol duty for a lew hours. 

or even all night, will usually be much less 
than that of extinguishing a fire after it has 

broken out a second lime and may prevent 
much unnecessary damage. 

Up to December, l. the largest lire reported 

occurred in day County, live thousand acre- 

being burned over al an estimated damage 

to glowing timber of $15,000. 

Moonshiners' Smoke Screen 

In sharp contrast to the sentiment in Bun- 
Combe County is that disclosed in the South 
Mountain section of l'.urke. when' on the 
outbreak of a large lire that burned over 
several thousand acres with large damage. 

the warden found the people not only Indiffer- 
ent to aiding in its control, but actually 
••favoring" the lire. In one case this peculiar 
brand of ignorance was displayed by a man 
who owned the land over which the fire was 
spreading, and the lire itself may well have 
been intentionally started with the idea of 
permitting it to burn itself out. 

One theory supposed to support such a de- 
structive practice is that the forest will he 
tired in any event and that being true it is 
better that the tire should come in the fall 
than in the spring when the sap is rising 
in the wood. Another is that in a section in 
which "moonshining" is somewhat of an es- 
tablished industry, it is supposed that with 
more or less continual tires in the woods, 
the "smoke" from various illicit "stills" will 
not he the tell-tale sign it would otherwise 
be to officers. 




(Continued from page 1) 
posed link, the Chamber is sending out a 
business questionnaire to shippers in Wil- 
mington and at other Eastern North Carolina 
points, by which it is being sought to deter- 
mine just what in terms of tons of com- 
merce such an extension of the waterway 
could be expected to carry. To that end in- 
formation is being gathered as to the extent 
to which the Canal would be used by indi- 
vidual shippers, in approximate Ions: what 
would he the character of the goods received 
via the Canal or shipped by it: whether 
shippers queried would give the route their 
support, and what they would look for from 
it in the way of cheaper and surer trans- 
portation facilities. 


Accurate data of this kind would not only 
tic of extreme value to Wilmington in estab- 
lishing its contentions as to its right to lie 
improved as a port, but would greatly clarify 
the whole question of the relation of the 
state to water transportation actual and 

potential. It would lend to establish wlial 
has never been in any very great degree ap 
proximated as to the Entracoastal Canal in 
practice, anything like accurate figures as to 

the use now being made of existing water 
ways being lacking. If it can be established 
that such a link would become the highway 
for a great volume of commerce and boal 

traffic between the north and south: that it 
would serve to establish practical navigation 

to Fayetteville ami serve a great connected 

interior, the Logic of the Canal — a safe in- 
land route from Boston past the three great 
Atlantic Capes to the safe waters south of 
Wilmington— would be on the point of finding 

expression in achievement with such a 
waterway actually in existence a- a part of 
this easily navigable route from Florida to 
New England, water transportation in North 
Carolina would be go effectively established 
thai freight rates would cease to be a con- 
tention anil the p. hi-, bo situated as to serve 
it would have their future established iu a 
measure independently of what aid the State 
might bring to their speedy development. 
The hearing before General Beach Ls to be 
had in the mar future: its result will depend 

very largely upon the cooperation the W i 1 - 

mington Chamber of Commerce receives from 
the shippers who will get the Immediate bene- 
fit of the proposed development. 

in i: and Spokes 
Illustrating what was recently -aid in 
Xahrai, Resources a- to the necessity of 
utilizing the State's highway system a- a 
feeder to and distributor of tie- commerce 
of the port- and waterways, the Wilmington 
Chamber's brief is on this point very inter- 
esting in that it points out that the city is 
"the terminus of live major highway- now 
being improved by North Carolina. These 
highways lead from Wilmington to New Hem. 
going northeast; from Wilmington to Weldon, 
going north, from Wilmington to Fayette- 
ville, Raleigh. Greensboro and Win-ton. going 
northwest: from Wilmington to Elizabeth- 
town, Fayetteville, Raeford, Aberdeen. Bis< 
Albemarle and Salisbury in a direction 
slightly northwest, and from Wilmington to 
Whiteville, Chadbourn, Laurinburg, 1. umber- 
ton. Rockingham, Charlotte, and Asbeville to 
the west. . . . The policy of the State of 
North Carolina with regard to hard roads 
has resulted in a remarkable increase in the 
amount of freight thus transported and from 
reasons of convenience and dispatch this 
volume will continue to increase, so that the 
roads .already built and in use are a real 
factor in the situation. Truck transportation 
litis heretofore and will continue to be of 
inestimable value whenever there max- happen 

to be congestion on the railroad- or in the 
event of a strike." 

Truck Lines in Infani y 

Just as the existing waterway has not 
seemed to gain the use it- strategic possi- 
bilities justify, so transportation by truck. 
although increasing in quantity, i- only in it- 
infancy in the Slate. Not only should there 

be intensive development of tin- means of 
distribution, but it should be definitely lidked 

with transportation by water, so that ship- 
ments could be transferred bodily in truck 
bodies from boat to truck and truck to boat. 
In getting at the true volume of conic 
which would use the proposed extension of 
the Canal, the chamber i^( Commerce might 

well extend it- questionnaire to any number 

of jobbers, wholesalers and miscellaneous 
shippers as far as the Piedmont, many of 

whom already are using truck- in a limited 
area and would be ready to speed up and 
simplify their receipt and distribution of 
goods by making use of a like medium t" _ 
in touch with tidewater. 

What applies particularly to Wilmington 
bold- equally good, <•( course, to every natural 
distributing point on the sounds and naviga- 
ble rivers of the state which are in touch 
with ami tributary to the inland waterways 
So soon a- these natural center- begin to 

function adequately in a general scheme of 
circulation of trade ami commerce the prob- 
lem of the ports will be shifted from one o{ 

attracting to accommodating the business 
that offers itself. 




As a general thing the experimental labora- 
tory or scientific investigation of any kind 
begins its work from the vantage point of 
much experience written down in precedents, 
long lists of exploded theories, many helpful 
discoveries and suggestions. Hypothesis in 
such case rests on much evidence. The ad- 
vance guard is continually discovering new 
truth. ' Fallacies speedily prove themselves 
to be such. There is a litter of discards all 
adding by elimination to constructive thought 
and concrete fact. 

An experiment station in forestry differs 
from the laboratory in that by the nature of 
its work it has to a great extent begun to 
face a crisis with few precedents and the 
evidence destroyed. For years the forests 
were cut and the land left to its own devices. 
Only recently was it realized that the land 
must be reforested, and with the realization 
came the disconcerting truth that facts and 
laws fundamental to timber growing were in 
large part yet to be discovered. And instead 
of dealing with acids and gases and cultures 
in which reaction, effect and growth might be 
noted almost hour by hour, forestry experi- 
mentation has to do with slow processes of 
nature in which the results are often post- 
poned for a generation. 

For these reasons the work of the Appa- 
lachian Experiment Station of the U. S. For- 
est Service, headquarters of which in this 
State are at Asheville, is all the more inter- 
esting. The forests are going — in many cases 
are gone — and they must be replaced. Data 
as to the laws by which they grow are lack- 
ing, yet it is necessary that basic conditions 
be understood before going further. In spite 
of all his learning, the forest expert and 
scientist is forced to begin, as it were, with 
the primer of his calling. 

For instance, how long will it take to raise 
a commercial stand of hardwoods on cove or 
on ridge land? 

Because no one in the early days made the 
effort, no one knows. 

At what age does yellow poplar attain a 
diameter of 15 inches? What species of trees 
will give best growth and returns, with least 
risk of loss, on a given soil? How proceed 
to secure second growth of yellow poplar, red 
oak, -or hemlock? In the natural reproduc- 
tion following logging or forest fire, to what 
extent is it feasible to increase the propor- 
tion of desirable species? How do inferior 
species or scrubby weeds detract from the 
value of stands and how can they be eradi- 
cated. What to do about the chestnut 
blight? Are timber stands helped by early 
thinnings, and, if so, will the thinnings pay 
for themselves? 

Such questions cannot as yet be adequately 
answered from American experience, yet work 
in forestry cannot be carried forward on a 
sure basis until the answers are in hand. 
Because the timber that was so impetuously 
cut down grows again only with extreme de- 
liberation, complete answers must wait in 
many instances for years, in some for more 
than a generation — and yet the forest experi- 
mental work is the only means by which these 
answers can be even approximately deduced. 
For patience such an effort is suggestive of 
an acorn first sprouting in the ground. 

Nowhere else in the United States are 
forest experiments more necessary or the 
problems they present more difficult than in 
the Southern Appalachian region. Nowhere 
is there such a wide variety of tree species, 
of topographic, soil and climatic conditions, 
or diversity of industries fed by wood prod- 
ucts of different species and sizes. In the 

mountainous portion of the region there is 
an area estimated at nearly 34,000,000 acres 
of true forest soil, better adapted for forest 
growth than any other purpose. By climate, 
soil fertility, size, and topographic unsuita- 
bility for agricultural use, this area promises 
to become the chief source of hardwood tim- 
ber for the country when other sources come 
under cultivation. Over seventy species of 
trees are native to the region, of which more 
than forty are of commercial importance. To 
determine the place to which their individual 
growth rates and reproductive and soil re- 
quirements fit these species, in a coordinated 
plan of future supply, is the field work of 
forest research. 

The station at Asheville, established in 
1921, has begun the study of the greater and 
more important of many problems briefly as 
follows : Determination of the best species 
for planting on denuded lands in the spruce 
type, including plantings of Norway spruce, 
Douglas fir, Western white pine, and Japan- 
ese black pine, with tests of various Chinese 
species of chestnut and tree chinquapin in 
the effort to find a species resistant to the 
blight and suitable to Appalachian soils and 
climate ; studies of results of tree planting in 
the past, particularly on the Biltmore estate ; 
forest management and a study of the re- 
generation of cut and burned-over spruce 
lands ; and, in connection with forest protec- 
tion, collection of data as to factors of in- 
flammability, relative fire hazards, and 
weather conditions in respect to fires ; also a 
study of grazing in its effects on forests and 
when and under what conditions the prac- 
tice is excessive and injurious. 

The forests of the Southern Appalachian 
region are generally in a stage of transition 
from a depleted state, as a result of heavy 
lumbering and recurrent fires, to a condition 
of recuperation and growth. The first essen- 
tial in their restoration is thorough protec- 
tion from fire. That done there will be neces- 
sary a stock-taking in terms of abundance, 
rate of growth and other characteristics of 
the various tree species, so as to determine 
their capacity to supply the growing need for 
wood materials. The maintenance of a 
proper balance between the natural supply 
and the consumption requirements is the end 
toward which forest research, like all of 
forestry, is tending. The very life of all 
wood-using industries depends upon the main- 
tenance of this balance. 



November dispatches of the Associated 
Press carried news of the killing in Virginia 
and North Carolina waters of wild geese 
wearing bands on their legs on which were 
inscribed scriptural quotations. One bird 
shot in Back Bay carried the message, "What 
think ye of Christ?" On November 10 an- 
other which was taken in Currituck Sound, 
bore a band on which was inscribed : "I 
believe in God. Write Box 48, Kingston. 

While it was an easy deduction that these 
geese had been trapped and banded by some 
one in the far North, it is a rarely interest- 
ing fact that their history and the purpose 
for which they were marked for identifica- 
tion can be definitely stated. It happens that 
this is possible in the case of these particular 
fowl on account of an article appearing in 
Natural Resources, Canada, a monthly pub- 
lication of the Department of the Interior, 
Ottawa. The birds, some of which were 
taken as told in the news dispatches, are thus 
described in the October issue : 

History of Banding 

"An interesting experiment with wild 
Canada geese is being carried out at the 
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, by offi- 
cers of the Poultry Division of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and of the Canadian 
National Parks Branch of the Department of 
the Interior. This experiment is carried on 
to secure valuable information concerning 
the habits of these birds and it is hoped that 
it will result in having large flocks of these 
geese rest on Dow's Lake, an expansion of 
the Rideau Canal near the farm during 
their migrations north and south next year. 

"Jack Miner, the well known and original 
investigator of wild goose life, is assisting the 
Government officials in the experiment. Four 
wild Canada geese caught on his sanctuary 
at Kingsville, Ont., early in May were wing- 
clipped and sent to the Central Experimental 
Farm, and these, together with five goslins 
raised this year by four captive Canada 
geese at the farm, are being used in the 
experiment. Each of the geese caught by 
Mr. Miner wears one of his bands. These 
bands bear a scriptural text and his address, 
the inscription on one of these reading, 'The 
word of the Lord endureth forever, 1 Peter, 
1:25. Write Box 46, Kingsville, Ont.' The 
other bands bear different passages and the 
address. The birds have also been banded 
with the official numbered band of the series 
in use by both the Canadian and United 
States authorities for marking wild birds. 

"The goslins, which are now full grown, 
have been placed with the Miner geese and 
the flock makes repeated trips to Dow's Lake. 
With the period for Southern migration near- 
ing, those interested in the experiment are 
watching the birds to see whether the younger 
geese will follow their older companions or 
will remain at the farm with their parents. 
It is hoped they will go South and return 
in the spring with more of their kind, possi- 
bly to stop at Dow's Lake on their northern 

"One danger is that these birds may drop 
in with domestic ducks and geese, unsuspect- 
ing any danger. If wild geese bearing bands 
as described join any domestic flocks be- 
tween Ottawa and the South Atlantic coast, 
or between Ottawa and the mouth of the 
Mississippi River (depending upon which 
route they follow) it is hoped that they will 
not be killed, but allowed to resume their 
journey. It is desired to learn as much 
as possible of their travels. If, therefore, 
persons who hear of any of these birds, or 
hunters who happen to shoot one, will com- 
municate the particulars to the Commissioner 
of Canadian National Parks, Ottawa, Canada, 
their action will be appreciated. If the bird 
is alive and able to travel, the number on 
the band should be read carefully and the 
bird released." 

Influencing Wild Game 

While it appears that some of the banded 
birds have met with misfortune early in 
their migration, others may get through. If 
the goslins bred in captivity should revert 
positively to their wild ancestry and yet 
make a port of call of the neighborhood in 
which they were raised, it will prove that 
it is entirely possible to breed wild game in 
the sound expectation that it will adopt 
habits which will enable a kind of stocking of 
way stations along the route of migrations. 
In this way the natural increase in the far 
North may be influenced in seeking stopping 
places, through artificial treatment of a rela- 
tively few captive birds in any favorable 
location along the route. It is certainly to 
be hoped that the goslins went South and 
that some of them will next spring drop 
into Dow's Lake before going on to their 
natural breeding grounds, where their own 
broods will acquire the habits of their 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, i\ r . C, DECEMBER 29, L923 

No. 18 




Taking as its text an article by W. W. 
Ashe, Secretary of the Forest Reservation 
(Vmiruission, on "Forest Conditions in the 
Southern States and Recommended Forest 
Policy," the well-edited Greensboro News re- 
cently carried a thoughtful plea for educa- 
tion in forestry as the necessary groundwork 
of any effective conservation of a neglected 
resource. A few extracts will serve to indi- 
cate the trend of its criticism: 

"The need, one might say, is for economic 
faddists. There are such faddists, hut they 
do not exist in effective numbers, as do moral 
faddists, scientific faddists, and amusement 


"A man who is popular enough to win a 
high place of power and influence, who has 
enthusiasm and imagination and the ability 
to appraise ideas can capitalize most effec- 
tively the existing resources of economic 
faddism in such fields as forestry. . . . 

"Hitherto, forest conservation has been an 
idea too big for North Carolina ; our hori- 
zons have not been broad enough for it; the 
same is true of most of the Southern States. 
We have not made the educational beginning, 
which seems essential, fundamental. . . . 

"Our few thinkers, who consider the future 
of the forests — and of the streams, the land, 
the people themselves as affected by these 
forests — have long and earnestly proclaimed, 
yet so many decades and the forests will be 
destroyed, but without reaching the ear of the 
populace. If a breach cannot be made in the 
wall of inertia by the educational institutions, 
how else can it be done?" 

More Education Needed 

With the intendment of the above and the 
importance of the remedy suggested, there 
can be no quarrel in any quarter in the least 
acquainted with the forest problem that 
within the last few years has become an 
economic crisis in the Southern States, and 
North Carolina in particular. So far as 
present commercial use is concerned the long- 
leaf pine is gone, and even if every resource 
of intelligence be applied to bringing it back, 
it will take a generation or more to reestab- 
lish the heritage needlessly squandered in its 
destruction. Vast consumption of chestnut, 
accelerated by the blight which afflicts the 
species, is steadily consuming this most 
abundant of mountain trees. In the Western 
counties the denudation of watersheds lias 
to a large extent changed the normal flow of 
the rivers into periods of alternate flood and 
drought which seriously affect the produc- 
tion of hydro-eleetric power and cause the 
erosion which quickly fills up with silt the 
great reservoirs constructed at tremendous 
expense to save a part of the escaping Hood 
waters. Fir and spruce have for several 
years been marching toward such a commer- 
cial extinction as has overtaken the pines of 
the sandhills. On all these points, the con- 
tention of the Ncirs that the educational 
system needs revision — and especially that 
(Continued on page 3) 




Joseph us Daniels, "Riding mi the Rail" in Louisiana, becomes ;i welcome 
and valuable convert to the "severance tax." in company with (Jovornor 
Parker, he inspects the site of $5,000,000 worth of new University buildings 
to be erected on a 3,000 acre river-front site, and is surprised u> learn thai 
all funds for the project are to come from a levy on "all persons, firms, cor- 
porations or associations of persons engaged in the business of severing 
natural resources from the soil or water." Giving figures to -how that this 
severance tax on timber, minerals and similar natural resources now aggre- 
gates nearly $2,000,000 per year, Mr. Daniels is enthusiastic in approval. Jn 
his opinion, "oil and coal and like natural resources — things men did not 
make — ought to have been retained under public control and utilized as needs 
demanded. The waste of these resources and the waste of timber," he declares, 
"are indictments upon our civilization" — and the idea of so managing a- to 
make them pay a handsome revenue evidently intrigues his mind as partial, if 
delayed, justice. 

But though the revenue is a satisfactory incident of the tax, Mr. Daniels 
in his article fails to add that this return is really incidental to the larger 
benefit derived from the conservation of resources it permits. In connection 
with timber, for instance, he does not allude to the fact that a- compensation 
for the intrinsically heavy severance tax the lumberman pays when he makes 
his cut, the tax on the land while the forest is growing is only nominal. And 
he fails to emphasize the more important thing, that were it not for the 
opportunity of paying the tax only when the return from the land accrues, 
the owner could not afford to let it grow timber. Stressing the revenue 
covered into the State treasury, he takes no account of the far greater -urns 
to be added to taxable values because the State makes it possible fur tin- 
owner of timber lands to serve both himself and the commonwealth by giving 
them the chance to renew themselves in natural growth. 

Under our system of valuations in North Carolina it is next to impossible 
for any owner of extensive timber lands to do otherwise than denude them 
ruthlessly of every foot of merchantable growth. Afterwards. in pay taxes 
through the long years reforestation demands, is economically unthinkable. 
But when Louisiana says to such a man, "Dedicate your land to timber, pay 
a nominal tax while it is growing and the difference in a severance tax when 
it is cut," the State not only insures its taxes, but creates a new source from 
which they may be collected in larger amount. 

If Louisiana is getting $2,000,000 a year from the principle which prac- 
tical lumbermen with a vision first suggested, the sum is but a tithe of the 
values constantly created, both for private owners and the people as a whole. 





A world of history of the various States. 
practically unknown to their people, is bound 
in a recent volume by E. M. Douglas, issued 
by the Department of the interior as Bulle- 
tin 689 of the United states Geological sur- 
vey, which is entitled "Boundaries, areas. 

geographic centers, and altitudes of the 
(Continued on page 4^ 



At a recent hearing before the Heard ><i 
River and Harbor Engineers an unanswer- 
able ease was made ont in favor i\( the com- 
pletion of the project on the Cape Pear River 
designed to give a low water depth <<( eight 
feci between Wilmington and Fayetteville. 
The attainment of the purpose now depends 
1 1 Continued on page 2t 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Results of the new policy of protection 
and renewal of oyster beds and the con- 
sequent activity in a natural industry 
which has been so sadly neglected were 
strikingly shown by a report made to the 
State Fisheries Commission Board at a 
recent session at Morehead City. Accord- 
ing to this information there was then 
going forward to Kansas City a solid car- 
load — 2,500 gallons — of select North 
Carolina oysters, the shipment being 
made by J. E. Woodland. Never before 
in the history of the oyster business had 
such a shipment been possible by a North 
Carolina dealer. 

Details of the particular variety of 
these oysters, the locality in which grown, 
etc., are lacking, but it is safe to say that 
when they were put on sale in the Mis- 
souri city the dealers who handled them 
failed to indicate to their "Show Me" 
patrons the point of their origin. In- 
stead, the probability is that they were 
eaten with gusto by self-esteemed con- 
noisseurs who were certain that they could 
detect in them the flavor supposedly pecu- 
liar to the bivalves of Chesapeake Bay. 
Indeed, a great part of the oysters gath- 
ered in what it appears will be a record- 
breaking North Carolina season are being 
shipped out to Virginia and Maryland 
destinations, where they are either con- 
sumed or reshipped to meet the demand for 
the products of better advertised waters. 

Scientific oyster culture, protective 
laws, proper management, judicious re- 
planting will establish in full variety in 
North Carolina the equal or better of 
every species of bivalve which educated 
taste has made a commercial standard. 

This much, under an enlightened State 
policy which has the sympathy of and is 
lending encouragement to growers and 
dealers, may safely be taken for granted. 
The next step is that so badly needed in 
the case of many other products of the 
State — that they sail under their own 
colors; that they not only seek but de- 
mand markets for themselves as what 
they are ; that the day be done with when 
a trade name some other section has made 
popular is supported by our own masque- 
rading, if superior, product. The "New 
River" oyster is remembered fondly, al- 
though its popularity caused its practical 
disappearance from public sale. It has 
its trade name ready and waiting its re- 
turn. The oyster of Pamlico Sound de- 
serves a similar distinction on the mar- 
kets, as do many other varieties that here- 
tofore have been sold abroad as Virginia 

or Maryland products. And not only 
should our oysters be named, but they 
should be advertised as coming from the 
cleanest and least contaminated waters 
left in America. We have much about 
which to boast, in resources and, lately, 
in their utilization and manufacture; but 
the practice of selling cheaply in bulk raw 
material that could be trebled in value by 
working it at home (as with many min- 
erals) ; of masking our own good things 
(as many fruits and sea-products) with 
somebodys else's name, is one that cannot 
be forgotten too soon. 

When Tar Heel oysters go by solid car- 
loads to Missouri and are shown as such, 
people who know a good thing when they 
are "shown" can be depended upon to 
come back for more, the more they know 
about what- they are getting for their 




(Continued from page 1) 

upon the construction of a third lock and dam 
on the river just below Fayetteville. 

In a brief supplemental to that of the 
Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce giving 
data to show the present traffic at Fayette- 
ville which could be diverted to the river if 
the project depth were available, and the 
sources of commerce in the vicinity of Fay- 
etteville from which traffic could be attracted 
thereto. Thorndyke Saville, hydraulic engi- 
neer of the Survey, points out in part : 

"5. The necessity for the project depth as 
a controlling low-water depth is apparent. 
River traffic to be successful must be main- 
tained continuously. It cannot be interrupted 
for considerable periods by floods or droughts, 
else the traffic will turn to more reliable rail 
routes, even at greater cost. . . . 

"6. Floods on the Cape Fear are of con- 
siderable magnitude, but when of sufficient 
intensity to prohibit navigation they last 
never more than three or four days. Such 
floods are rare, possibly three or four per 
year, and, moreover, there are at present 
active proposals to create impounding reser- 
voirs on the Deep and Haw rivers (which 
join to form the Cape Fear), and though 
these projects are for power purposes, they 
will have an appreciable effect in modifying 
flood severity. 

"7. Droughts are of yearly occurrence and 
exist for considerable periods, from two to 
three weeks to as many months. During 
these periods the controlling depth is stated 
to be 2% feet at 2 for some miles below 
Fayetteville. Consequently the chief impedi- 
ment to profitable water traffic on the Cape 
Fear is the present controlling low water 
depth. If the project depth were obtained. 
a river traffic could be maintained with no 
other interruption than the very occasional 

"14. The demand for additional power at 
and near Fayetteville has been acute during 
the past two years. Recently a 15.000 kw. 
steam power station has been established on 
the river a short distance above Fayetteville. 
This station is planned, and foundations and 
water conduits are built, to allow of an 
eventual capacity of 60,000 kw. It is inter- 
connected with the Southern Appalachian 
system. Should a third lock and dam be 
constructed below Fayetteville, it is recom- 
mended that serious attention be given to 
equipping it with hydro-electric generating 
apparatus for supplying power to operate the 

locks and in order that the power in the 
river now wasted may be conserved for use, 
either by Fayetteville directly or through 
interconnection with nearby transmission 
systems. . . ." 

Plan Adopted in 1910 

The project for the canalization of the 
Cape Fear, after years of agitation and argu- 
ment, was adopted in 1910, and its purpose 
was to make Fayetteville the head of naviga- 
tion on the Cape Fear, as that city is the 
largest on the river above Wilmington, is a 
rail point of importance, and the point of 
export for a large trade from a considerable 
area. Since then two locks have been built 
and although the report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers for 1921 states the condition of the 
project as 95 per cent completed, with low 
water depths of 7 feet to lock 1, 5 feet to 
lock 2. and 2% feet to Fayetteville. Thus, 
although so nearly completed, the project has 
entirely failed to consummate its primary 
object, since navigation cannot be maintained 
with the exceedingly low water depth above 
lock 2. 

Expenditures on the project to 1922 have 
amounted to $1,170,261, and on previous 
projects on the same river to $157,297, a 
total of $1,327,558. It is therefore evident 
that the completion of the additional 5 per 
cent of the project is absolutely necessary, 
if the Government is to get a fair return 
on the investment, which it can only hope to 
realize through Fayetteville as a basing point 
for traffic and a central point of connection 
between the commerce of the interior and 
tidewater at Wilmington. 

Dream of Far-sighted Men 

Back of the Cape Fear project was the 
dream of men like the late Major E. J. Hale 
at Fayetteville and John H. Small, long the 
evangel in Congress of inland waterways, 
which saw Fayetteville reestablished in mod- 
ern life in the role of entreport for great 
sections of the Piedmont which it maintained 
when it was for years the commercial metrop- 
olis of the period before the Civil War. 

That vision, almost realized, cannot for 
long be balked by a failure to provide the 
last touches which will bring it the physical 
possibility of its realization. 

Vital as it will be to Fayetteville to be the 
head of practical economic navigation to 
Wilmington, the importance to the State 
through the extension of water rates to great 
manufacturing sections and to the commerce 
developed on hard-surfaced highways is even 
greater. The future, of course, contemplates 
water connection from Fayetteville to Wil- 
mington, via the Cape Fear, and thence to 
Beaufort and north through the completion 
of the inland canal link between the latter 
point and Wilmington. This link, however 
is to be built; the Cape Fear project has 
merely to be finished. 

Wide interest was excited by the recent 
article in Natural Resources having to do 
with Yaupon as a possible substitute for tea 
and as the source of a possible new industry 
in the manufacture of a sirup for soda foun- 
tain uses. 

The Yaupon bush or shrub is native to the 
"Banks" of North Carolina and was for- 
merly used to some extent in the manufacture 
of a tea substitute, especially in the South 
during the Civil War. In South America it 
is extensively used in several countries and 
is a plant of considerable commercial im- 
portance. Extensive experiments by chemi- 
cal experts of the United States have shown 
that it has a high caffeine content and is 
capable of being manufactured into a sirup 
of distinctive taste for beverage purposes. 

Among other inquiries, the Survey acknowl- 
edges receipt of one from H. K. Fort, Im- 
porter and Exporter, of Midvale, Pa. 





(Continued from page 1) 

the State needs the service of a man of mag- 
netism of the type of Roosevelt or Plnchot — 
is well taken. 

Not Utterly Inert 

The suggestion that, lacking the power of 
such an evangelist of conservation, the State 
lias been utterly inert is, however, inaccu- 
rate when compared with certain hits of per- 
sonal history of North Carolina "faddists" in 
this high purpose and when contrasted with 
a work as yet in its beginning, hut definitely 
and profitably under way under State aus- 
pices in twenty-four North Carolina counties. 
In the matter of education the Survey has 
for years contended for courses in forestry 
under competent instructors, either in the 
University or other State institution, that 
especially gifted men might he prepared for 
the great schools of forestry and there be 
spread among the people the leaven of prac- 
tical knowledge concerning the imminent 
danger to native forests and the methods by 
Which they may he saved. It is a satisfac- 
tion to know that the first of these courses in 
the State is definitely decided upon by State 
College, and it is reasonable to suppose that 
what Dr. Brooks is planning in connection 
with Mr. Shaw, engineer of the Experiment 
Station, will soon he adopted as a part of the 
instruction in the University and other col- 
leges in the State. 

And while, from the point of view of finan- 
cial appropriation, the practical work in 
forestry undertaken by State agency is negli- 
gible in comparison with the needs of the 
situation, it must not he forgotten that the 
forestry department of the North Carolina 
Geological Survey now has a State Forester, 
J. S. Holmes, three expert District Fire War- 
dens, Fred B. Merrill, for Northwestern, Carl 
I. Peterson, for Western, and K. E. Kimball, 
for Eastern North Carolina. 226 wardens in 
cooperating, and in non-cooperating coun- 
ties, and a total of 2G5 deputy wardens. 

Work of Forestry Department 

At present the actual work of this force is 
largely centered on the immediate need of 
fire prevention, which includes not only 
effective organization to extinguish fires, but 
carries with it the far-reaching practical in- 
struction and incitement of interest in pre- 
venting the start of fires, correct methods, 
management of timber lands, etc.. on a total 
expense of $47,700 a year, including an ap- 
propriation by the Survey of .$10,000, by co- 
operating counties of $7,200. and a Federal 
allotment of $21,300 under the Weeks law 
supplementing the State appropriation. 
Granted that there has been no educational 
instruction in forestry in the special sense, 
the lesson of what is happening to the forests 
and what needs to he done to save them is 
being actively taught by example through six- 
hundred agents in all sections of North Caro- 

What this corps of (ire lighters did in the 
spring fire season of 102:: may be realized 
from their reports of 400 fires extinguished, 
a burned area of 10(1,300 acres, an average 
area per fire of T>02 and a total damage of 
$400,970— with costs of the work of actual 
suppression only $1,014. 

It must be realized that these reports were 
made from about one-fourth of the counties 
of the State — those which cooperate through 
the county governments with the lire-preven- 
tion work, and that while the loss in the 
worst fire season since 1010 was heavy, the 
saving of values in timber against what 

would have been lost had the tires run their 
course was undoubtedly equal and in all prob- 
ability several times as much as those which 
were destroyed. 


As to the valuable "faddists," there have 
been a number who did not let the indilTer 

ence and deafness with which their voices 
were met deter them. As long ago as the 
early eighties Dr. W. C. Kerr was preaching 

forestry, prophesying timber shortage when 
ill many parts of the State forest tires were 
considered seasonal phenomena of no im- 
portance, pointing the future of wood-using 

The late Dr. Joseph A. Holmes, who had a 

genius for versatile enthusiasms, was un- 
ceasing in his pleas and preachments for fire 
prevention, and better forest management to 
prevent the extinction of timber in its use. 
It was he who was very largely instrumental 
in bringing to the State for his invaluable 
work in Biltmore Gilford Pinchot, whose 
name lias become a synonym for forest con- 

W. W. Ashe, upon whose article the Greens- 
boro News draws for its editorial, was a 
pupil of Holmes, and was for years a disciple 
of forestry in North Carolina, connected with 
the Survey, author of its valuable bulletin 
mi the loblolly pine, and advocate of forest 
management, expert grading of lumber, etc. 
It was W. W. Ashe who in 1907 drew the 
first bill for lire prevention which, iu associa- 
tion with the Director of the Survey, he 
urged unsuccessfully upon the Legislature, 
and again without success in 1909. / 

Resigning his post to devote his whole time 
to the United States Forest Service. Mr. Ashe 
was succeeded by J. S. Holmes, the present 
State Forester, and he and the /Director of 
the Survey continued to urge St/ate recogni- 
tion of forest needs, until the bill of 1915 was 
passed — but without appropriation ! That 
bill, which remains the law in essence, au- 
thorized the Survey to appoint wardens, re- 
stated the law against setting fire and made 
it a misdemeanor. 

Results Slow But Sube 

Taking advantage of this authority, the 
Survey for several years made such appor- 
tionment as was possible from its small ap- 
propriation, using also a small sum available 
from the Federal Government, in demonstra- 
tion work by two or three wardens. It also 
had the aid and encouragement of three asso- 
ciations of landowners, the Linville Forest 
Protective Association, the Mount Mitchell 
Protective Association and the Tryon For- 
estry Club. Men who devoted their time, 
means and enthusiasm to this work were 
(piite widely dubbed "sentimentalists" by 
more "practical" interests, but they slowly 
permeated the public mind with their doc- 
trine, until in 1921 the General Assembly 
passed a bill authorizing the various coun- 
ties to cooperate with the forestry work at 
their option — a bill which made possible the 
organization as it now exists. In 1923 there 
was added to the appropriation made to the 
Survey $11,000. with the understanding thai 
it should be expended in the work of fire pre- 
vention in order that the State might qualify 
for receipt of the apportionment from the 
United States Forest Service under tin- pro 
visions of the Weeks Law. 

So much is. of course, only the beginning 
of what North Carolina should do for the 
perpetuation of a natural resource much Im- 
paired hut still worth its hundreds of mil- 
lions of dollars ami capable of being In- 
finitely Increased in value through intelligent 
management and reforestation. The latter 
at present is in the experimental stage ami 
must remain so until the passage of some 

measure of taxation such a- tie- severance tax 
which win encourage owners "t timber lands 
in permit tin- growth of commercial stands, 
which they cannot d" economically under the 
present system. Management of lumbering 
areas will follow the possibility ol reforest- 
ing those areas and providing tor continuous 
rotation in production. In the future the 
state will have its own forest parks, it- own 
timbered binds serving the double purpose 
of demonstration area- and game sanctu- 
aries; there win be state legislation protect- 
ing watersheds and preventing destructive 
erosion. Work in forestry has been slow, but 
all such effort ai practical education Is cumu- 
lative. Scientific education will follow gen- 
eral appreciation of tin. need, which tire pre- 
vention work in a systematic manner In one- 
l'ourth the counties is fostering. 

Important Nexi Sti ps 
immediate steps it i- hoped win be taken 
in the near future include, of course, the 

tension of the fire prevention work to addi- 
tional counties, the enlargement of the force 

Of wardens and deputies and the beginning 
of reforestation by the creation of a State- 
owned nursery in which seedlings will be 

grown and sold to landowners at cost. 

The Greensboro Vews is righl about the 
"faddists" and their work. Their tribe Is 
increasing. Perhaps the near future holds in 

wait ins; the difficult combination of genius, 
enthusiast and practical politician to set the 
campaign ahead by decades. But the "fad- 
dists" have been at work, and the seed they 
sowed are beginning to show green. 



Recent additions to the list of publications 
of the North Carolina Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey include Vol. V, on "The Cre- 
tacceous Formations of North Carolina." The 
report covers another part of the general 
investigation of the Coastal Plain region of 
North Carolina, and is supplemental to Vol- 
ume III on the Coastal Plain Deposits of 
North Carolina. The work has been done, as 
previously, in cooperation with the United 
states Geological Survey, under the general 
supervision of Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, chief 
Of the section of Coastal Plain Investigations 
of the United States Geological Survey. 

This volume has been divided into three 
parts, of which this publication is l'art I. 

it deals with the Invertebrate fossils of the 

upper cretaceous formations, by Lloyd Wil- 
liam Stephenson, and contains a supple- 
mental chapter on the decapod crustaceans 
Of the upper cretaceous formations, by Mary 
J. Rathbun. The volume is well illustrated 

with cuts and photographs of fossil speci- 
mens and strata exposed in a number of 
North Carolina Rivers, a- the Cape Fear. 
Neuse. Tar and others. 

Another recent publication is Bulletin 33. 
being the complete report by Marius R. Camp- 
bell and Kent W. Kimball on "The Deep 
River Coal Field of North Carolina." A sum- 
mary of this report and comment anon its 
possible importance economically and indus- 
trially have heretofore appeared in previous 
issues of Natui; At RESOl k< I S. The report is 
of great value to all interested experts, land 
owners of the district, possible Investors, etc 
It contains, in addition to the technical re- 
port, a comprehensive history of the field, 
and is illustrated with photographs, dia- 
grams and detailed maps '•( the Deep River 

region and its formations. 

Both those publication-- may he obtained 
by application to the North Carolina Geologi- 
cal and Economic Survey. Chapel Hill. N. C. 
at the nominal charges of 50 and 10 cents 




(Continued from page 1) 

United States and of the several States, with 
a hrief record of important changes in their 
territory." The volume is sold by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Washington, D. C, 
at nominal cost and is well worth securing 
for any well-furnished library. It is packed 
with curious facts concerning the organiza- 
tion of the original thirteen Colonies and of 
the States in the period following the Revo- 

Perusal of the report discovers many novel 
explanations of irregularities and "jogs" in 
some of the boundary lines. For example, 
the "nose" projecting into Canada at the 
Lake of the Woods on the Minnesota bound- 
ary is due to the use of inaccurate maps by 
the makers of the treaties by which this area 
became United States territory. The "pan- 
handle" at the southwest corner of Missouri 
is said to have resulted from the effort of a 
prominent property owner to have his planta- 
tion included in the new State. The indefi- 
niteness of some of the early boundary lines 
is well illustrated by a quotation from Rufus 
Choate. who declared to the Massachusetts 
legislature: "The commissioners might as 
well have decided that the line between the 
States was bounded on the north by a bram- 
ble bush, on the south by a blue jay, on the 
west by a hive of bees in swarming time, and 
on the east by five hundred foxes with Are 
brands tied to their tails." 

Early State an Empire 

In the case of North Carolina, which by 
original charter included all the territory 
between parallels 36 degrees 30 minutes and 
29 degrees on the border of Florida, and west 
to the "South Seas" (or Pacific Ocean) the 
jagged lines of the State as they now show 
themselves on the map are the results _ of 
numerous surveys undertaken with defective 
instruments, without certain marks, and with 
inaccurate account taken of "variation." 

By the original charter of 1663 Carolina 
was defined as including "all that territory 
or tract of ground situate, lying and being 
within our dominions of America, extending 
from the north end of the island called Lucke 
Island, which lieth in the Southern Virginia 
seas, and within six and thirty degrees of 
the northern latitude, and to the west as far 
as the south seas, and so southerly as far 
as the river St. Matthias, which bordereth 
upon the coast of Florida and within one and 
thirty degrees of northern latitude and so 
west* in a direct line as far as the south seas 

By the charter of 1665. the territory above 
described was extended from the approxi- 
mate latitude of 36 degrees to that of 36 
degrees, 30 minutes, "extending north and 
eastward as far as the north end of Curri- 
tuck River, or inlet, upon a straight westerly 
line to Wyonoak Creek, which lies within or 
about the degrees of thirty-six and thirty 
minutes, northern latitude : and so west in a 
direct line as far as the South Seas, . . . 
and south and westward, as far as the de- 
grees of twenty-nine, inclusive, of northern 
latitude ; and so west, in a direct line as far 
as the South Seas. . . ." 

Separation of Provinces 

Because of the great distance between 
the settlements in the northern and southern 
portions of the province there was for a num- 
ber of years a governor for each part, a con- 
dition which finally resulted in the creation 
of the two Provinces, North and South Caro- 
lina, respectively. The exact year of the 
division remains uncertain, but is generally 

accepted as 1729. In the Constitution of 
North Carolina adopted in 1776 the line was 
defined as beginning at or near the mouth of 
Little River (the southern extremity of 
Brunswick County), and running from thence 
a northwest course from latitude 33 degrees 
56 minutes to 35 degrees and thence a west 
course as mentioned in the charter of King 
Charles the Second to the Proprietors of 
Carolina. Later, on December 2, 1789, the 
Legislature of North Carolina passed an act 
ceding to the United States the western lands, 
containing the present State of Tennessee. 
The deed was offered on February 25, 1790, 
and accepted on April 2 of the same year. 

Boundary Surveys 

Surveys to determine the boundaries were 
made in 1728 by Col. William Byrd of Vir- 
ginia and commissioners of the two Colonies 
acting under Royal authority. This attempt 
to define the North Carolina- Virginia border 
was made with imperfect instruments and 
the line marked to a point in the upper part 
of Stokes County, 242 miles from the coast. 
It was later carried on 90 miles by another 
joint commission to Steep Rock Creek on 
the east side of Stone Mountain, estimated 
to be 329 miles from the coast. In 1779 this 
line was again taken up as nearly as possible 
(blazes having disappeared) and carried west 
to and beyond Bristol, Tennessee, being 
known as the Walker line. 

The boundary between North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia was run by a 
joint Colonial commission, 1735 to 1746, re- 
surveyed in part in 1803, and in 1807 a line 
was run to Tennessee between North Caro- 
lina and Georgia and confirmed and estab- 
lished by act of the Legislature in 1819. 

In the case of the Tennessee boundary, run 
in 1799 and continued to Georgia in 1821, the 
commissioners who completed the line at the 
date last mentioned, instead of following 
their instructions, diverged from the crest of 
the Smoky (Unaka) Mountains at the inter- 
section of the Hiwassee turnpike and ran 
"due South" (in reality 6 degrees west of 
true south. ) 

By this error there was lost to the State of 
North Carolina the valuable mining region 
since known as Ducktown. 

As to the southern boundary, it appears 
that the line, instead of pursuing the parallel 
of 35, turns west about 10 miles south of that 
line, and then, on approaching the Catawba 
River, turns northward, pursuing a zigzag 
course to the forks of the Catawba. 12 miles 
north of that parallel. From this point to 
the mountains the boundary line runs, not 
west but N. 88 degrees W. bringing its west- 
ern end about 17 miles too far north and 
reaching the (supposed) parallel of 35 de- 
grees at a distance of about 130 miles west 
of the Catawba River. 

The loss of territory to North Carolina 
which resulted from these peculiar deviations 
is between 500 and 1,000 square miles. 

The line between North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee has been several times run and often 
in dispute, the Tennessee Supreme Court hav- 
ing decided in favor of the report of the North 
Carolina commissioners in 1886, and the 
Supreme Court of the United States ap- 
pointed commissioners, whose chairman was 
the Director of the Survey, to remark the 
boundary in contention, they in 1915 filing a 
report, which was approved. 

The various commissioners who made the 
surveys on which the boundaries between 
the four States of North and South Carolina. 
Virginia and Georgia are based depended 
almost entirely on blazes on trees for their 
marks. These were continually destroyed 
and the result was that none of the lines was 
run in accordance with the various statutes. 
The reports were, however, accepted by the 
legislatures of the several commonwealths. 



The North Carolina Geological and Eco- 
nomic Survey is seeking the judicious distri- 
bution of several hundred copies in cloth 
and several other hundreds in paper bindings 
of "The Birds of North Carolina," by T. Gil- 
bert Pearson, C. S. Brimley, and H. H. Brim- 
ley, all noted authorities and for many years 
close students of the bird life peculiar to all 
parts of the State. It is therefore planned 
to distribute these beautiful books, which are 
richly illustrated, in specially suitable quar- 
ters, such as libraries of schools, societies, 
Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, etc., and also 
to serious students of native bird life. To 
such the cost will be the purely nominal sum 
of twenty-five cents to cover postage and 

In the descriptive list of birds of North 
Carolina the volume contains records of the 
occurrence of 341 species and varieties. At 
the time the list was compiled it was realized 
that it was incomplete, since new discoveries 
would be made from time to time, but it was 
intended and still serves as a basis for ob- 
servation and consultation. Descriptions are 
authoritative, and in numerous instances are 
illustrated by splendid color plates of the 
various species. The value of the "Bird 
Book" to students generally and to the gener- 
ation coming on to know the woods and fields 
is inestimable. 

In deciding to distribute the major portion 
of its supply of these books at nominal 
charge, the Survey does so in the hope that 
a wider interest than ever may be excited 
in the bird problem — from the point of view 
of the preservation of game species, of pro- 
tection of song and insectiverous birds, and 
of a love of these natural inhabitants of field 
and forest that will emphasize the economic 
as well as esthetic importance of securing 
the continuance of the woodlands in which 
the birds are found. 


A report of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture respecting a study of Yellow Poplar 
in Northern Georgia and in Tennessee is in- 
teresting in view of studies now being made 
as to the possibility of reforesting burned and 
cut Over areas in Western North Carolina 
with this valuable tree. 

Comparisons made by the Department in 
the two regions show that in Tennessee the 
trees run smaller. In Georgia heavy second 
growths are by no means uncommon. Trees 
19 inches in diameter and 100 feet high have 
been found in close stands averaging only 
33 years of age. These trees were situated 
very favorably in cove bottom lands and 
showed very good crowns. The average of 
the larger trees on such plots is 13 inches in 
girth and 90 feet in height. In Tennessee the 
maximum diameter of this species is 17 
inches. According to the Appalachian Forest 
Experiment Station reports, most of the 
stands of second growth have been found on 
old fields abandoned because of the loss of 
soil fertility or erosion, and given up as 
worthless by the former cultivator. In these 
cases there are no true stands of Yellow Pop- 
lar, and the other less valuable species min- 
gle with it in equal quantities. 

Forest examiners report that the suscepti- 
bility of the young trees to fire damage has 
evidently retarded the better quality tree and 
prevented its dominance. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 





The two most l'iiiniliiir— and unpopular — 
incidents of life have Ions been identified 
with "death and taxes." Both arc "certain." 
Both are necessary. It is universal human 
ambition to come to them at the last possible 
moment. There is not a man in business or 
one who has accumulated property who does 
not at some time complain that he is being 
"taxed to death." The two evils seem to 
have an affinity, yet it is recognized that in 
order for government to perform the trust 
it gets from the people, the total volume of 
taxes must be constantly increased. The end 
of enlightened taxation is, therefore, the 
creation of taxable values with corresponding 
lightening of the individual pro rata burden. 
This involves the question of the method by 
which taxes will be levied and collected, the 
putting of the time of their collection at the 
moment when they may be most easily paid, 
and the care that no tax shall be such as to 
prevent or discourage the creation of the 
values by which the tax is supported. 

It is in this matter of method that North 
Carolina and many other states have been 
making the taxes on the greatest of their 
natural resources not only a discouragement 
of their conservation, but a positive incite- 
ment to their wasteful destruction. Refer- 
ence is to lands which are growing in timber, 
or which, having been cut over, are suscepti- 
ble of being reforested. 

In the one case, the valuation of the land 
and the timber growing upon it imposes upon 
the owner an obligation to make all haste to 
lumber it at the earliest possible moment, 
lest by holding it his prospective profits be 
eaten up by the tax. 

In the other case the removal of the timber 
condemns the laud on which it grew to less 
profitable use at a lower valuation or even 
to abandonment, regardless of the possibility 
of its reforestation, a long process which 
would involve constantly enhanced taxes as 
the new growth increased values. No private 
owner of commercial timber lands could 
afford, under these conditions, to attempt to 
grow upon them a forest crop requiring fifty 
years for maturity, meanwhile undertaking 
the expense of protecting the land and in 
addition paying a progressively accumulating 
amount in taxes. 

As a result, whenever North Carolina tim- 
ber lands are cut over, the method by which 
we lax all these lands tends forever to pre- 
vent their regrowth in the timber which made 
them valuable as subjects of taxation. 

Shrinkage in Timber 

A few figures will serve to illustrate how 
badly the South and North Carolina need a 
policy which will assure a large proportion 
of the lands which are cut for timber being 
dedicated to reforestation. Timber is going— 

(Continued on page 3) 

N"o. 19 




Ten years ago the U. S. Board of Engineers recommended a L2-fool [nland 

Waterway from Norfolk, Va., to Beaufort, X. ('., and 7 feel from thence 
south to Wilmington. This report has never been adopted by Coi gri 3S, so 
far as the link to Wilmington is concerned. In tin- Rivers and Earbors A.c1 
of 1919 an authorization was included for the further examination and survey 
of this section with a view to reporting a project of a gr< ater depth to conform 
to the Beaufort-Norfolk and the Chesapeake-Delaware section. Inn the Board 
of Engineers afterwards made an adverse report on tin- survey. There i^ now 
pending an effort to have the Chief of Engineers disapprove tlii- action and 
order a survey. 

In brief, the above is a statement of a project in which the average North 
Carolinian can bring himself to evince but a superficial interest, while on its 
success or failure depends much of his own future prosperity and ability to do 
business economically. On the completion of this linking of the Beaufort- 
Norfolk and Chesapeake-Delaware waterways with Wilmington depends, for 
instance, much of the success of the plan for assuring water commerce by 
creating port facilities as a proper State enterprise. On it depend- the direc- 
tion through North Carolina sounds and rivers of a great volume of water- 
borne traffic between North and South. As it succeeds or fails the eternal 
problem of railway freight rates will be brought nearer to or postponed in 
solution. Pending its completion the entire commercial and industrial organi- 
zation of the State misses a degree of efficiency possible only when the water- 
ways shall be utilized. 

Had North Carolinians taken a real and comprehending interest in the 
completion of the waterways system ten years ago, it would today have been 
completed or in course of completion, ready to do its part toward the success of 
the port the State is to equip. The duty now, of representatives in Congress 
and of business interests generally, is one of study and understanding, pin- a 
definite active aid in securing and creating the evidence to convince the Gov- 
ernment of the immediate economic value of the proposed extension. The 
shipper can plan definitely what he can ship and what secure by water. 
Capital can think of investment to pay double dividends of profit and satisfac- 
tion in serving the State. People everywhere can begin to consider that if 
the State is to create port facilities, trade and commerce and private busi] it 
must cooperate by helping to bring into full employment every navigable 
waterway with which we are equipped by Nature. 





An editor of one of the leading North Cam 
Una papers, apropos the suggestion that the 

Slate Fair he made an actual concern of the 

administration of the State of North Caro 

Una. professes to waul sonic one to stand up 
and explain to the State "what earthly good 
the fair docs il." No doubt, he sa\s. "it is :i 
wonderful place for a horse-swappers' con 
venlion. and occasionally a prize bull may be 
sold io advantage there. But what excuse 

is thai for making the State of North Caro 
(Continued on page 4) 


It is now in the power o\' a few citizens 
of the Slate lo give North Carolina and the 
people of this and succeeding generations an 
invaluable present, at a nominal cosl to them- 

The present is historic Fori Macon and the 
trad of no acres fronting on Bogue Sound 
opposite Beaufort, Beaufort Inlet and the 
Atlantic Ocean, which comprise the reserva- 
tion on which it stands. The price i- s7..".<ni 
and the conditions of it s acceptance by the 

(Continued on page -> 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 


Natural Resources and State Unity 

Years ago a North Carolina shipper 
could secure himself lower rates by desig- 
nating that the shipment be made, so far 
as possible, by water. Goods imported 
from the North could be cargo to railroad 
at tidewater, and thence shipped to desti- 
nation by rail much more cheaply than if 
handled by the railroads for the entire 
distance. Goods consigned to Baltimore 
or New York, when high speed was not 
essential, had a like competitive advantage 
through selection of the route they should 

So far as North Carolina ports are con- 
cerned, this economical practice came to 
an end a long while ago, when the rail- 
roads complained that since they were 
jointly liable for loss or damage with the 
water carriers and the latter were weak 
and financially irresponsible, they should 
not be required to give or accept a through 
bill of lading from or to interior points. 
In this contention they were sustained by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

When the through bill of lading went 
out, several things of high economic sig- 
nificance happened in North Carolina. 
For one thing, the "freight rate contro- 
versy" in its several phases became and 
has continued to be acute in the business, 
commercial and industrial life of the 
State. For another thing, Baltimore, 
Norfolk, Richmond and the Virginia 
cities fed by them continued to enjoy the 
water rates that North Carolina, to all 
intents and purposes, had lost. As a con- 
sequence they began to grow at our ex- 
pense, to invade our natural trade terri- 
tories, generally to compete with the ad- 
vantage of a strategic position requiring 
an undue exertion of Tar Heel resource 
and energy to overcome. North Carolina 
has been winning handsomely against the 
odds, but at heavy cost. There are a 
thousand points of technical conflict in 
the "rate controversy," but the restora- 
. tion of the "through bill of lading" would 
take ninety per cent of them outside any 
practical equation. 

There is one way and one only by Avhich 
the through bill of lading may be regained 
and North Carolina business and industry 
assured of the fair field in competition 
which cheap transportation provides. Be- 
side the development and use of its ports, 
sounds and navigable rivers tariffs, court 
decisions and commission regulations are 
so many superfluities. To this end there 
are now pointing several great essential 
projects. One is the equipment of a port. 

Another, the extension of the Inland 
Waterway from Beaufort to Wilmington. 
Still another, the provision of a third lock 
on the Cape Fear River to make Fayette- 
ville the head of navigation. 

These things, which must be physically 
accomplished in the East, are of equal or 
even greater importance to Central, Pied- 
mont and Western North Carolina. The 
lesson is that wherever in the State a 
natural resource is located, there is no 
part of the State in which its proper 
preservation and employment is not a 
matter of vital concern. 




(Continued from page 1) 

State, which the Governor has approved, are 
that the property shall be maintained as a 
public park for the use of all the people. 

Fort Macon itself is one of the few well- 
preserved fortifications of the old order rep- 
resenting the best engineering practice in the 
art of defense prior to and during the Civil 
War. Its masonry, casements, magazines, 
redoubts, courts, etc., are in a great measure 
still intact. At small pains and expense it 
can be repaired and reconstructed in a way 
to preserve forever the stronghold that as a 
guard to the port of Beaufort was of such 
strategic importance to the Confederacy, and 
that fell in battle to the fleet and army of 
the United States. On the point of its signifi- 
cant history alone, it were unthinkable that 
Fort Macon be allowed to be destroyed piece- 
meal by falling into the sentimentally heed- 
less hands of private ownership for commer- 
cial purposes. 

Ideal Reckeation Site 
As to the land which is included in the 
tract on which the Fort is located, its beaches 
afford an unrivaled opportunity for develop- 
ment for recreation and for tourists at all 
seasons. Beaufort is within a few minutes 
by motor boat. Cape Lookout and its refuge 
harbor are within easy reach. On the one 
side is Bogue Sound, with all the advantages 
of fishing and bathing in its quiet waters ; on 
the other are magnificent beaches facing the 
ocean, stretching down from picturesque sand- 
billows, affording ideal surf and the front 
door to deep-water fishing famous for excel- 
lence and variety. Within short distances are 
grounds noted for duck shooting and on 
nearby mainlands wild game, including wild 
turkeys, deer and bear. Near the Gulf 
Stream, the winters are mild and the sum- 
mers fresh with an almost never-failing sea 

Fort Macon and the land for the park sur- 
rounding it became available to North Caro- 
lina by Act of Congress ratified March 4, 
1923, providing for the disposition by the 
War Department of a number of militarily 
obsolete forts and reservations belonging to 
the Government. 

Directing the ultimate sale of these prop- 
erties, the act provided that they should first 
be appraised and afterwards offered to the 
State, county or municipality in which situ- 
ate at the appraisal price, the option of such 
purchase to extend for six months, and with 
the proviso that, in case of purchase by State, 
county or municipality, such property be 
devoted to park purposes, with reversion 
otherwise to the United States. 

Governor's Suggestion 
Notified of the appraisal of Fort Macon at 
^7,500 and the option of purchase in North 

Carolina to April 2, 1924, Governor Morrison 
wrote the Director of the Survey in response 
to his suggestion that the amount might be 
raised from private sources : 

"The State has no funds which can be used 
for the purchase of the Fort Macon property, 
and the only way I think you can secure this 
property is by public subscription. I will 
appreciate anything you can do along this 

It is upon this authority and suggestion 
that the Director of the N. C. Geological 
and Economic Survey has addressed letters 
to a limited number of citizens of the State, 
asking them to contribute substantially to a 
fund to exercise the option and provide for 
the maintenance of the site and fortification 
until such time as the General Assembly has 
opportunity to provide for its upkeep and 
improvement. In case the option is not 
exercised, the Act of Congress provides for 
the sale of the property at public auction, in 
which case there would be great danger of 
its being bid off by private interests and thus 
forever lost to the State. 

Want Popular Subscription 

Because he believes that there are many 
individuals in the State who would enjoy 
participation in such a gift to the common 
interest, the Director of the Survey hereby 
invites voluntary subscriptions in any amount 
requesting that checks for that purpose be 
made payable to Benjamin R. Lacy, Trustee, 
but mailed to Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director 
of the N. C. Geological and Economic Survey, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, for purposes of record. 

Natural Resources believes that one of 
the next duties of the State is to begin the 
systematic acquisition of suitably located 
tracts for park purposes. Such parks could 
be made to serve the end of emphasis of 
worthy history ; to afford practical object 
lessons in the conservation of resources, such 
as forests and game ; to provide public 
grounds for sport and recreation, and to ad- 
vertise the State itself by attracting tourists 
from abroad. 

The one park at present owned by the 
State on the summit of Mount Mitchell has 
proved immensely popular and has been 
visited by increasing thousands from North 
Carolina, the various states and many foreign 

The wisdom of the act establishing it has 
been splendidly justified in its use, and the 
provision by which the Governor was author- 
ized to accept gifts for the purpose of acquir- 
ing additional parks now makes it possible 
to appeal confidently to the public to take 
advantage of the opportunity of matching 
Mitchell in the West with Macon in the East. 


Government experts from several bureaus 
are now conducting intensive investigation 
and experiment with -a number of foreign 
chestnut trees, in the hope of producing a 
hybrid which may prove capable of resisting 
the blight which has destroyed so large a 
part of the forests of native chestnut. Among 
these are Chinese Chestnut, Chinese Timber 
Chestnut, Japanese and Indian Chestnut, and 
the native Chinquapin. 

These species, along with other named and 
unnamed species from Asia, are being cross- 
bred in various ways as they come into fruit- 
ing. It is said that the Japanese variety has 
been found undesirable and some of the 
others from which success was hoped have 
proved primarily susceptible to the blight. It 
is interesting to note that the Chinquapin, 
once a common but little valued nut growing 
in all sections of the State, has qualities of 
resistance which give it a first place in the 
experiments in progress. 






(Continued from page 1) 

rapidly. At the present time there are only 
fifteen lumber exporting slates — of which 
eight are in the South and North Carolina 
one. Several of these states are now import- 
ing almost as iniich Lumber as they export. 
The records show that in a few years only 
the three western stales, Oregon, California, 
and Washington, will he culling more timber 
than they use. Of original forests there are 
in the Southern Slates 240,000,000 acres of 
timbered land, including second growth, of 
which 19,600,000 acres of timber of all kinds 
is credited to North Carolina. Meanwhile, 
the South is annually growing three billion 
feel of saw pine timber, and it is cutting 
sixteen billion feet. In the hardwood forests 

of the Southern Appalachians 22,000,000 
acres of second growth arc increasing at the 
rate of one and a half billion board feet per 
year, while the estimated cut is three billion 
board feet. The only possible hope of rescue 
from a timber shortage which would involve 
large imports of Lumber from long distances 
at ruinous costs and the destruction of a 
great and growing wood products industry 
is to begin immediately to see that lands 
which are cut over are set at once to repro- 
ducing forests. That cannot be undertaken 
On any extensive scale so long as the method 
of taxing timber lands and lands capable of 
producing timber makes reforestation an im 
possibility as a reasonable investment. 

A Rescue Tax 

Fortunately, the method by which this tax 
burden on timber producing lands may be 
removed and the State at the same time 
assured of the receipt of taxes in far greater 
amount than at present possible is well estab- 
lished and proved in experience. 

The name by whicli the modern economic 
method of assessing timber lands is known 
is the "Severance Tax." 

So far as encouraging and making possible 
reforestation of cut-over lands with trees that 
require more than a generation to attain 
their growth is concerned, it might be called 
a "Salvage Tax." 

In principle the Severance Tax looks to 
the payment to the State and county of a 
definite and equitable pro rata of the value 
of the timber at the time of its removal. 

What Law Would Do 

Such a law would provide, first, for the 
assessment of land growing timber at a defi- 
nite fixed value, low enough to justify its 
devotion to forestation until the trees became 

Second, that at the time of cutting there 
would be imposed as a severance tax a fixed 
charge of so much per thousand feet of 
marketed timber, to come out of the price 
received by the owner, this severance tax to 
be determined and declared at the time the 
land itself was listed as forest land to be 
devoted to reforestation. 

Third, at the time the owner listed his 
tract as forest lands and became entitled to 
the special assessment as such, he would 
automatically enter into a contract with the 
State to permit the growth of timber to 
maturity, and in case it became necessary 
for any reason to cut before maturity to 
reimburse the State and county in accumu- 
lated taxes equal to the difference between 
the assessment as forett lands and the assess 
ment at the true value, including the imma- 
ture timber. 

Fourth, in ihc case of lands containing 

virgin timber it was desirable not to cut 

immediately, as timber so far advanced as 

to make culling desirable within a period 

shorter than that contemplated in the usual 
contract, there would, of course, be provision 
for a modification of the principle to meet 
the special conditions. 

On its part, the obligation of the State 
WOUld include Ihc eooporat ion of its agem i< 

in the prevention of forest fires, to the end 
of reducing the risk attendant upon growing 
a crop through a general ion and (hen having 
the accumulated value destroyed in a day by 

reason of preventable negligence. 

Otheb Places fob Pbinotpli 

Although the immediate pressing need is 
Cor a system of taxation which would encour- 
age rather than render impractical the re- 
newal of cut-over forests, the Severance Tax, 
in principle, applies also to lands which con- 
lain minerals— especially those in which the 
mineral values are recognized as potential 
assets, but for some reason are not imme- 
diately realizable. During the war, for in- 
stance, there were several conspicuous in- 
stances of mining operations in various parts 
of the State which were then very profitable 
owing to the increased demand and limited 
market, but which have since closed down on 
account of the restoration of normal condi- 
tions. In these cases the taxing of such lands 
in accordance with the potential but not 
realizable value of the minerals they contain 
were almost tantamount to a species of con- 
fiscation, since they cannot be profitably held 
as an investment in face of the uncertainty 
of their employment. Under a Severance 
Tax. such lands would be assessed in the 
manner outlined with respect to timber, with 
a lax per ton on the minerals as they might 
he taken out when mining operations could 
be conducted at a profit. While there is an 
admitted contingent value to mineral lands 
il is not profitable to work, to attempt to 
tax in the ground products for which there 
i< no present market is a folly to cause the 
abandonment of the lands and prevent their 
judicious holding and exploration against the 
time when they may be worth securing. 

Although it is not known by such a name. 
I be State's present practice of imposing a 
lax upon each bushel of oysters taken from 
North Carolina waters is, in reality, the 
Severance Tax in operation. 

The same might be said of the tax imposed 
on lish nets, which is equivalent to a levy 
on the value of the fish taken in them. 

Would Increase Revenue 
Manifestly, if a change in the method of 
imposing taxes results in the reforestation 
and protection from fires of lands capable of 
producing timber, there will be ultimately far 
greater amounts of timber to be taxed, the 
value of the lands themselves will be greatly 
enhanced, and the final revenue to Ihc State 
will be many times multiplied. 

Although more than a generation of time 

must elapse before the full effect of the 

Severance Tax principle could he realized, 
experience of Louisiana and other slates 
which have adopted it is uniformly an in- 
crease in revenues covered into the treasury. 
while at the same time inducement is held 

out to landowners to conserve, instead of 

hastily and wastefully realizing upon, their 
natural resources. 

"The power to tax is the power to de- 
stroy" but the moral justification of its 
exercise is bound up in the proverb. "Live 
.ind lot live." 

coolidgl; favors a 
million annually 
for new reser\ es 

The recent r< port ol the National l oresl 
ration < iommission, pi' i nt< d through 
it- president, Secretarj of War Weeks, who 
was the author ot the Weeks Law under the 
provisions of which the national fori 
acquired, gives striking evidence of the wis- 
dom oi' preserving forested area- ami d 
eating to regrowtb in timber land- which are 
,, located as to affect the headwaters of 

-I reams and rivers. 

Since the passage of the Week- Law there 
have been acquired ae forest reserves in the 
eastern states 2,205,027 acres, the 
cost of which to the Government was $5.03 
per acre. 

The total costs of tic ts, including 

i heir care and administration, has been 
si 1,393,000. 

in the meanwhile there ha- been received 
as proceeds the sum of $586,282 from all 
sources, chief of which has been the sale of 
timber removed, not for purpose of revenue, 
Inil lo promote the better growtb of tic land- 
in forests. 

The rea.-onable estimati of the timber on 
Hi.' lands at present included in the reserves 
is $20,622,000 an increment of more than 
si [ and a quarter millions. 

In these estimates no account has been 
taken of the Increased value of the land 
itself only the limber-- and lie receipts for 
sales have been limited lo the proceeds of 
low grades, the removal of which was bene- 
ficial to the forests. 

During the last year, with a minimum ap- 
propriation of si.j0.000 as against the two 
millions annually of the original appropria- 
tion, there has been authorized the purchase 
id' Tit. 000 additional acres at an average price 
of $4.35, the lowest in the history of the 
reserve-, except in the previous fiscal year. 
Recommendations for extension of the system 
look to additional forest units in Kentucky 
and provision for the storage of storm water 
in the headwaters of the Tennessee River, 
in order to reduce silting in reservoirs m 
sary to the operation of the Muscle Shoals 
plant. It is pointed out that it i- desirable 
iii.i i reservoirs be located within fore-ted 

watersheds, and the protection of r-er\oir- 
justities the enlargement of the national for- 
est areas in this region. 

A Dumber of North Carolina counties re- 
cently received from the Government pay- 
ments in lieu of taxes upon lands which were 
included in the fore-t reserves in thi- State, 
these moneys being their pro rata of the 

receipts incidental to the administration of 
the forested area-. A- the reserves are 
better forested, the value of the cut necessary 
to keep their timber in the lust condition 
will naturally greatly increase, with the re 
suit that the returns to these counties will 
ultimately be much greater than would have 
been realized if they had been listed for 

taxal ion a- cut over lands. 

Revenue From forest reserves, while antici- 
pated as a matter of expert management, is 
outside the contemplation of the basic princi- 
ple upon which they were established — the 
regulation of stream tlow and the protection 
of navigable rivers. The amount of this 
revenue, however, and tin 1 certainty of it- 
increase with the growth of the forests Is 
full of suggestion to states which face the 
destruction of their timber resources. In the 

establishment of combined fore-t and game 
preserves, public hunting and recreation 
grounds, etc., the commonwealth that engages 
an enlightened policy of conservation may 
kill several birds with one Stone -add im- 
( Continued on page -D 





(Continued from page 1) 

lina proprietor — and therefore responsible for 
the debts — of a cheap-john institution in- 
separably associated in the minds of the 
people with crooked gambling games and 
hootchie-kootchie dancers?" 

Having asked this question, the editor ad- 
mits in the next breath "Mrs. Vanderbilt's 
resolute endeavor to sweep from the fair 
•"rounds the shell games and the girl shows," 
but thinks that the moment she steps down 
there is bound to be a moral retrogression. 
Even granting that the clean-up of hurtful 
conditions can be made permanent, this paper 
professes to see in the future of the Fair 
under State auspices nothing except a "green 
pasture for broken-down political hacks" of 
no conceivable value to the State. 

What, then, is the value of the State Fair? 
What is the reason that it was visited last 
fall by record-breaking numbers of people, 
from every section of the State, none of 
whom saw and few regretted the passing of 
the type of "girl show" complained of? If 
there was a convention of horse-traders, it 
was of small size and utterly lost in the 
throngs that came to Raleigh for some other 
purpose. If there was gayety in the city, if 
politicians met in hotel lobbies upon their 
concerns, if there was gambling outside the 
grounds, these things were in no reasonable 
sense a part of the Fair, but incidentals 
always a part of any great concourse of 
people, and not characteristic of the people 
themselves. It were as unjust to point to the 
presence of vice within a metropolis and then 
ask, if such things can be, of what good is 
the city in whose cover they exist ! 

Test of Popular Taste 
Now, a fair concededly clean in respect of 
its amusement features last fall drew more 
North Carolinians and more people from 
abroad than any other exposition in the his- 
tory of the institution. What did these peo- 
ple, the great bulk of whom did not gamble 
or seek devious diversion, wish to see at the 
State Fair? Did they see it. and did what 
they saw do them good? They flocked in 
from all parts of North Carolina. They took 
the time and spent the money necessary to 
view the Fair, such as it was, and they went 
home satisfied. They found something good 
in it. Is what they, representing every sec- 
tion of the State, considered valuable to 
themselves of value to the whole people of 
the State, whom they adequately represented? 
What these people saw to catch their inter- 
est were exhibits of the best that was being 
produced and accomplished in North Carolina. 
They saw the activities of their State set 
- forth in examples to stir the imagination. 
They saw attractively displayed indexes of 
manufacture in its every phase. They saw 
reflected evidences of profitable production 
in lines of which they had known little or 
nothing. They saw object lessons in educa- 
tion, farm management, in home activities. 
They had brought home to them the natural 
resources of the State in terms of their use, 
of their needless squander, of their protec- 
tion. Boys' and girls' clubs showed their 
work and wares to inspection, inciting com- 
petition. On every hand eager-eyed folk 
from the towns, the villages, the land, saw 
things to emulate — with which to contrast, 
favorably or unfavorably, their own efforts. 
Men of business obtained a birds' eye view 
of what other business men were doing. 
Manufacturers, miners, farmers, followers of 
every vocation found within the range of 
exhibits stimulating evidences of the best 
practice in their lines at home and abroad. 
Possibilities in such pursuits as cattle-raising 

and poultry culture, applicable to thousands 
of homes in every section, emphasized the 
basic policy of pure blood sti'ains and scien- 
tific but practical methods. In addition, 
whatever was newest and best in education, 
in public health, in social service was gath- 
ered for the common instruction and in the 
interest of general reflection. In short, the 
State Fair, as conducted under the present 
regime, is epitome and stage in miniature of 
the life and activities of the people as a 
whole, brought within a reduced scale to fit 
the limits of display in tangible form. 

Vision in the Tangibles 

Reading and writing have become universal 
and there is little or nothing that goes on of 
even passing significance that does not find 
record and comment in print. But if there 
is a general gain in literacy, there is a defi- 
nite loss in the new as contrasted with the 
old scholarship. The educated man of yester- 
day remembered in the relatively restricted 
range of interests far more definitely and 
minutely than his fellow of today, whose 
mind must concentrate on a few things and 
plunge through a veritable spray of facts 
that merely moisten the window of his mind. 
One might, possibly does, read in the course 
of a year the record of North Carolina ; but 
no one can grasp that record in anything 
like a vision of its entirety until he sees it 
spread before him, for the translation of his 
eyes, for the test of his fingers, for the ap- 
preciation that can come only from human 
touch with the people who are making it in 
their lives from day to day. 

A State Fair in the development which is 
the aim of those who do see its value will be 
a showing of North Carolina to the world. 
It will be a model of what the State is, what 
it contains, what it means and what it is 
doing. Such a fair will be its own press- 
agent to a world that can understand nothing 
so well as it can by looking and seeing. The 
State has done so well with what it has, act- 
ing largely by itself, that it needs all the 
world to assist in the development of its 
resources and the realization of its possi- 
bilities. What it must show the world first, 
is what is here and what can be done with 
it — if the world be shown clearly enough, it 
can be depended upon to understand and to 

The denial of the practical value of this 
exposition feature is, of course, contrary to 
all human experience, which has made the 
show-window the basis of commercial and 
industrial success. 

The value of the Fair as a social occasion 
in the true sense, a foregathering of the 
people for contact, appreciation and under- 
standing is none the less real. 

Graft Not Tar Heel Trait 

To contend that State encouragement of 
such an exposition and acquaintance is an 
enterprise of hokum is to indict falsely a 
people one of whose striking qualities has 
been governmental honesty and economy. 

In the last few years millions on millions 
of dollars have been poured out upon the 
making of roads in North Carolina. No less 
remarkable than the sudden decision to 
shoulder such an expense is the fact that the 
expenditures have been made without the 
suggestion of "graft" and in an admitted 
spirit of business efficiency. 

Why, with a much smaller outlay of money, 
should it be concluded that a State Fair 
would necessarily become a pasturage for 
"political hacks?" 

Is it not more reasonable to assume that 
an institution that for nearly two generations 
has under trial and difficulty attempted to 
magnify the State and has won a way into 
the affections of the people would as a State 
enterprise for the common good pay in 
"value" cumulative dividends? 



(Continued from page 3) 

measurably to its future wealth in timber, 
set an invaluable example in the care of 
forests and their management to private 
owners, and easily obtain revenues sufficient 
to pay an increasing dividend on the invest- 

Under the provisions of the Weeks Law, 
passed by Congress in 1911, the original 
appropriation for purchase of forest reserves 
was ten million dollars, divided into annual 
expenditures of $2,000,000 over a five-year 
period. Following the outbreak of the Euro- 
pean War and the ultimate participation of 
the United States, this annual appropriation 
was reduced to $450,000, which, considering 
the plan of extension to cover watersheds 
deserving protection, was scarcely more than 
nominal. At a conference last spring between 
President Harding and Senators and Repre- 
sentatives and associations interested in con- 
servation, the Executive expressed himself 
as heartily favoring the extension of the 
Weeks Law principle, although not positively 
committing himself to favor the resumption 
of the pre-war appropriation for purchase. 
It is a gratifying fact to know that, in full 
sympathy with the view of Mr. Harding. 
President Coolidge recently recommended to 
the Budget Commissioner that provision be 
made for an annual purchase appropriation 
of $1,000,000, and it is reasonable to suppose 
that with a betterment in fiscal condition, 
the original rate of purchase of new forest 
reserve areas will be resumed until the lands 
approved for purchase shall have been ac- 



The Southern Forestry Congress, which 
meets this year at Savannah, Georgia, Janu- 
ary 28-30, will be attended by representatives 
from all Southern States, including Missouri, 
Arkansas, Texas and Oklahoma. 

The work of the conference will be directed 
to measures looking to reforestation and 
particularly to the question of reestablishing 
in the Southern States the once great indus- 
try of naval stores, which has dwindled 
rapidly with the extinction of the turpentine 
forests through wasteful practices in tapping 
the trees, lack of protection from fire, etc. 
North Carolina was for years known as the 
"Tar, Pitch and Turpentine" State, but its 
preeminence in naval stores production passed 
south to South Carolina and, later, Georgia, 
in both of which the melancholy experience 
of destruction was repeated. In North Caro- 
lina Wilmington as a port still feels acutely 
the lack of the business, both export and 
import, which once flowed through it from 
the turpentine forests ; and in the last few 
years Savannah has undergone a crisis 
threatening disaster from the same cause. 
To recreate naval stores as an industry in- 
volves reforestation, but calls particularly 
for correct methods of marketing and pro- 
tection of highly inflammable forests from 
fires. When scientifically worked, a turpen- 
tine forest, as France and other countries 
have demonstrated, may have a long produc- 
ing life, instead of being killed and burned 
within a few years. 

The Southern Forestry Congress is a North 
Carolina corporation, with headquarters at 
Asheville, and has as chairman of its execu- 
tive committee Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director 
of the N. C. Geological and Economic Survey, 
which was the originator of the movement 
by which it was organized. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 20 


The recommendation of Stephen G. Mather, 
Director of Park Service, that there he estab- 
lished a national park in the Appalachian 
region and another in the Everglades of 
Florida, is one to arouse an instant popu- 
larity in the East, in which there is a grow- 
ing sentiment that the far Western States 
have too long enjoyed a monopoly of the 
principle of dedication of unique scenic re- 
gions to show-place purposes and use for 
public recreation. Establishing a national 
park in the East is not, however, the simple 
thing that justified like action in the West, 
for several good reasons. While there are 
areas in the Appalachian regions which by 
natural and scenic advantages and curiosities 
(as the Mammoth Cave) lend themselves to 
the park idea, care should be taken in carry- 
ing out any such enterprise to avoid conflict 
with or embarrassment to another great 
national principle now being worked out in 
the Eastern mountains — the National Forest 

In the case of the Western parks, for 
instance, there was not the initial difficulty 
of purchase of the areas needed. The West- 
ern parks-to-be already were government 
lands. In most cases they were isolated and 
their chief value was their scenic beauty and 
their possession of natural phenomena. All 
that was needed was their dedication to the 
public use as parks and their preservation 
thenceforth in their natural state. Thus, 
with the exception of necessary roads, hotels 
and facilities for tourists, these parks are 
left absolutely as nature made them. They 
are natural museums without any primary 
economic significance. There is absolutely 
no cutting of timber, even in a manner to 
produce revenue from the land while pre- 
serving and promoting the growth of the 
natural forest. There is no taking of game 
or fishing of any kind — no matter how the 
forests may be tilled with wild life or the 
streams teem with fish. With certain uniquely 
equipped areas of the public domain the 
Government in these instances simply deter- 
mined to set them apart from the ordinary 
processes of use and development by the 
public, to which the great majority of such 
lands were destined. 

"Park" and "Forest" 

In the case of a national park in the East, 
(he mailer is first of all complicated by the 
fact that there are no public lands of park 
type now in the possession of (lie Government 
ready for such a dedication. There musl 
first be a purchase of private property, at a 
price apt to be a stiff one. and a subsequent 
abandonment of the idea of using such lands 
in any manner of economic administration. 
They would be preserved for the public con- 
templation — but contemplation only. Either 
forest or mountain or other scenic areas 
would be so purchased, or they could other- 
wise be acquired only by the process of limit- 
ing the expansion of the national forests, or 
(Continued on page 4) 



Now that the Corporation Commission has granted the petition of the 
Southern Power Company for an increase in certain rates for electricity, the 
announcement that immediate construction will he begun on two large addi- 
tional power units proves the bona fides of Mr. Duke's statement thai exten- 
sions would have to await assurance of a larger return upon the necessary 

This condition, which was denounced as a "threat" before, does not justify 
the charge that its acceptance creates a monopoly or abrogates the principle 
of State control after the event. Impartial public opinion will continue to 
regard it as a matter of business precaution well within the. discretion of the 
interests upon which would fall the burden of the costs. 

Equally unjustified, if more apt to mislead and confuse, is the revival of the 
old catch-phrase as to "watered stock," on the allegation that in some myste- 
rious way rates are regulated to pay dividends on scraps of paper of fictitious 
value. It is today a rare circumstance when the stocks of any public-servic- 
corporation are drawing any dividends, no matter how much capital they 
represent. Stockholders of the Southern Power Company have drawn nothing 
in dividends and the problem of corporate financing is now practically con- 
fined to the sale of bonds, every issue of which is a mortgage rendering the 
position of the stockholder more insecure. When the Corporation Commission 
fixed power rates, it did so on an estimate of actual value of plants, and to 
suggest otherwise is to be guilty of gross ignorance or an attempt at deliberate 

But what this decision does emphasize is the need of the State for an 
authority of its own capable of determining values of properties independently 
of ex parte data. The Corporation Commission, having no appraisal of its 
own, per force accepted the figures of the power companies, since those oppos- 
ing the increased rates declined or were unable to'refute them. With only one 
set of figures, the Commission's conclusion was practically written for it in 
advance. It is not to suggest that the power companies either falsified their 
figures or lacked in candor in presentation of testimony, to say that where the 
State undertakes to exercise its right to fix rates in accordance with returns 
upon values, the determination of that value is its own function and duty. 
which it has no moral right to delegate. 

When it comes to fixing rates on valuation, equity between producer and 
j consumer of the commodity is prejudiced whenever the decision depends on 
J any testimony less impartial than evidence secured by the agency on which 
j rests the legal responsibility of making it. 

IJM^~M™" — ■■■"■■ ■■ mi— mi mi— — 'm n — — an-^nw— ■■— •■-—■■^— ■■ ■ ••^m^—.t ■• ■■ m 




Little is heard today of the American in- 
stitution once known as the "abandoned New 
England farm." There is no more weary 
literature pretending to portray the manner 
in which the wives of these rocky areas 

work themselves into the insane asylums. 

The farms of New England have all been 
(Continued on page 3) 


Barytes, the commercial designation of 
barite, a beavy white mineral with a ixrfect 
prismatic cleavage, which in chemical com- 
position is a barium sulphate, occurs liber- 
ally in a number of North Carolina localities. 
but lias been indifferently mined at intervals. 
It is one of a number of mineral possibil 
(Continued on page 2) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. 0., by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Keep The Indian Whole 

Indian statistics showing a population 
for the past year of 344,303, or a gain of 
1,444 over 1922, indicate a hopeful pause 
in the march to oblivion of a virile 
nomadic race sickening to death through 
contact with modern civilization. After 
the white man quit shooting the Indian, 
his ways — even his best-intentioned teach- 
ings — for a long while proved even more 
inexorably destructive than force and 

If the Indian is to survive and even 
multiply, Ave are at the beginning of a 
new problem in many respects more diffi- 
cult of solution than the old. Modern 
civilization must go on, but those who 
know the Indian are revolted to think of 
him compelled to be a part of a scheme 
against which his instincts rebel, for 
which his activities are unsuited, by 
which his body may be preserved at the 
dear price of his true character. There 
is a place for the Indian as a clear and 
undefiled current in the sea of national 
life; but he never can become of it an 
integral part, or one that will not taint, 
or become attainted in, an unnatural mix- 

With the Indian racially established, it 
is highly important that there be kept for 
him the things a part of himself and his 
traditions. Particularly is this true of 
his arts. In weaving, basket-making, pot- 
tery, and metal work the ancient tribes 
had a genius uniquely expressed. The 
artists of the Navajo blanket worked be- 
fore the visioned result with the same 
high indifference to time that distin- 
guished the masters of the Golden Age in 
Europe. Their Avork carried the hall- 
mark of the spirit. It was so with other 
products to which was brought a heritage 
of technic from dim antiquity. Yet today 
the sure, deliberate art and uncanny skill 
of the Indian are yielding to the white 
man's fetish of cheap and speedy mass 
production ! 

Eecently a national gathering started a 
movement to help the Indian preserve the 
arts that only he can know and no one 
else revive. It might well be a first step 
toward an Indian policy comprehending 
more than mere material and materially 
moral assistance. With 11,883 Cherokees, 
North Carolina is the eighth State in 
Indian population. We could lend them 
no better service than encouragement to 
hold against the pressure of the world the 
qualities that made them a great people 
when the forest was an empire. 




(Continued from page 1) 

which have been neglected, or from which 
the full value has not been derived on account 
of the too prevalent practice of selling in the 
crude state instead of after preparation to 
bring the higher prices available if they were 
put on the market in a form to make them 
available for their ultimate uses. 

Barytes has wide use in commerce in the 
manufacture of paper, rubber, and paints and 
in the preparation of a material widely used 
to cover hams and other articles requiring 
special preservation. The first grades are 
used in the manufacture of paints, by mixing 
with white lead, and these are known as 
"floated barytes." In cases where there is 
too much of a stain from iron oxide to make 
it available for use in paints, barytes is also 
used to some extent in the manufacture of 
various barium salts. There are also experi- 
ments being made looking to its utilization 
in the glass-making industry. 

In the preparation of barytes for use it is 
cleaned, crushed, bolted and floated, Avhere 
the grade is sufficiently high to justify the 
latter process. But by far the larger propor- 
tion of the mineral mined in North Carolina 
is sold in the crude state directly to the man- 
ufacturer, without any preliminary treat- 
ment except the washing off of attached dirt 
and soil. 

Barytes in Gaston 

Barytes deposits in the State that have 
been most extensively worked are those 
occurring in Gaston and Madison counties. 
The former is located about five miles south 
of Bessemer City, about one mile from the 
north end of the peak of Crowder mountain. 
The eleA^ation of the mine is higher than the 
railroad at Bessemer, lending itself to a per- 
fectly graded road from the mine to the rail- 
road at a point four miles distant. Crowder's 
mountain, near which the mine is located, is 
one of a line of isolated peaks and ridges 
stretching from the South Carolina line north- 
eastward and including King's, Crowder's 
and Anderson mountains. Barytes is found 
at a number of points in the vicinity of 
King's and Crowder's mountains, and occurs 
in what at first appear to be regular well- 
defined tissue veins between the walls of a 
micaceous, argillaceous schist. It outcrops 
at intervals and has been encountered by 
open cuts and pits at numerous points 
throughout a distance of 2,400 feet. The 
main deposit, or so called A'ein, varies in 
width from 2Va to 6, and in some places to 
12 feet. The strike of the barytes A r eins is in 
general north 10 degrees to 15 degrees east 
and dipping at high angles, usually toward 
the west. Where the barytes has been en- 
countered near the surface and followed 
downward, it increased in width. Gaston 
County barytes, where more or less cracked 
and seamed, is badly stained with iron oxide, 
but this grows less with deeper mining. Some 
sulphides are found associated with the 
barytes, but these have been along certain 
lines and not scattered through the deposits. 
Most of the stained barytes and the sulphides 
may be eliminated with very little waste. As 
a whole, the quality is good and care in selec- 
tion produces barytes x>f -the first quality. 

Vast Western N. C. Deposits 

Barytes is found in great quantity in the 
region along the French Broad River, north- 
westwardly from a line drawn approximately 
northeast and southwest through Barnard. 
The deposits continue beyond the North Caro- 
lina-Tennessee State line, into Tennessee. 

The amount of barytes in the region consists 
of many millions of tons, but much of it is 
not sufficiently high in barium sulphate to 
be available in ordinary manufacturing pro- 
cesses, the impurities being largely flourite 
and silica, both of which are highly unde- 
sirable. Mining has been spasmodic through 
a period of more than forty years, but the 
tonnage has been inconsiderable, certainly 
not more than 400,000 tons, practically all 
from two groups of mines, known respectively 
as the Long Mountain mines, within four 
miles of Hot Springs, and the Stackhouse or 
Sandy Bottom group. There are large 
amounts of barytes available in these prop- 
erties. Estimates of the reserves above the 
bed of the river only must be crude, but the 
amount is large, some 500,000 to 1,000,000 
tons, and there are good reasons to believe 
that the leA r el of the river indicates the point 
at which pumping will begin to be an impor- 
tant consideration, rather than the termina- 
tion of the barytes. Another mine which 
has produced quantities of barytes in this 
region is the Graham mine, the ore of which 
is white in color and of attractive appearance, 
but prejudiced by a content of flourite, from 
3 per cent upward. The Stackhouse proper- 
ties permit of economical working, on account 
of proximity to the railroad and features 
conducive to easy mining. There is abso- 
lutely no mixed or. intermediate material — 
every fragment coming from the mine is 
either all barytes, or all rock, or dirt, that 
is, clay, mud or sand. 


A minimum net profit of $180,125 assured 
from the drainage and clearing of 4.575 acres 
of land is the brilliant prospect of the project 
in connection with the creation and develop- 
ment of Carteret District No. 2, which is 
included in district number 1. an older project 
found impractical for development. 

The position for the creation of the new 
district was filed in July. 1923, with C. G. 
Streader, of Beaufort, chairman of the board 
of drainage commissioners, and B. M. Potter, 
of New Bern, engineer. Construction started 
on January 15, drainage to be done at a con- 
tract price of $60,000 for the entire tract. 
Clearing, it is estimated, will cost $20 to $25 
per acre, making the cost for the completion 
of the project according to plans from $40 to 
$45 per acre. 

Long before work was begun, however, the 
promoters of the district had gotten in touch 
with Western interests who desired to ac- 
quire the lands and entered into a contract 
to buy at a price of $80 per acre when drained 
and cleared. 

Assuming, therefore, that the clearing of 
the land costs the maximum estimate of $25 
per acre, the net profit following on the com- 
pletion of the project will be over $39 per 

The land invoked consists of a rich black 
soil which should prove highly productive. 

It is interesting to note that included among 
the prospective purchasers under the con- 
tract of sale is W. R. Wrigley of the Chicago 
family of "chewing-gum kings." 

Many North Carolinians let their automo- 
bile radiators freeze for a lack of a drink of 
the denatured alcohol that produces paralysis 
and blindness in the human machine, but 
serves "Lizzie" as a genial tonic. There is, 
however, a gratifying absence of reports of 
painless deaths resulting from the practice 
of "warming up" cold engines in air-tight 
garages. Tests of the Bureau of Mines show 
that from 2.4 to 9.5 per cent of carbon monox- 
ide gas is in the exhaust, enough to furnish 
a through ticket to eternity in jig time. 






(Continued from page 1) 

{bought for hobbies by tbe rich and the farm- 
houses looted of their contents by collectors 
of antique furniture. 

The abandoned farm, however, still is a 
great and growing problem in many pacts of 
the United States and is recognized as such. 
The difference is that whereas the Middle 
West was in large part settled by New Eng- 
land farmers who moved on its rich and 
virgin soils, now the Canadian Northwest is 
drawing the descendants of these pioneers 
away by a new lure of bountiful fields in 
which crops will grow almost without culti- 
vation, as by first intention. 

So marked has this phenomenon become 
that it is attracting nation-wide attention and 
is not without importance as a problem, not 
so much of immigration as of emigration of 
American citizens of a valuable class to the 
benefit of Canada. 

Two reasons are ascribed generally for the 
movements that in course of time mark the 
abandonment of the farms that have built up 
and made prosperous once great agricultural 
sections. One is taxation, which limits net 
returns from cultivation, and the consequent 
price of lands, which makes their acquisition 
Impractical. The other, and more important, 
is the progressive impoverishment of the soil, 
which ever demands more expensive fertili- 
zation and thus makes farm operation in the 
end an economic impossibility. 

Only a short time ago the State of Michi- 
gan was considered an almost inexhaustible 
territory for agriculture. Today the number 
of its abandoned farms is 25,000, and other 
thousands are rapidly deteriorating and their 
populations seeking new pioneer fields. 

Hope in Peat Bogs 

In this situation, the need, of course, is the 
preservation and upbuilding of the soil — and 
for that is required something more than a 
purely stimulating fertilizer applied for each 
crop. Such a method is as fatal to land as 
the "dope habit" is to man. The dose be- 
comes greater in rapid progression, and the 
reaction becomes less and less to the point of 
utter breakdown. Land that has been neg- 
lected and treated with "dope" needs a fer- 
tilizer tonic, something that will at once 
stimulate and build it up and provide it a 
food out. of which it may be reconstructed. 
The one hoi>e of such a fertilizer depends not 
on getting vast quantities of cheap nitrogen 
from Muscle Shoals or elsewhere, but in the 
use of a fertilizer that is itself essentially 
virgin soil — in the adaptation of peat to the 
reconstruction of the abandoned farm. 

The peat deposits of the United States are 
one of the few domestic sources of nitrogen 
that can be converted economically into plant 
food. While the average nitrogen content of 
domestic raw peat is about two per cent, 
which may be recovered in the form of am- 
monium sulphate or made available without 
removing it from the peat, the chemical 
analysis is not a true test of the value of peat 
as a fertilizer, as the total quantity of poten- 
tial soluble nitrogen formed by bacterial 
action after the peal has been applied is in 
the aggregate much greater than that found 
in some commercial fertilizers. The elements 
whose loss is chiefly responsible for exhausted 
soils are humus, producing nitrogen; lime- 
stone, producing calcium carbonate, and slag 
or rock, producing phosphorous. Therefore, 
if the soil is supplied with peat, of about 90 
per cent organic matter, which has been prop- 
erly mixed with lime and slag, there is little 
to fear about the other elements, since ade- 

quate organic matter in the soil, in decom- 
posing, furnishes the food necessary for the 
bacteria that renders nitrogen in the soil 
available to plants. 

Fertilizer prepared by this method in Mich- 
igan has proved its success in restoring 
wasted lands while fertilizing them for grow- 
ing crops at much less expense than that 
entailed in the usual annual fertilization. 
Tests have shown that it restores the porous 
quality to clay lands and prevents too rapid 
drainage of sandy soils. 

An Unutilized Asset 

In Eastern North Carolina there are thou- 
sands on thousands of peat bogs capable of 
producing a product that with proper treat- 
ment could be utilized for the manufacture 
of peat fertilizer as well as for peat as a fuel. 
Briquettes have been made from the Eastern 
Carolina peat which contained a large per 
cent of carbon and heating power in its coke 
almost equal to that of anthracite coal. In 
addition, modern treatment of peat involves 
the saving of many valuable by-products, and 
the plants for making briquettes, recovering 
ammonia and other by-products are run by 
gas producer engines, the only fuel for which 
is the raw peat itself. 

In spite of the growing demand and high 
prices for both fuels and fertilizers, effort at 
utilizing the immense peat deposits of North 
Carolina is represented by one small plant. 

Note— See Economic Papers, N. C. Geological and 
Economic Survey, Nos. 11, 15, 23 ; Natural Resources, 
No. 6, July 14, 1923. 





Statistics compiled from reports to the 
Forestry Department of the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey afford in- 
teresting answers as to why spring is the 
most dangerous and disastrous lire season. 

These figures include returns from twenty- 
four North Carolina counties cooperating 
with the Survey in the work of fire suppres- 
sion and from' wardens maintained by the 
Survey in ten other counties. The areas 
covered include the mountainous region of 
the western and the "sandhill" region of the 
eastern portions of the State. Reasons for 
the prevalence of tires in the spring are 
readily gathered by comparison of the causes 
of fires reported. 

For 1923 it appears that 15 per cent of all 
spring tires was caused by brush burning, 
while- but 5 per cent of the fall tires are 
attributed to that cause. Further. 20 per 
cent of the spring fires were from unknown 
causes, against 17 per cent of the fall fires 
so reported. Since many of the reports 
marked "unknown" also carry the notation 
"probably caught from brush burning." it is 
safe to assume that tin- number of spring 
tires from this cause was materially larger 
than that definitely appearing from the re- 
ports: Likewise, tires of incendiary origin 
were 11 per cent of the stiring number as 

compared with 2 per cent of the fall. 

Most of these Incendiary tires are attributed 
to burning the range tor belter grazing. 
Allowing that half (he tires from unknown 
causes are due to agricultural burning, it is 
seen that approximately 40 per cent of all 
the spring tires in North Carolina was caused 
by this practice-, against IT per cent of fall 
tires from a like cause. Since spring is the 
time of the greatest agricultural activity, 
requiring — or popularly supposed to require — 
the use of lire-, it is clear that the suppression 

of the forest tire menace requires the con 
version of tin- agricultural element to the 
usi- of safer methods. 

.Mention has been made several times in 
Natubal Resour i.s of the power possibilities 
of the Iliwassee River in Clay and Cherokee 
counties, ami the Investigation being made of 
it and its tributaries by the hydraulic depart- 
ment of the Survey, under tin- direction of 
Thorndyke Saville. 

These studies bave been pursued through a 
period of two years and take into consider- 
ation the entire Iliwassee area, with the aim 
Of securing its ultimate delivery of tin- maxi- 
mum amount of power by guarding against 

partial developments and of obtaining the 
most intensive utilization of \ariou- Sites, 
considered in connection with their combined 
maximum production. The investigation- of 
the Survey have also been made with due 
regard to minimizing damage to surrounding 
territory in the construction of plants. 

How important investigations of this char- 
acter may be to the interest of the S 
appears from the circumstance of the appli- 
cation of the Southern Appalachian Power 
Company now pending before the Federal 
Power Commission for the construction of a 
plant upon the Hiwassee at a point about one 
mile above Murphy. This proposed develop- 
ment would produce 50,000 horsepower and 
by creating an immense storage reservoir 
would greatly increase the power capacity of 
the river lower down. The plans, however, 
call for the construction of a dam 170 feet in 
height and 1,500 feet Long, which would flood 
and end the productivity of 11.000 acres of 
very valuable agricultural lands, cause the 
abandonment of important sections of State 
highway, and otherwise work serious changes 
in established homes and localities. In the 
investigations of the Survey these matters 
and questions tire naturally taken into ac- 
count and given their due place in the con- 
sideration of the problem as a whole. 

The investigation conducted by the War 
Department for the Federal Power Commis- 
sion is not likely, on the other hand, to take 
into account anything beyond the effect of 
the proposed development on the Hiwassee 
River and its power development and on the 
navigation of the Tennessee River, into which 
the Iliwassee flows. 

When it comes to the important matter of 
State interest and that of the counties 
affected by the development, the Federal 
Power Commission will nevertheless have in 
the brief tiled by the Survey a report dealing 
not only with the technical phases of the de- 
velopment, but an investigation in which 
these vital interests are treated sympatheti- 
cally in accordance with their importance. 

In addition to the submission of the brief 
and report on the development Of the Iliwas- 
see the hydraulic department of the Survey 
is completing its final report on the Deep 
River development, looking to increases in 
the power supply of the area and a uniform 
plan for the use of the sixteen or more in- 
dustries located therein. 

There will also be soon undertaken a sur- 
vey and Investigation of waterpowers in 
Stokes county, in cooperation with the county 
authorities, having to do with the undevel- 
oped power on the Dan River. 

Additions to power plants available for the 
industry of the State Include the recently 

completed Mountain Island hydro-electric de- 
velopment, of 80,000 horsepower, and plans of 

the Carolina Light and Power Company to 
increase- immediately the capacity of its 

steam power plant at Brickbaven from 20 

to III. lion horsepower capacity, with the view 
of ultimately bringing the capacity of this 
plant to 60,000 horsepower in accordance 
with the plan originally contemplated. 



At the recent meeting at Asheville of the 
Senate Reforestation Committee to take evi- 
dence as to needed legislation in the Appala- 
chian region one of the things most strongly 
stressed in connection with the existing na- 
tional forest was the improvement of the 
Pisgah road, so as to permit it to be a double 
instead of a single way thoroughfare as at 

This highway now extends from Candler, 
ten miles from Asheville, over the Pisgah 
ridge to within two miles of the peak, thence 
into the "pink beds" and down the Davidson 
River to within two miles of Brevard. On 
account of its narrow width, it is necessary 
to establish rules for travel two ways, cer- 
tain morning hours being established for the 
trip out from Asheville, and other hours in 
the afternoon for the return trip in. 

In order for the national forests to carry 
out one of their important functions of use 
by the public, adequate roads of approach 
and within them are, of course, essential fea- 
tures. Not only the building of highways but 
of trails making every part of the forest 
accessible is a constant aim of their adminis- 
tration. In the case of Pisgah, its nearness 
to Asheville and the vacation and recreation 
area of Western North Carolina makes im- 
perative the improvement of the road by 
which it can be reached by the thousands 
who wish to see it each season. The Senate 
committee, after hearing the evidence, ex- 
pressed individually their interest in the pro- 
posal for the double tracking of the highway, 
and it is hoped that the project will receive 
consideration in their report. 

"Under the provisions of the Federal High- 
way Act of 1921, it is required that the roads 
within, partly within, or adjacent to the na- 
tional forests be designated either as forest 
highways or forest development roads. Forest 
highways are those of primary importance to 
States, counties and communities, and include 
all such roads as are parts of the State high- 
way systems. Forest development roads are 
those of primary importance to the national 
forests for administration, protection and 
utilization. The forest highway system in 
any State must be approved by the State 
Highway Commission and by the Secretary 
of Agriculture. The forest development sys- 
tem is approved by the Forester of the Fed- 
eral Forest Service. Fifty per cent, but not 
to exceed $3,000,000 of the appropriation for 
any one year, must be devoted to the forest 
development roads. 

Of a direct and authorized appropriation 
of $6,500,000 carried for national forest roads 
under the Agricultural Appropriation Act for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924, allot- 
ments to eleven Eastern States, Arkansas 
and Oklahoma, and the territory of Porto 
Rico amounted to a total of $253,204, of 
which $162,238 was apportioned to forest de- 
velopment and $90,966 to forest highway 

It thus appears that of the total appropria- 
tion for such roads $6,246,796 is to be ex- 
pended on and' in connection with national 
forest in the West. 

While it is true that there are in the West 
152,000,000 of acres of national forest as com- 
pared with 2,143,000 acres constituting the 
total of established national forests in the 
East, the apportionment between the two sec- 
tions in the matter of roads would not ap- 
pear to be equitable considering the possible 
use of the roads themselves. In the West 
the national forests are to a great degree 

isolated, far out of the beaten path of travel, 
and capable of being visited by only a small 
percentage of the multitudes who could be 
easily influenced to visit and use like areas 
in the more populous Eastern States. Forests 
in these states are within easy distance of 
millions of prospective visitors. They fre- 
quently are as close as suburbs to cities. In 
North Carolina, for instance, Asheville is the 
center of a great and growing group of towns 
and cities and villages that every year draw 
thousands on thousands of tourists and sea- 
sonal residents. To Asheville and the West- 
ern North Carolina playground in general the 
peak of Pisgah is a welcoming landmark, 
near and familiar. It and the forest of which 
it is a part should be as convenient as a 
street to the cosmopolitan population that is 
drawn to the mountain section from .every 
part of the world. To fix an allotment of 
road funds according to acreages between 
such a section and one which is measured by 
the vast distances of the West is to miss the 
effectiveness of the roads themselves. 

The benefits possible to be obtained from 
the national forests of the East depend, of 
course, largely upon their accessibility, and 
to make them accessible to by far the greater 
part of the population roads are a first need. 
The forests that are just beyond the doors of 
popidations would seem to have a first call 
on the necessary roads until they shall have 
been supplied. 



(Continued from page 1) 

even taking certain areas already part of the 
national forests for "National Park" pur- 

The necessity for observing the distinction 
between the purpose of a national park and 
of a national forest applies with peculiar 
force to North Carolina, where for more than 
a decade purchase of forest land under the 
Weeks Law has been in progress. In the 
mountains of the State there have now been 
set aside as national forest a total of 360,000 
acres in round numbers. In addition, there 
are areas suitable for such forests as protec- 
tion of the watersheds of navigable rivers 
of a total of 2,143,000 acres — all of which are 
necessary to the adequate carrying out of the 
plan. Any North Carolina area which would 
be suitable for a national park would inevita- 
bly be within this latter area — and it there- 
fore becomes pertinent to examine the differ- 
ent methods which would be followed in the 
administration of a national forest and of a 

In the former case, although the land is 
dedicated to the growth of a protective forest 
to be devoted primarily to the regulation of 
stream flow, the prevention of erosion and 
the checking of disastrous floods, it never- 
theless remains in large part available not 
only to public use, but that of various ordi- 
nary pursuits of agriculture and business. 
Thus, these forests are left available for 
grazing of cattle under regulations prevent- 
ing injury to the forest. Judicious lumber- 
ing is carried on in a manner that not only 
promotes the growth of timber and provides 
a steady revenue, part of which is returned 
to counties in the form of dividends in lieu 
of taxation, but that permits, also, the opera- 
tion of private industry, wood-working plants, 
etc., which secure their supplies of raw mate- 
rial from the forest. In addition, these lands 
are open in accordance with the laws of the 
State in which they are situated to hunting, 
fishing, camping and other forms of recrea- 
tional use, under the additional safeguards 

necessary to avoid injury to the forest area 
by fire or otherwise. 

In case a similar area is created a national 
park, all public participation in the use of the 
reservation is at once limited to sightseeing ; 
and whatever the land contains is forever 
withdrawn from any utilitarian purpose. 

In the North Carolina mountains the most 
outstanding area suitable for a -national park 
is Linville Gorge — the "Grand Canyon of the 
East" — that within its relatively narrow 
limits contains incomparable natural beauties 
of river, gorge, and waterfall and rugged 
grandeur of scarp, cliff and precipice. It is 
a dream of many who have visited this wildly 
beautiful but remarkably accessible spot that 
it be saved for the State of North Carolina 
for a park and public play and hunting and 
fishing ground of its own. Failing that, its 
creation as a national park would prevent 
the accident by fire or the ruin by indis- 
criminate commercial use which are now 
perils to the existence of a unique natural 
masterpiece. But the alternative of its in- 
clusion in the forest reserve area might very 
well solve the problem by affording necessary 
protection and at the same time permitting 
the more liberal character of public use and 
enjoyment possible in a national forest as 
distinguished from a national park. 

Latitude in Administration 

Under the regulations of the U: S. Forest 
Service, national forest areas are administered 
under a liberal policy admitting of wide 
latitude to meet the peculiar qualities of the 
lands dealt with. Pisgah Forest, for instance, 
serves the double purpose of a forest reserve 
and a game preserve. Other areas contained 
within the national forests are recognized for 
peculiar scenic advantages and facilities as 
recreational areas and are managed primarily 
from that point of view. Linville Gorge, if 
it were included in an extension of the 
national forest lands in the State, undoubt- 
edly would be administered with scrupulous 
care to see that its natural advantages were 
in nowise impaired. 

Need More National Forests 

Admitting the fact that there are in the 
Appalachians and elsewhere in the East re- 
gions which lend themselves to national park 
purposes and should be so preserved, it is 
important to avoid confusion with the needs 
and to avoid embarrassment of the program 
of the National Forest Reservation Commis- 
sion, which is already so far advanced toward 

President Coolidge recently endorsed the 
inclusion in the national budget of appropria- 
tions of $1,000,000 a year for the purchase of 
additional areas for national forests in the 
East. Whatever may be determined with 
respect to the acquisition of Eastern lands 
for national park purposes should be accom- 
plished without hint of prejudice to the de- 
velopment of this time-proven policy. 

In the forest protection bill recently intro- 
duced by Senator McNary a provision em- 
powers the Secretary of Agriculture to co- 
operate with the several states in the pro- 
curement, production and distribution of 
forest-tree seeds and plants, with an initial 
appropriation of $100,000. Although the 
amount named is for the purpose intrinsi- 
cally negligible, it might serve, through the 
encouragement of State nurseries, to advance 
incalculably the cause of reforestation. In 
North Carolina, for instance, characteristic 
native pines cannot be purchased except at 
prices prohibitive of planting for timber re- 
production ; and it is, of course, always de- 
sirable that planting stock be grown in the- 
soil and climate in which it is to be used. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 21 


How many North Carolina readers of news- 
paper headlines, articles and editorials rea- 
lize that the Henry Ford proposal as to 
Muscle Slioals contemplates the definite loss 
to North Carolina industry of a vast amount 
of electrical energy to he derived in the main 
from North Carolina rivers? 

How much publicity has been given to the 
fact that under the terms of a widely advo- 
cated lease this home power would not only 
be put to foreign use, but would in all prob- 
ability become the backbone of a highly com- 
petitive industrial area enjoying a practical 
Government subsidy in the form of cheaper 
power rales at North Carolina's expense? 

Muscle Shoals propaganda has created the 
prevalent impression that somehow the wiz- 
ard of the cheap automobile is to make fer- 
tilizer for the farmer at a nominal price; it 
is forgotten that, whatever use he would 
make of the property would involve the utili- 
zation of great quantities of the State's 
waters in such a manner as to preclude their 
energy from turning a single North Carolina 

It is true that Mr. Ford has never promised 
cheap nitrates, but the delusion to that effect 
has served to cloud the real danger that 
Muscle Shoals may be diverted from its des- 
tiny and major use as a great distributing 
center for hydro-electric power. 

The truth is that Muscle Shoals is poten- 
tially most useful as a producer of power, 
and that unless it is so developed North 
Carolina industry will in less than ten years 
face a definite power shortage due to the 
consumption of its own available supply, with- 
out an outside surplus upon which to draw. 

Before dreaming of Muscle Shoals as the 
producer of an agricultural Utopia of cheap 
fertilizer, it were well to consider the limits 
of the water powers available in the State 
and what Muscle Shoals will mean in assist- 
ing or preventing an industrial expansion 
which will in clue course have to look to it 
for its power needs. To this consideration 
some established facts about North Carolina 
water power are highly pertinent: 

The Race for Power 

At the beginning of 1922 there was in 
North Carolina streams and rivers approxi- 
mately 500,000 horsepower suitable for com- 
mercial development and unutilized. 

Of this undeveloped power North Carolina 
companies in 1923 developed nearly 100,000 
within the State, and this must now be de- 
ducted from. the present amount of water 
power suitable for commercial purposes and 
yet una vailed of. 

In 1923. also, the output of electric power 
increased in North Carolina to a total of 
1 ,:107,000.000 kilowatt hours from a total of 
917,239,429 kilowatt hours in 1922. 

In 192:;, notwithstanding the development 
during the year of one-fifth of the total avail- 
able undeveloped water power. North Caro- 
lina was using an excess of power over the 
(Continued on page 3) 



In every part of the South far-sighted men are emphasizing tin- need of 
national advertising. The story must be told to the whole country. It must 
be intensively narrated. The undertaking is too vast to tolerate scattered 
effort. Every shot must go home. 

Seeing this need of publicity for the South in contrast with a long period 
of apparent inertia, we are apt to overlook certain points in the history of 
achievement to which a present prosperity is definitely related. A generation 
ago the South began to "lose money" on expositions. There were the exposi- 
tions at Atlanta; at Charleston; at ISTew Orleans; at Jamestown, and else- 
where. Through more than three decades the South sought by means of 
these displays to win attention, to attract visitors to view its resources, prod- 
ucts and labors. Afterwards there was always head-shaking over the lm<l^< t 
and doubt in the absence of visible return. But w T ho can deny that the 
vibrant South of today was hastened in realization by these audacious prophe- 
cies of hope? 

The next Southern Exposition is to follow an old principle with a new 
form of attack. It will be held, not in any Southern city, but in the nation's 
metropolis. In nature it will be invasion as well as invitation, purposeful 
rather than passive. The old-fashioned Southern exposition had the color 
of a plea; the new will be keen-edged business. Instead of making appeal, 
the South is to declare itself present as equal competitor in the world's 
greatest and busiest mart. 

The Southern Exposition will be held at the Grand Central Palace, in New 
York, in January, 1925. The states south of the Potomac and Ohio rit 
will use between them 100,000 square feet as their show-rooms. In them 
will be examples of and index to the best in products, manufactures, activities, 
life, advantages, resources. New York and the world will be put on notice 
that the South has come to town, not to buy but to sell, not to ask but to 
demand, not to seek favor but to take place. 

Expert opinion endorses the plan for such an exposition as novel and 
effective advertising of the highest grade. But important and successful as 
it may be in concrete results, its greater significance lies in the new thought, 
spirit and confidence of which it is born — in the full harvest for which the 
old expositions that bankrupted their too sanguine promoters sowed the 
fertile seed. 


Twenty-four years ago T. Gilbert Pearson, 
then professor of biology in what was the 
State Normal and Industrial College for 
Women, originated the movement out of 
which grew such Legislation as the State now 
has Cor the protection of bird life and the 
preservation of game. 

Recently Mr. Pearson paid a visit to Raleigh 
with the purpose of forming a league of 
sportsmen and nature lovers looking to a 
revision of these laws and the establishment 
of a game commission in accordance with the 
(Continued on page 2) 



One of the growing fleets ,.f Pig inter-eiry 
busses is bowling along a concrete highway, 
some twenty passengers comfortably seated 
and taking their ease free of -moke, dust or 
the fetid air of a poorly ventilated coach. 

Within ten miles several similar public ve- 
hieles are met. each of them well patronised 

with travel in the opposite direction. Be- 
hind the hits in which they are carried the 
passengers know that other car- of the same 
and other lines are following them. 
(.Continued on page ■"• l 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

The Farmers' Stake in Muscle Shoals 

It will be no great Avhile before every 
successful farm will depend upon power 
as completely as if it were a factory. 

Increasing cost of land and progressive 
scarcity and dearness of labor make it 
inevitable tbat agriculture must adapt 
itself to industrial practice and economy. 

Producing crops at excessive costs 
according to obsolete metbods cannot be 
continued in tbe liope of a corresponding 
enbancement in tbe price of farm *prod- 
ucts. People must eat, but tbere is a 
limit to tbe power of consumption of foods 
as well as of manufactures and luxuries. 
Crops, therefore, must be produced more 
cheaply, and tbat means more use on tbe 
farm of machinery and the power for its 

Application of electricity to the farm 
is now in a lusty infancy, yet its uses are 
manifold. Hundreds of appliances are 
in constant course of invention for the 
performance of practically every house- 
hold, barn and dairy use. It is an old 
story how the hen is speeded up to winter 
laying by the artificial light of the electric 
globe. It is in constant emphasis that 
the comfort electricity brings to the home 
has its direct relation to farm efficiency 
as well as happiness. 

We are proud of our hydro-electric de- 
velopment as it relates to industry. In- 
ter-connected lines carry between states 
the current that runs our conquering spin- 
dles. Cities tap high tension wires for 
provision of modern conveniences by a 
primary impulse hundreds of miles dis- 
tant. He is a man of poor vision who 
cannot see this modern genii distributing 
magic gifts through country-side as well 
as city street, to the farm as well as to 
the factory. 

Every power company in the land sees 
the future of the rural power line and is 
planning its development to take care of 
the vast demand it will create, once the 
farmer awakes to his need. In North 
Carolina industry has taken hydro-elec- 
tric power faster than it could be pro- 
vided, yet the rural lines of the future 
must be supplied. Elsewhere in this issue 
is something concerning Muscle Shoals 
and Avbat it means to North Carolina 
power needs. The progressive farmer 
who has begun to think electricity can 
afford to measure benefits between a hy- 
pothetical cheap fertilizer and the power 
it now appears he may never get else- 
where than from this same great resource, 
just noAV the football of politics. 




(Continued from page 1) 

modern practice he has done so much to 

For although Pearson's ideas were adopted 
only in small part and the laws embodying 
them were embarrassed by the system of 
county exemptions which makes the State's 
game regulations a chaotic hodge-podge, he 
rapidly gained recognition elsewhere, and is 
now president of the National Audubon So- 
ciety, has traveled widely in Europe, and is 
recognized as an international authority on 
his specialty. 

Renewed interest among sportsmen -and 
others concerned for the good of wild life 
needs early and emphatic expression if the 
natural game is to be saved and hunting pre- 
served to the State as a sport within reach 
of the masses of the people. The few State- 
wide laws against the shipping of certain 
kinds of game, the licenses and regulations 
governing non-resident hunters, etc., have 
been of great value in the quarter century 
since Pearson first urged the subject upon 
the Legislature. But a lack of enforcement 
machinery, the variety of closed and open 
seasons in numerous counties, and a general 
apathy respecting the laws have operated to 
keep them from being effective. There are 
localities in North Carolina in which both 
State and Federal regulations are nominally 
in effect in which game laws of any kind are 
unknown in practice. The State needs more 
law as to the protection of its game, but 
needs more an efficient and responsible ad- 
ministration to make it operative and to edu- 
cate the people as to the existing Federal 
Migratory Game Law, which is supposed to 
protect wild fowl and various insectiverous 
migrants. And there is the greater need for 
State action along these lines in view of the 
probability that within a short time there will 
be another Federal law providing for the 
acquisition of tracts to be devoted to public 
shooting grounds and game refuges. 

Public Shooting Grounds 
This bill, which passed the United States 
Senate a year ago, but failed in the House, 
Will impose a small license fee on all hunters 
of migratory water-fowl, but in turn will es- 
tablish breeding and rest places which will un- 
doubtedly greatly increase the number of 
such birds stopping within the borders of the 
State. It will, in addition, secure and keep 
open to the public use shooting grounds which 
otherwise would be quickly absorbed in pri- 
vate ownership, with the result that this 
kind of hunting would be practically pro- 
hibited to the public. The measure failed of 
passage when before Congress on the double 
objection of "State's Rights" and the plea 
that the nominal license would tend to make 
hunting the luxury of "millionaires." As to 
"State's Rights," it is provided that no land 
may be acquired by the Government for such 
purposes except with the consent of the com- 
monwealth in which it is located, and so far 
from establishing a game monopoly in the 
rich, the creation of public hunting grounds 
would have the exactly opposite effect, since 
it would tend to curb the practice of recent 
years of hunting clubs of wealthy men acquir- 
ing all available grounds for private pre- 

Although most of the Southern members 
of Congress are on record against the public 
shooting ground and game sanctuary meas- 
ure, it is reasonable to suppose that their 
objections will be overcome when it is made 
plain that it is no more than an effort to 
popularize the benefits of the migratory game 

law. Once such a Federal law is on the 
statute books, the inevitable effect will be to 
stimulate similar activity on the part of the 
states, some of the more progressive of 
which have adopted the policy with great 
success. For instance, there are in eastern 
North Carolina great tracts of marsh and 
overflowed lands, the most apparent use of 
which is for the breeding and protection of 
migratory birds. With the Federal Govern- 
ment setting the example of acquiring several 
of these tracts, it would be a matter of a 
short time before the State moved to estab- 
lish its own breeding and public shooting 
grounds, both there and in other sections, in 
which there are forest or cut-over lands. 
Such a policy has been in operation in Penn- 
sylvania for twenty years, game sanctuaries 
being established in the midst of public 
forests that are also public hunting grounds, 
with the result that the system is more than 
self-supporting, game of all kinds in the 
State has multiplied a hundred fold, the value 
of game taken by hunters annually reaches 
into the millions, and a great natural sport 
with all its incidents of health and character 
building has been saved to the public. 

Need Game Commission. 

With the extension of the National and 
State game laws indicated, a State Game 
Commission, with a responsible head and an 
adequate organization for enforcement, is a 
task that cannot be accomplished too soon. 
A league such as proposed is clearly the best 
method of arousing the necessary interest 
and sentiment to overcome the natural but 
mistaken jealousies which result in counties 
securing exemptions from the State laws, 
until there is little State law left. Such a 
league will, in the nature of things, have the 
sportsmen as its moving spirits, because it 
is the man who takes pleasure in hunting 
who is most concerned with seeing that game 
is kept alive and abundant. This class 
should be able, however, to show the land- 
owner that it is to his interest to have his 
game protected to the extent that it may be 
as nearly as possible a property asset while 
it remains on his land, to which the hunting- 
privilege will give a real and lasting value. 
And the public, which of late years has lost 
interest in hunting chiefly because the sport 
has been made too difficult and game has 
become too scarce, should welcome a policy 
which promises to provide more game and 
restore the privilege of taking it under rea- 
sonable democratic regulations. 

In Europe the common man has for genera- 
tions been denied the relaxation and interest 
of sport for the reason that game, which is 
there considered a property as distinct as any 
farm appliance, is confined to private grounds 
and estates. Game in Europe, however, is 
still plentiful after hundreds of years of 
pursuit, just for this protecting fact. 

Game Public Property 

In the United States game is a property in 
common, for the use of whoever takes it, and 
that being true, it is to the common interest 
to see that it is taken only in a manner 
which will keep it from destruction. 

The game sanctuary and public hunting 
ground is a principle seeking to do for any 
and every American hunter what in Europe 
can be done only for a few private owners of 
large tracts of hunting lands. 

First, however, we must have well-consid- 
ered laws applying equally to all sections, 
and a central game commission to see that 
these laws are obeyed. 

In the league to bring this reform to pass 
not only every sportsman, but every indi- 
vidual who realizes the value of wild life 
and of the preservation of the environment, 
whether of forest or marsh, that is necessary 
thereto has a natural membership. 




(Continued from page 1) 

Ai a point where the highway parallels 
the railroad the travelers gel a fine view of 
the always Inspiring sight of a passenger 
(rain running ai high speed, one of them 
makes the remark almost invariable on such 
occasions, "t tell you, these busses arc hit- 
ting the railroads, all right !" ami there is a 
murmur of assent . 

But arc they "hitting the railroads?" Look 
closely ai the train rushing along on the em 

bankment. Behind every window ma.\ lie 

glimpsed the faces and forms of passengers. 

If one is on (he train itself, he is not apt to 
find many vacant seals, although there arc 
several more coaches than there wen in 

former years, if la- notices anything dif- 
ferent in his experience, it is one of grea ter 

case, less delay, fewer slops at flag stations. 
Schedules on the whole are better main- 
tained; but the traveler who looks out the 
window al the highway along which in the 

distance toy a uiomohiies and husses are run- 
ning ill an almost endless procession has 
nothing of the notion of occupying a private 

car which is entertained concerning the train 
hy those who imagine thai their own gaso- 
line journey is dealing a body blow to the 
older method of steam transportation. 

.Mi r/rirLiED Travel 

What has really happened through the 
Competition of the bus on the highway seems 
to be nothing more than a multiplication of 
the causes and occasions of travel hy reason 
of more frequent schedules than the rail- 
roads could possibly maintain. One-third the 
number of people who could be comforfahly 
seated in a railroad coach make a capacity 
trip for flic bus. As often as it can find half 
that many ready to take advantage of its 
schedules, the bus runs at a profit. When 
he can take a bus, complete his trip, do busi- 
ncs.s and return immediately, the man who 
has business to do does it in person. Re- 
lieved of the delays of infrequent schedules 
the business man does business over an en- 
larged area in far quicker time. Naturally, 
he does more business, and contributes to a 
multiplication of activities that goes into a 
mathematical progression of active people, 
whose sum is sufficient to keep the trains 
filled. Instead of being a drain on railroad 
travel, it is probable that the bus and motor 
car in reality contribute largely to its sup- 
port: certainly, if everybody who rides mi 
husses should attempt to use the railroad. 
there would be a complete collapse of rail 
transportation by the breakdown of equip- 

Autos and Railroad Freight 

As (o travel the case is, of course, largely 
a matter of opinion and observation, rather 
than of statistical proof. No one can tell 
how many people who use husses would stay 
at home in default of them, and how many 
would use the loss convenient and pleasant 
transportation by rail. In the matter of 
freight, however, (here are certain proved 
incidents of the aulomohile business thai are 
calculable and that show that whatever else 
the gasoline vehicle may be doing to the 
country, it is not impoverishing the rail- 

For instance it is estimated that in the 
hist year the railroads handled as freight 
750,000 carloads of finished automobiles and 

On this item alone, the estimated revenue 
to the railroads was $-.200,000,000. 

Getting the finished ear and its parts to 
the user was, however, hy far the smaller 

pari of the necessary service rendered hy the 
railroads to the automobile manufacturer. 

on the contrary every ion of material used 
in making the million ol automobile prod- 
ucts wns assembled for use only after bav- 
paid 11 freight toll to the common car- 
riers of the steam roads. All the iron, steel, 

aluminum, cotton, wood, coal and innumer- 
able oilier commodities entering Into the mak- 
ing of motor cars were flrsl Loaded on the 
freighl cars of the railroads and contributed 
to and made possible the record 
tonnage carried hy the lines. Henry Ford 
alone uses something like 2,000,000 tons of 

■ i per year. The total I on 

this one item of automobile manufacture is 
the equivalent of a princely fortune. 

Back of these revenues, there must he taken 
into account all the industry, the employ- 
ment, the business produced in the handling 

and production of the raw material which 
ultimately must he carried lo the automobile 
factory. The iron and aluminum must be 

mined. (iron! steel and metal works must 

operate continuously to make them into fin- 
ished products. Limestone and coke in vast 
quantities must he brought into use. In addi- 
tion must be taken into direct account the 
freight traflic lo support the va-a amounl of 
building incidental to the automobile indus- 
try, the business it develops in all parts of 
the country, the millions of gallons of gaso- 
line the railroads must distribute, the con- 
struction of tourist hotels, I he cement and 
gravel going into new roads — all of which 
vast accumulation of material in the raw 
and finished state moves primarily as freight 
and in the use and employment creates a suc- 
cession of freight hills to swell the revenues 
of the railroads. 

The traveler in the bus who reflects that 
he is not contributing the price of a ticket to 
the train at which he glances commisserat- 
ingly can well afford to preserve his pity 
for another object. 

Railroads' Best Allies 

It is' true the railroad is between the devil 
and the deep blue sea of certain economic 
conflicts. Its rates are fixed by govern- 
mental regulation, the wages it must pay its 
labor are predetermined with more or less 
disregard of the conditions it must face, its 
ability to get credit is embarrassed. At times 
the railroad must expand or collapse, but 
another mortgage is about the only way left 
for it to raise new capital, and if if profits 
beyond a very moderate rate of return it must 
share the excess with the Government for the 
benefit of roads less fortunate or efficient. 
There is room to pity the railroads, hut the 
automobile and the good road that cut into 
the always unprofitable local traffic are not 
their oppressors. 

In fact it is probably already true that the 
automobile and the good road are in process, 
not only of creating and stimulating, hut of 
regulating the traffic and the travel without 
which the railroads could not live under their 
difficulties. It i.s probably true now. and cer- 
tainly will he true in the near future, that 
the aulomohile is taking care of a surplus 
passenger traffic the railroads could not at- 
tempt to handle without disaster. In time 
what applies to passengers will apply also to 
freights, and multiplied trucks will he allies 
of the railroads in handling freight, as the 
1 iism's now are in taking care of passenger 
t rathe. 

The ideal of successful railroad operation 
i- full time use of its equipment without ex- 
cess offerings demanding too rapid expansion 
or Involving the great losses incident to a 

failure to handle them. Business, largely 
under the spur of the automobile in develop- 
ing the contracts and mobility out of which 
it grows, requires an amount o( transporta- 

tion the railro ably han- 

dle. This surplus the auto the 

aulomohile must handle, freigl • 

and in the [uire 

every transportation facility | 
and hctier roads, more liigl 


iii well-equipped ports. 

der the spur of the motor i II he 

inn a t'vw year- before the entire nation will 

lie a- active in commi 

Already the bugbear of railroadii 

dread of being unable to handle t: 

offered. When thai traffic is adequi 

served and the facilities of motors, ! 

waterways provided to me, 

mauds, railroad freighl rate- will find a 

malic adjustment to general transportation 
costs. Iii the meantime, the auto: 
serving a gnat end a.- it eases the harden 
on a rail system devised for an age- of pi 
trianism and horse-drawn commerce, am 

the same lime lends to further the redUl 
of costs hy encouraging I hi' science of □ 
men! in the mass in accordance with the 

lesson of mass production illustrated in noth- 
ing so well as its own manufacture and dis- 




(Continued from page 1) 

amount produced in the stale, securing it- 
needs from a surplus developed in other 

In connection with the output of jKiwer a 
significant fact is that the total of 
kilowatt hours produced from water power 
alone showed for the firsl time a decrease 
of 10 per cent in proportion to the amount of 
power produced hy .steam, and that during 
the month of November the output hy steam 
for public utility plants was actually greater 
than that hy water power. 

Again, in 1923 the output of electrical 
energy for the first time exceeded the esti- 
mates forecasted in Circulars 2 and 6 of riie 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Sur- 
vey. These estimates, compiled after careful 
study hy Thorndikc Saville of the hydraulic 
department, were based on a rate of increase 
of 10 per cent per year, compounded. The 
estimate was for 1,000,000,000 kilowatt hours 
in 1923, 1,219,645,000 in 1925, and 1,964,250,- 
000 kilowatt hours in 1930. There is thus 
every indication that the increase of actual 
output of 307,000,000 kilowatt hour- over the 
estimate for 1923 will he further increased in 
this and succeeding years, and that hy 1930 
the amount of electrical energy demanded by 
North Carolina industry will he far in c\ 
of 2,000,000,000 kilowatt hours and far be- 
yond the power of all commercially available 
water powers in the State lo supply. 

The question, vital to the future prosperity 
of the State, is where and how this amount 
of power beyond home production is to he 
obtained and on what terms, considering com- 
petitive conditions in other manufacturing 
regions, It is probably a matter of less than 
six years before water power development 
within North Carolina will have practically 
reached its limit. Industry depending on 

hydro-electric power will then he forced to 
look to other States in which power com- 
panies connected with tin- Inter-communicated 
power system are located. In the meanwhile 
it is to he expected that industrial expansion 
in South Carolina. Georgia and Alabama will 
he such as to take increasing amounts and. 
finally, all of the power those states can pro- 
duce. Very speedily, therefore, the industrial 
(Continued OD page 4) 





Drainage of lands in order to convert 
them to the uses of agriculture or increase 
their productivity generally suggests the 
activities of the large drainage districts of 
the East, where under the provisions of the 
North Carolina law that has set the pattern 
for the country immense areas of heretofore 
useless swamps are in process of reclama- 
tion. So complete is this impression that 
the mere word "swamp" has become asso- 
ciated in the public mind with the enterprise 
of doing away with the inundation and pre- 
paring its area for cultivation. 

Drainage in country such as the Piedmont, 
with its rolling terrain, its hills and sharply 
denned valleys is not, however, the paradox 
presented to the mind. Not only is there need 
for many drainage districts in this territory, 
but many have been conceived and con- 
structed, and in almost every instance the 
work has resulted in definite success of great 
value, both in actual monetary returns and 
in the betterment of health conditions. 

The drainage district in the Piedmont is, 
of course, of much less average area than the 
similar reclamation unit in the East. In the 
main it is relatively long and narrow and 
generally follows the course of some char- 
acteristic creek, the overflowed bottom lands 
of which it is its purpose to redeem. With 
the exception of one district of 15,000 acres 
in Cleveland County drainage districts of the 
Piedmont range in extent from 200 to 1.000 
acres and in the main provide cultivable ad- 
ditions to or increase the productiveness of 
existing farms. 

Big Benefit — Small Cost 
In the Piedmont drainage projects it is 
found that the two chief considerations are, 
first, the betterment of community health 
conditions, and, second, the assurance of 
crops each year, independently of normal 
floods and freshets. Among the sixty thou- 
sand acres of land which have been drained 
in this manner in the Piedmont and the foot- 
hills there are scores of creek bottoms of 
rich land, formerly cultivable only in very 
dry years, that are now producing regularly 
and abundantly. The principal crop natur- 
ally is corn and the average production on 
the drained bottom ranges from fifty to sev- 
enty-five bushels per acre. 

As a result, a great deal of Piedmont 
creek bottom lands that were worthless or 
of nominal value now bring from $50 to $200 
per acre, and much of it is so productive that 
it is practically not for. sale at any price. 

One great advantage of the small drainage 
district as developed in Piedmont practice is 
the small cost at which the work can be done. 
In spite of increasing costs of labor and ma- 
terial and machinery of all kinds, the drained 
areas in this section have resulted from 
projects involving not more than ten to fif- 
teen dollars per acre to complete. A dis- 
tinct feature in these projects is the practi- 
cal absence of any problem of clearing after 
the land has been rescued from the condition 
of overflow. Most of it was years ago 
cleared in the attempt to raise crops or has 
been utilized for pasturage purposes. Where 
brought back to agriculture it is almost uni- 
formly the case that the soil is very rich and 
needs but little, if any, fertilization. Almost 
the entire problem of Piedmont drainage con- 
sists in clearing the creek and deepening its 
channel, for which a dredge is generally 
used. The natural creek thereupon becomes 
the main ditch of the project, and the neces- 
sary lateral ditches are relatively few in 
number and economically constructed. Main- 

tenance is inexpensive and there is compara- 
tively little filling up of the main ditch by 
silt from erosion. 

Health Factor Important. 

Apart from the benefits of large and regu- 
lar crops and the resulting increase in land 
values, drainage in the Piedmont has vastly 
bettered living conditions, and in some in- 
stances literally rescued for homesteads 
farms which "chills and fevers" had ren- 
dered practically impossible as domiciles. In 
dollars and cents these health benefits are 
frequently estimated to be many times the 
value of the cost of the projects, without con- 
sidering the question of crops or the enhanced 
valuation of the land. As an instance, one 
Gaston County farm, before being drained, 
sold for $1,500; it has been sold twice since 
drainage was put in effect, the first time for 
$6,500, and the last for $8,500. From dozens 
of these districts reports to the Survey dwell 
upon these benefits of improved health. 

In all there are some sixty proved and 
prosperous drainage districts in the Pied- 
mont, the counties in the forefront of this 
progress being Mecklenburg, Iredell, Gaston, 
Catawba, Rowan, and Cleveland. 

Mecklenburg's System 
Mecklenburg County has the distinction of 
being the only county in North Carolina — 
perhaps in the United States — which has a 
general tax levy for drainage — on the health 
principle for elimination of malaria. Creeks 
are dredged and landowners cooperate, their 
land being assessed in ratio to their separate 
benefit. At one time the tax rate for this 
purpose was three mills on the $100 valua- 
tion ; but latterly, upon the completion of a 
number of projects, it has steadily fallen, 
until the present rate is only one-fourth of 
one mill. This maintains a county drainage 
fund, now amounting to $3,500, which is used 
to assist in the completion of new projects 
or to maintain districts previously drained. 
Under the administration of a commission 
consisting of Dr. J. R. Alexander, chairman, 
W. S. Pharr, secretary, and Marion Knox, 
Mecklenburg maintains eight districts, in- 
cluding 8,000 acres. Nearly all of these pre- 
viously overflowed areas are now producing 
bountiful crops of corn, and the value of the 
land has been doubled, and sometimes 
trebled. In fact, it is very difficult to buy 
this once overflowed land in Mecklenburg, 
as is the case in other Piedmont counties in 
which drainage has been prosecuted. 



The annual exhibition of the Eastern North 
Carolina Chambers of Commerce, to be held 
at Kinston in April, will represent the com- 
merce, industry and resources of forty-six 
North Carolina counties. 

Plans for an exhibit to be made by the 
North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey place emphasis on forestry, in con- 
nection with reforestation and the fire-pre- 
vention work in which ten eastern counties 
are cooperating, and on progress and possi- 
bility in the production of sand, gravel and 

Future prosperity of large sections of the 
East depends upon reforestation of the im- 
mense cut-over long-leaf pine areas, the re- 
vival of the turpentine industry, and proper 
forestry practice for the prevention of tim- 
ber fires. 

There is also a gratifying activity in the 
utilization of valuable sands, gravels, etc., 
and the making of bricks, and much is pos- 
sible in the expansion of industry in these 




(Continued from page 3) 
destiny of all the Southern Appalachian 
States will be dependent upon the power 
which Muscle Shoals is capable of producing. 

Rural Service Involved 
As to Muscle Shoals, not only has Mr. Ford 
promised nothing more in the way of manu- 
facture of fertilizers than is agreed upon by 
other bidders, but acceptance of his proposal 
would both prevent its development for the 
distribution of power to industry and tend to 
nip in the bud the new business of rural 
power upon which the power companies are 
embarking and the success of which would be 
a tremendous step toward freeing agriculture 
from the greatest of all its drawbacks, the 
question of labor. And even as to the Muscle 
Shoals power there seems to be a misconcep- 
tion as marked as that concerning the use 
Mr. Ford proposes to make of it. That power 
is variously spoken of as consisting of from 
600,000 to 1,000,000 horsepower ; yet the fact 
is that it has a primary power not in excess 
of 100,000 horsepower, with 500,000 horse- 
power available for about half the year. In 
order, therefore, to secure delivery of 500,000 
horsepower for local use, there is necessary a 
standby, or auxiliary, steam plant to supply 
the deficiency. In case Muscle Shoals were 
used for manufacturing purposes only, such 
a plant would be economically impossible ; 
and even if under the Ford plan there should 
be available larger amounts of electric energy 
at the suggested low price of three mills per 
kilowatt hour, the result would be, either that 
industry in the Tennessee basin would be 
given an unfair advantage over its competi- 
tors, or that — not being subject to the Fed- 
eral Power Commission — the Muscle Shoals 
lessee could sell or withold power at his will 
and fix prices without regard to regulation 
by law. 

North Carolina Energy 

If, on the other hand, Muscle Shoals were 
treated as a power plant under Federal regu- 
lation it would be connected with the power 
distribution systems of the States of Ala- 
bama, Tennessee, Georgia, South and North 
Carolina for the delivery of excess power as 
it could be availed of in these states. During 
the half of the year when maximum power 
could be secured there would be deliverable 
500,000 hydro-electric horsepower, and during 
periods of drought the auxiliary steam plant 
could be called into play to meet the deficit, 
thus permitting the reservoirs of other com- 
panies to be replenished. 

It must be remembered that although Mus- 
cle Shoals is in Alabama the major sources 
of its power are in North Carolina and de- 
rived from the French Broad, the Hiawassee, 
the Little Tennessee and the Pigeon rivers, 
main tributaries of the Tennessee, and that 
a main feature of all Muscle Shoals plans is 
the construction of reservoirs on these 
streams to regulate stream flow at the site 
of the plant. It would be no less than a per- 
version of this State's natural resources to 
permit their disposal in a manner tanta- 
mount to a denial of their use by North Caro- 
lina industries. Whether Muscle Shoals goes 
to Mr. Ford or others, it should be utilized 
in a manner to safeguard the distribution of 
its power to industry and to rural lines, and 
to prevent its exploitation in the interest of 
any private corporation or individual. 

The Survey also will show comprehensive 
maps illustrative of the great inter-connect- 
ing power systems between the Southern Ap- 
palachian States, and the manner in which 
the East can best avail itself of this energy. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


No. 22 


At the meeting of fne State Geological 
Board, held in Raleigh February 1, Colonel 
Joseph Hyde Pratt tendered his resignation 
as State Geologist, who is ex officio Director 
of the State Geological and Economic Survey, 
a position he has held since 1906. His letter 
to Governor Morrison said : 

"I herewith tender my resignation as State 
Geologist of North Carolina, the same to be- 
come effective March 1, 1924. 

"It is with regret that I feel compelled to 
take this step, but inasmuch as the General 
Assembly of 1923 passed a bill which auto- 
matically retires me from the position of 
State Geologist at the expiration of the pres- 
ent Governor's term of office in January, 
1925, it is necessary for me to look ahead 
and arrange for other means of livelihood." 

In accepting the resignation of Colonel 
Pratt, Governor Morrison wrote: 

"It is with deep regret that I accept your 
resignation as State Geologist and Director 
■ of the Geological and Economic Survey of 
our State. 

"I am sure that few men in our generation 
have rendered this State greater service than 
you have during the nineteen years you have 
filled the position from which you have just 

"I deeply appreciate your very great serv- 
ice myself, and I am sure the intelligent 
citizenship of the State does also. The studies 
and surveys you have made of the State's 
resources will continue to be a source of 
strength and help to the State for many years 
to come. 

"I think the act of the last General As- 
sembly to which you refer, which was passed 
on the last day of the session, must have 
been enacted without much consideration by 
the body. In my judgment it was a mistake, 
and I regret very much its enactment. 

"Wishing you much success in your new 

field of endeavor, and again assuring you of 

what I believe to be the deep appreciation of 

the State for your great service to it, I am, 

"Very truly your friend, 

"(Signed) Cameron Morbison." 

Before adjournment the Geological Board 
passed the following resolutions: 

"Whereas Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt has ten- 
dered to the Governor his resignation as State 
Geologist, to be effective March 1, 1924; and, 

"Whereas, Colonel Pratt lias held the i>osi- 
tion of State Geologist for a period of about 
nineteen years; and incidentally Mr. Frank 
R. Hewitt, a member of this Board, has 
served for the same period, and he and the 
Other members of the Board are familiar 
with the activities and services of Colonel 
Pratt : 

"Now, therefore, resolved. That the Board 
make public recognition of the invaluable 
services rendered to the State by Colonel 
Pratt : 

(Continued on page 2) 



In a letter to Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, as chairman of the executive 
committee of Southern Forestry Congress, President Coolidge refers to the 
fact that "because we have not as yet learned to grow timber in any degree 
commensurate with our use of timber, we find ourselves confronted with an 
approaching shortage of raw forest materials," and continues : 

"The necessity of moving aggressively toward the growing of timber, both 
as a public activity and through the encouragement of private reforestation, 
is probably greater in the States covered by the Southern Forestry Congress 
than in any other portion of the Union of comparable size. "With an aggre- 
gate area of forest land or potential forest land in excess of 220 million acres, 
with a remarkable variety of valuable forest trees, and with climatic condi- 
tions exceptionally favorable to the growth of timber, it is not wide of the 
mark to say that this region contains more than half of the future Avood 
producing resources of the United States. A large portion of the forest land 
of the South has already been cut over. In many sections you are experienc- 
ing the exhaustion of the original supplies of virgin timber, the moving out 
of sawmills, and the consequent loss of industry and population. You are 
face to face with the problem created by enormous areas of denuded and idle 
land. In the economy of the South itself and in the economy of the entire- 
country, it is imperative that the portion of these areas which is unsuited 
for agriculture shall not remain idle land without a crop. 

"The development of practical ways and means for securing timber growth 
is a matter of the highest importance, which should more and more enlist the 
efforts of our national and state governments and of our citizens." 

A man who is so little given to speech as the President means one hundred 
per cent what he says. In the matter of forestry, the recent action of the 
Executive in directing the inclusion in the budget of an appropriation suffi- 
cient to carry on the work of extending the National Forests under the 
provisions of the Weeks Law assures the life of the principle of Federal aid. 
That assistance, however great its sum, is relatively insignificant in com- 
parison with the work that must be done through agencies more intimately 
associated with the lands themselves. The region that contains half the 
timber of the country must learn both to aid directly Through State aire; 
and indirectly by the passage of laws which will make it possible for the 
private owner to save and grow, as well as cut and market, his timber. 


Two of the Are wardens of the Survey on 
field service recently were driving their fliv- 
ver in Edgecombe County, within six miles of 
Rocky Mount, wben they entered a fire zone. 

For a great stretch along the highway a 
cut-over tract of timber (on which there was. 
however, much valuable wood and regrowtb 
that, let alone, would have ultimately retim 
bored the land) was burning merrily. Pas- 
sers-by on the highway were unconcerned, 
except as tbey were annoyed by the smoke. 
The community was Indifferent. Evidently 
(Continued on page 4) 


With the eyes of the cation fixed on North 
Carolina by reason of its outstanding achieve- 
ments in industry, hydro-electric develop- 
ment, hard-surfaced highways and other pro- 
gressive tendencies, it i> to be expected that 
the tourist travel which has grown to large 
proportions in recent years will this season 
be of a sjy.e to tax the facilities provided for 
Its care. 

In both mountain and seaside resorts 
greater hotel provisions are a matter Of sea- 
sonal policy to keep up with a uniformly in- 
(Continued on page 3) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Implications of Textile Victory 

During the year 1923 the textile indus- 
try of the South provided for an increase 
of 484,904 spindles, and 14,698 looms. As 
has been the case for a number of years, 
North Carolina is still leader in this de- 
velopment, with 175,228 spindles and 
6,534 looms. The events of chief signifi- 
cance were the beginning of the indicated 
movement of New England manufactur- 
ers to the Southern States and evidences 
that the business has grown to such pro- 
portions that it is necessary for it to find 
room for expansion in sections other than 
the intensively developed region of the 
Piedmont. It is also notable that the 
South is now being favored by the great 
bleacheries and finishing plants, which 
are prepared to spend many millions of 
dollars to provide for the final processing 
of mill products on the ground, instead of 
shipping them for final manufacture into 
the higher grade goods. 

Among other great finishing and bleach- 
ery plant enterprises which have come or 
are coming to the Carolinas, two of the 
most important are the plants of Joseph 
Bancroft and Sons, of Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, and Sayles Finishing Plants, In- 
corporated, of Saylesville, Ehode Island, 
both of which will be constructed in West- 
ern North Carolina, a section hitherto 
strangely neglected by textile interests. 
The first, to be located on a 600-acre tract 
at Old Fort, will involve an expenditure 
of $30,000,000; the second, a $2,000,000 
plant at Swannanoa, near Biltmore. Im- 
portant as it is economically for these 
plants to be as near as possible to the tex- 
tile mills, a supply of water of a quality to 
permit its use in bleaching is essential. It 
is no doubt for this reason that Western 
North Carolina, with its mountain 
streams and rivers, seems destined to be 
the center of this new and final phase of 
the South's ultimate conquest of the busi- 
ness of textile manufacture in the nation. 

As to the New England "invasion,'' it 
will be wholly beneficent or embarassing 
according as the South makes provision 
for the solution of the immediate prob- 
lems it presents :. 

First, the utilization of every commer- 
cially available water power in order to 
permit the expansion of textile manu- 
facture to all sections of the State with- 
out too great congestion in the already 
highly developed Piedmont. To secure 
the hydro-electric power necessary in the 
next few years there must be preserved 

for distribution through interconnecting 
systems all the power resources of the 
Southern Appalachian region. 

Second, the maintenance of a supply of 
native white labor, skilled and adaptable 
and free of class consciousness and radical 

Third, reforms in farm management 
looking to the more general use of machin- 
ery and gas and electric power, together 
with a wise State policy tending to draw 
to unused lands a type of experienced 
farm home-seeker from less favored 

Southern prophets have for a genera- 
tion and more pointed to the shift of the 
center of textile manufacture from New 
England. Now that the movement is defi- 
nitely upon us, every Southern State 
should welcome it with eyes open to all 
its necessary implications and obligations. 



(Continued from page 1) 

"He has been loyal, industrious and effec- 
tive in the investigation of the natural re- 
sources of the State, and in giving them pub- 
licity and in devising plans by which they 
might be utilized for the upbuilding and the 
progress of the State. Many new industries 
have been established and nonresidents have 
been attracted and have united their wealth 
and energies with those of the people of the 
State. In all those activities in which Fed- 
eral cooperation has been available, he has 
been unusually successful in securing both 
expert and financial aid from the Federal 
Government. Altogether, Colonel Pratt has 
made an enviable record of service, which 
should be a source of gratification to him, 
and which should earn for him unstinted 
recognition and gratitude from the people of 
North Carolina. 

"Resolved, that the Board regret exceed- 
ingly the resignation of Colonel Pratt, and 
wish for him personally and professionally 
good health, happiness and prosperity in any 
future work which he may undertake. 

"Resolved further, that a copy of this reso- 
lution be spread upon the minutes, and that 
the secretary to. the Director be directed to 
deliver a certified copy thereof to Colonel 
Pratt, and also furnish a copy to the press of 
the State." 

Colonel Pratt is now actively engaged in 
his new work as President of Western North 
Carolina. Inc., an inter-county association 
whose purpose, as its name indicates, is the 
advertisement and general development of 
the resources and material and social possi- 
bilities of the rapidly prospering mountain 
section of the State. 

The New Director 
Immediately upon Colonel Pratt's resigna- 
tion Governor Morrison announced that he 
would tender the position of State Geologist 
and Director of the Survey to Brent S. Drane, 
widely known civil engineer of Charlotte. Mr. 
Drane, through training and experience and 
active work with the Federal Government, 
and in cooperation with the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, was con- 
sidered to be splendidly qualified to carry on 
the organization Colonel Pratt had built up. 
After giving the question consideration for 
some days, Mr. Drane decided to accept the 



Among projects for which the issuance of 
preliminary permits and licenses was recently 
allowed by the Federal Power Commis- 
sion, two were of particular interest to North 

The Pigeon River Power Company, of 
Waynesville, N. C, is given a preliminary 
permit for two years for a proposed power 
project on the Big Pigeon River at a point 
just above the Tennessee-North Carolina 
State line, in Haywood County. The project 
will consist of a dam forming a reservoir on 
the Big Pigeon River, two tunnels with a 
total length of approximately 17,000 feet, two 
conduits with a total length of about 8,600 
feet, a surge tank and a ponstock to a power- 
house located on Pigeon River and designed 
to develop approximately 60,000 horsepower. 

Among applications for permit or license 
under the Federal Water Power Act filed 
with the commission and now pending is 
that of the Hiawassee River Power Com- 
pany asking for a preliminary permit for a 
comprehensive project on the Hiawassee 
River in Cherokee and Clay counties, con- 
sisting of six separate developments, which 
combined would create about a half million 
acre feet of storage, utilize a total fall of 660 
feet, and develop in the neighborhood of 
110.000 horsepower. 

This application, it will be noted, is in 
direct conflict with the previous application 
of the Southern Appalachian Power Com- 
pany for a dam 170 feet high above Murphy, 
and another dam 40 feet high below Murphy 
on the Hiawassee River. The probable effects 
of this proposed development on the water 
power situation on the river and in connec- 
tion with the surrounding country already 
have been discussed in Natural Resources. 
The Power Commission will consider these 
applications after the advertising period of 
six weeks, when it will take into considera- 
tion recommendations of the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey regarding 
the proper development of the river from the 
point of view of the investigation made by 
Thorndike Saville, of the hydraulic depart- 


The Forestry Convention at Washington, 
N. C, was well attended and much interest 
shown in a very attractive program, which 
was devoted largely to a discussion of Federal 
and State forestry policy. 

J. G. Peters, chief of forest management, 
U. S. Forest Service, under whose supervision 
the Weeks Law forest funds are expended, 
discussed cooperative forest fire prevention, 
and others dealing with the subject in its 
various angles included Gen. A. J. Bowley, 
commandant of Fort Bragg, E. Murray 
Brunei - , Federal Forest Inspector, and Fred 
B. Merrill, N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey. Forest research, including investi- 
gation of the chestnut blight, was advocated 
by Dr. G. F. Gravatt, pathologist of U. S. 
Bureau of Plant Industry, and E. H. Froth- 
ingham, director of Southern Appalachian 
Forest Experiment Station. Other speakers 
were Dr. B. W. Kilgore, on the State's rela- 
tion to farm forestry; Verne Rhodes, forest 
supervisor, on public ownership of forest 
land ; Hon. John H. Small, on land classifica- 
tion, and Major Wm. D. Harris, on forest 
taxation reform. 




The proposal for a Southern Exposition to 
be held in New York in January of next 
year is creating wide interest and is already 
securing promises of general support from 
important enterprises and well-qualified men. 

Several tentative proposals for an exposi- 
tion of this kind have heretofore come to 
nothing largely because of the fact that the 
promoters were unable to show by accom- 
plishment that their hopes were justified'. The 
present exhibition, on the other hand, is in 
charge, as president, of William G. Sirrine, a 
prominent South Carolina lawyer who lias for 
several yeans devoted himself to the organi- 
zation of the textile expositions at Greenville, 
which have been worth millions in stimu- 
lating industry in his own State, as well as 
the South generally. This exposition, when- 
ever held, has been the center of attraction 
for the textile industry of the nation, whether 
North or South. The Vice-President is Col- 
onel Joseph Hyde Pratt, President of Western 
North Carolina, Inc., and widely known 
throughout the country for the numerous 
successful efforts he has fostered during his 
long service as the director of the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 
Other men connected with the Southern Expo- 
sition are of the same type and reputation 
for judgment and energy, and where they are 
loading the States and industry whose ex- 
hibits will be necessary for success are ready 
to follow. 

Experience of railroads and other South- 
ern interests who have exhibited at the 
Chemical Exposition held in New York for 
several years past have found that they have 
been brought by this means into direct touch 
with hundreds of prospective investors and 
results have been of marked and unques- 
tioned value. 

For these reasons it is felt that a general 
Southern Exposition to be held in New York 
will concentrate the interest of Eastern peo- 
ple generally and of Eastern papers to a 
greater extent than anything which has yet 
been done to bring the agricultural and indus- 
trial South into national notice. In this con- 
nection Richard H. Edmunds, editor of the 
Manufacturer* Record, writes : 

"I regard this exposition, if carried out 
according to the present plans, and I am sure 
it will be, as the greatest advertising oppor- 
tunity which the South has ever had, for it 
will advertise the South to millions of peo- 
ple in the East, and I am sure that many 
thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of 
leading men of the whole East will attend 
the exposition, and for themselves study the 
exhibits of minerals, and agricultural possi- 
bilities, and the manufactured products which 
the South can show. And the newspapers of 
the East will advertise it freely and write 
stories about it which no amount of money 
spent in any other way could, I think, bring 

A letter from Thos. W. Martin, President 
of the Alabama Power Company, declares 
that "we will he very glad to join in any 
way you may desire with those who are 
planning the expositions, and I am so ad- 
vising Mr. Sirrine, and Dr. Joseph Hyde 
Pratt by this mail. I quite agree with you 
that such a program will be of great value to 
the South, and we hold ourselves in readiness 
to be of service in any way we can." 

It will be the purpose to make the South- 
ern Exposition a complete demonstration of 
Southern products, industries, resources, 
methods and possibilities. While intensive 
advertising is needed, the South and North 

Carolina in particular have boon widely 
brought to the attention of the whole coun- 
try and its curiosity aroused. Talk of South- 
ern progress has been so constant thai the 
opportunity to see it set forth in a New York 
Show place; will be like the satisfaction of 
curiosity. The country has beard so many 
rumors it is ripe to be shown; it is above all 
tilings important that the demonstration be a 
complete one. 

This advertising in the concrete is the 
logical follow up of an interest already 
aroused and half sold to what to expect. If 
it be inclusive; of what, the South is doing 
and true to character, it will pave the way for 
the more intensive advertising to follow. As 
Mr. Edwards suggests, the exposition when it 
opens will be news, which is the highest form 
which advertising can take. For tin.' several 
states of the South the immediate problem is 
to see that with the region thus emphasized 
to the world they get the fullest representa- 
tion as to their relation to and share in its 




(Continued from page 1) 

creasing patronage. The expansion of the 
great resort centers of the Sandhill region is 
a matter of country-wide knowledge. In the 
height of the season, in spite of the fact that 
hotel and resort owners will have been fore- 
warned, it is altogether likely that thousands 
of prospective tourists will be turned away 
or have their visits shortened on account of a 
lack of accommodation. 

Ultimately this type of tourist and visitor 
will find accommodation made for him. He 
has become a business asset to which capital 
will cater so long as there is profit in his 
coming. He and his kind are not only profit- 
able to the corporation that entertains them 
but indirectly, of course, of great permanent 
value to the State. In every section there 
arc capitalists, men of business, and the in- 
dustries they have established which are di- 
rectly traceable to the man who came to visit 
and play and returned to live and work. 

It is nevertheless true that there is a great 
and growing volume of tourists and visitors 
of an extremely desirable type to whom 
North Carolina offers everything they want 
except the particular accommodation they de- 
sire and must have. These arc the people 
forming the great army of those who either 
cannot afford to pay hotel rates or who do 
not desire hotel life in taking their vacation. 
They are the wholesome, substantial, and fre- 
quently highly cultured types that are highly 
advantageous to any community in which 
they settle for a time, but who wish to live 
wholesomely and quietly, to enjoy reasonable 
comforts without the flash of luxury, in other 
words to find a method of continuing in a 
measure their home surroundings while going 
abroad. For such a type the hotel or the 
resort is impossible or undesirable; the an- 
swer is the farm ready not only to take 
boarders, but to give them a measure of real 
comfort and convenience. All through New 
England the business of summer boarders is 
regularly established in thousands of farm 
homes; in the South, it is the exception when 
the farmer will consent to have hoarders if 
they ask for places ; and farm homes equipped 
to meet what needs only the smallest en- 
couragement to become a great asset are 
almost nonexistent. 

To equip the farm home for the reception 
of summer guests, the requirements are pro- 
vision of hot and cold water, modern plumb- 
ing and sanitary arrangements, wholesome 

food, mosl of which can be secured from the 
farm Itself, properly prepared and served, 
and surroundings made oea< and attractive. 
So equipped, the farm borne would reo 
from each guest from $10 to sir, per week, 
with perhaps special rate.- for families with 
children, and at the end of the season the 
ret urns would almost certainly be sullicient 
to pay handsome dividends on an Investment 
in permanent Improvements adding greatly to 
the value of the property. 

In the development of the farm home to 

serve as a place of residence for tourists 
aesthetic considerations are of ti„. greatest 
value. Flower beds should be laid out and 
kept in good condition. Paint should be 
liberally applied to the premises. J. awn- 
should he well kept. Natural beauties of the 
farm itself should he availed of to provide 
pleasure and recreation. Frequently a small 
pond or stream could he utilized for boating, 
fishing, or for water supply. With the growth 
of the business communities might easily de- 
velop small electric powers to serve a number 
of homes and operate small Industries. As a 
business man the farmer who so manages his 
home will be keeping his plant busy at more 
than usual profit while adding to it- perma- 
nent value and the selling price of its prod- 
ucts. In addition he will be attracting de- 
sirable persons to his State and -en ion. and 
materially adding to its capital and resources 
as well as helping to secure a percentage of 
permanent residents. 

Also to be taken into consideration is the 
value of contacts established between the 
farm home and its guests. The people who 
would be thus attracted would bring in with 
them new points of view, broad cultural ideas, 
a vivifying touch of the greater world on the 
rural environment. The farm home, though 
providing the comforts, would have none of 
the impersonality of a hotel: its hoarders 
would in many instances be guests and 
friends in the fullest acceptation of the 

In a number of counties Western North 
Carolina. Incorporated, has begun a cam- 
paign to secure and list farm homes properly 
equipped for handling this kind of business. 
Practically every on'e that receives boarders 
will add just so many to the number of those 
to take advantage of the mountain country. 
Once the idea takes hold, it should spread 
with a rapidity equal to the multiplication 
of resorts. What Western North Carolina is 
preparing to do Eastern North Carolina, the 
Sandhills and practically every other section 
can do to its distinct advantage. For the 
host feature of preparing the farm to receive 
visitors is that it prepares it, a- well, for 
the happiness, comfort and advanced stand- 
ards of those who will be even more proud to 
call it "Home." 


At the request of (Jen. K. F. Glenn, who is 
assisting the State Land Settlement Commis- 
sion in the preparation of its final report to 
the Governor, the North Carolina Geological 
and Economic Survey i- now preparing a re- 
port of the drainage districts of the State. 

The report will show the number and area of 

districts, the costs of development, mainte- 
nance, etc.. crops grown ami results of drain- 
age on health condition-. The data will he 
valuable not only in connection with land 
settlement policy within the view i>( tin' com- 
mission, hut a- a guide to communities and 
individuals to whom drainage of swamp or 
overflowed lands is suggested as an economic 





The Southern Forestry Congress, at its 
recent meeting in Savannah, gave merited 
recognition to J. S. Holmes, State Forester 
of the Forestry Department of the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, by 
electing him its president. 

The Southern Forestry Congress, which in- 
cludes all the Southern States to Texas and 
Oklahoma, and among whose members are the 
leading exponents of the conservation of 
natural resources throughout this important 
region, is recognized nationally as a highly 
efficient and significant body. Since its or- 
ganization in 1916 it has formulated policies 
in connection with the management, care and 
growth of timber lands which are accepted 
generally by all who realize the vital quality 
of the forest problems and the lumber crises 
now facing the people of the entire country. 
It is recognized that any solution in a rea- 
sonably near future must be looked for in 
the South, and the Southern Forestry Con- 
gress is the accredited agency through which 
that solution must be worked out and applied. 
Mr. Holmes, although a native of Canada, 
is in all essentials a North Carolinian, hav- 
ing come to this State with his parents when 
yet a young boy. Brought up on a farm in 
Henderson County, he entered the University 
of North Carolina in 1886, leaving after two 
years with a certificate in agriculture, to 
return to the farm in Western North Caro- 
lina, where he remained until 1902, when he 
entered the United States Forest Service as 
a student assistant, spending the following 
winter in the long-leaf pine section of Texas. 
In 1903 he entered the Tale School of For- 
estry, graduating there in 1905 with the de- 
gree, awarded later, of Master of Forestry. 
He immediately thereafter entered the United 
States Forest Service as Forest Assistant, his 
work being in different sections of the South, 
from Maryland to Arizona, with a year in the 
Southwest as timber sale inspector on the 
National Forest. He resigned to accept in 
1909 the position of forester with the North 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. 

Since his return to the State Mr. Holmes 
has been active in helping to create senti- 
ment in favor of fire-protection, reforestation, 
and the protection and development of natu- 
ral resources generally. In 1915, with the 
passage of the State' Forest Fire Law, he 
became State Forester at the head of the 
Survey's Forestry Department, and began 
the first organized work of forest fire protec- 
tion in North Carolina. Since then, with the 
passage of the act of 1921 authorizing coun- 
ties to cooperate with the Survey in this 
work, 24 of the 100 counties have been organ- 
ized and are helping to maintain regular fire- 
prevention forces. Under the stimulus of his 
direction the interest in this work has been 
greatly broadened, better forest practice has 
been demonstrated, and millions of dollars 
worth of endangered timber saved. From a 
State that gave no protection whatever to its 
forests or timber lands, the North Carolina 
organization has in a few years come to repre- 
sent the soundest and most advanced princi- 
ples in science and practice. 

The Southern Forestry Congress was or- 
ganized through the efforts of the North Caro- 
lina Geological and Economic Survey, one of 
a number of associations that owe their ex- 
istence to the vision and energy of its direc- 
tion. Its first meeting was held in Asheville 
in 1916. Suspended during the war, it has 
since met in New Orleans, Atlanta, Jackson. 
Miss., Montgomery, Ala., and Savannah, Ga. 

At the recent meeting Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
Asheville, N. C, was reelected chairman of 
the executive committee. 

Mr. Holmes, the new president of the Con- 
gress, has had peculiar opportunity to realize 
the practical value of the movement for re- 
forestation, which is one of its chief concerns. 
As stated, on leaving the University of North 
Carolina, it was his intention to engage in 
farming in Henderson County. Four years 
of the unequal combat of agriculture against 
successive floods on the French Broad caused 
him to change his life purpose, and by tak- 
ing up forestry work he now finds himself 
engaged in the one effort through which the 
future may hope for the regulation and con- 
trol of these periodic disasters. 



(Continued from page 1) 

the burning of several hundred acres of land 
and the consequent loss of some thousands of 
dollars in values was a commonplace un- 
worthy of notice. 

Needless to say that this occurred in a 
county that has not seen fit to cooperate in 
the work of fire-prevention, or that the war- 
dens so far yielded to their professional in- 
stincts as to spend several hours as volunteer 
fire-fighters, doing what they could to check 
the spread of the blaze, but necessarily leav- 
ing the fire very largely to "burn itself out." 

That the incident is worth notice now is 
reminiscent of the time when it was being 
constantly multiplied in every section of the 
State. Forest fires that burned for weeks 
and bung a pall of smoke and smell of blaz- 
ing tar over towns in a large radius are 
within easy memory of thousands. In fact, 
the forest fire a few years ago was an un- 
noted circumstance except when it "got into 
court" on the allegation that the damage was 
caused by a "spark from the engine." Almost 
always the issue was as to whether or not 
the locomotive was equipped with a "spark 
arrester," and the total of money recovered 
in jury verdicts would equal in value a large 
sized tract of virgin timber — even at the high 
prices of today. 

Railroad Interest 

Long ago railroads began to see that some- 
thing besides "spark arresters" was needed 
to minimize the risk of setting woods on fire, 
or being charged with having done so. Rights 
of way were cleared of inflammable material. 
Devices such as the live-steam method of 
keeping these ways clean were brought into 
play. Better still, progressive railroads have 
done their share of missionary work in edu- 
cating landowners as to the value of their 
timber lands and exerting themselves in the 
interest of fire-prevention. Still more re- 
cently it has dawned on railroad management 
that a large part of their future revenue will 
depend upon the extent to which cut-over and 
burned lands shall be reforested, and thus 
create the business and industry necessary to 
make every part of the railroad line produce 
its reasonable proportion of the total traffic. 

In the West, where railroads still are own- 
ers of large sections of land, direct methods 
toward their conservation and proper man- 
agement are possible. In the East, however, 
the railroad policy must be persuasive or, at 
best, in the nature of demonstration on a 
small scale. But that the railroads are think- 
ing along these lines is evident and encourag- 

One Road's Idle Territory 

Recently, for instance, the Public Relations 
Department of the Atlantic Coast Line sought 

from the Survey information as to the 
amount of lands in the counties traversed by 
its lines in North Carolina, which are chiefly 
valuable as producers of timber, as distin- 
guished from agriculture. There are 32 such 
counties served by the Coast Line, and in 
making its estimate the Survey proceeded on 
the plan of deducting the number of acres 
cultivated (census of 1920) from the total 
land acreage, followed by a further reduction 
of five per cent to cover all acreage used by 
towns, villages, roads, waste places, etc. 
There were further deductions made in cer- 
tain eastern counties for salty swamps, "hard 
pan" soils, etc. 

In these counties — Anson, Beaufort, Bertie, 
Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Craven, Cum- 
berland, Duplin, Edgecombe, Gates, Halifax, 
Harnett, Hertford, Johnston, Jones, Lee, Le- 
noir, Martin, Nash, New Hanover, Northamp- 
ton, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, Pitt, Robeson, 
Sampson, Scotland, Washington, Wayne, and 
Wilson — the estimated acreages chiefly valu- 
able for the possibilities of timber growth 
range from 118,295 in New Hanover, to 528,- 
639 in Bladen County, and the total acreage 
of lands now lying practically idle, yet which 
are capable of reproducing trees, is 8,724,512 
for the thirty-two counties served by this one 
road. The State Forester, J. S. Holmes, Col. 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, director of the Survey, 
and S. H. Hobbs, Jr., of the Rural Socials 
Economics Department of the University of 
North Carolina, all are of the opinion that 
extremely little of this land will be needed 
for agriculture in the next fifty years. They 
agree that, at the very most, the percentage 
of these lands under cultivation in fifteen 
years will be scarcely five per cent ; in thirty 
years, ten per cent ; and in fifty years, fifteen 
per cent. 

At present recurrent fires and unrestricted 
range of scrub stock are keeping this poten- 
tial kingdom of timber a practically valueless 

Well may the Coast Line Railroad consider 
what it can do to encourage its owners to 
catch the vision of the veritable empire into 
which a generation of protected timber grow- 
ing would convert it ! 


Dr. John Warren Achorn, President of the 
Sand Hills Bird Club, in writing the Survey 
to take advantage of its offer of the "Bird 
Book" at a nominal charge of twenty-five 
cents, reports the new game of "Bird Golf." 

Perhaps the game is best described by the 
account of a match between T. Gilbert Pear- 
son, Mrs. Gussie Gibson, and Mrs. Julia 
Stuckey ; Doctor Achorn, Miss Lida Hutch- 
ings, and Miss Henrietta Risley. Mr. Pear- 
son and Doctor Achorn acted as scouts, quali- 
fied as such by knowing 75 birds, and each 
of the women players are reported to have 
known from 50 to 75 birds by sight. 

The game lasted an hour and a half, or 
ten minutes each for nine links. Birds of a 
kind counted but once; males counted one 
and females count three; only birds recog- 
nized by two players of a set were recorded. 
The final score stood 39 to 37 in favor of the 
Pearson set — a good mark, considering that 
the game was played early in the season, and 
only one migrating bird was recognized. As 
females count three, it is easily seen that one 
additional "lady bird" would have changed 
the result. The Achorn set pulled down a 
fourteen in the fourth link, scoring three 
females and five males in ten minutes, but 
lost out in the final link, when but one of the 
set recognized a female orchard oriole. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 


N... S£ 


Speaking at the recent meeting of the 

North Carolina Forestry Association, in ses- 
sion at Washington, N. C, W. T. Abberly, of 
the Pino Lumber Company, opened the book 
of his experience to an illuminating exposi- 
tion of how it happens that the practical 
lumberman is apt to seem utterly ruthless 
in the way in which he sweeps the land 
clean of all its trees, apparently with utter 
disregard of whether it ever grows another 
tree or not. 

It is perfectly easy and in a stern way of 
speaking truthful to attribute the tragedy 
of the pine barrens, the wastes of cut-over 
lands, the stark sides of once green moun- 
tains to the lumberman who has not learned 
the story of the hen that laid the golden 
egg. It is demonstrable that with a rela- 
tively small amount of care and forethought 
these once heavily timbered areas might have 
been cut in a manner to keep them indefi- 
nitely productive. It is clear, also, that even 
when they were cut closely a small amount 
of protection would have permitted them to 
grow a new forest in place of the old, instead 
of remaining a terrible object lesson of greed. 

But if the hen of the golden egg had had 
the appetite of an elephant and laid only 
once in a generation, her owner would have 
bad something in the way of excuse for 
refusing to support her between cackles. 

Practical Experience 

On the subject of conservation, Mr. Abberly 
cited a 20,000-acre tract now held by his 

The land was bought fifteen years ago at 
a cost of $4 per thousand feet of standing 

Hut in taxes and interest thereon alone, 
this timber now represents an investment of 
$10 per thousand feet. 

Adding the carrying charges, its cost on 
the hooks is $19. 

In the (iftocn years of ownership the 
amount of taxes assessed per thousand acres 
bus increased from $100 to .$1,000 per acre. 

Under these circumstances it is clear that, 
while there has been a great increase; in the 
value of the timber, it has represented noth- 
ing appreciable to its owner except the pleas- 
ure of proving the point that, instead of 
profiting he is losing by its growth. In this 
instance, the State has progressively absorbed 
all the enhanced value the private owner 
made possible — so why should he feed the 
ben more than the cost of her product and 
in the meantime run the risk of the loss of 
the hen herself? 

Forced Haste in Cutting 

What has happened is that under the sys- 
tem of taxation in vogue in the State, the 
owner of timber not only must cut it as 
quickly as possible in order to gel ;i turn-over 
of his investment while there is a chance of 
(Continued on page i ) 



The Manufacturers' Record recently published what was in its results a 
modern fairy story concerning the discovery of great mineral wealth in Florida 
sands near the point where Ponce de Leon landed centuries ago in his search 
for the fabled Fountain of Youth. Following a slight clue with the per- 
sistence of born prospectors, Henry H. Buckman and George A. Pritchard 
found on a neglected beach deposits of a marvelous variety of rich earth 
metals, most important being zircon and titanium. Incidentally, it appears 
that this mine of unsuspected richness resulted from the disintegration and 
wearing down in past ages of a great mountain ridge that once existed in our 
own Piedmont. Which leads the Manufacturers' Record to declare that il 
"pays to be observing, to scrutinize every clay-bed, every gravel-pit. every 
sand-pit, and every rock outcrop in one's vicinity. It is well to be cur 
enough to examine all these things, or to have samples of them examined by 
one who knows." 

Buckman and Pritchard happened to be men who knew. One was an 
expert graduate of Harvard who had specialized in chemistry and engineering. 
The other was an engineer who had roamed widely gathering experience in 
this and other countries. Seeking a refractory mineral for an electric fur- 
nace, Buckman produced a sample of Florida sand, in which Pritchard imme- 
diately saw possibilities. The hunt ended in a way to furnish much needed 
material to the Allies in the war with Germany and to open an entirely new 
and richly paying industry. 

Certainly it pays to examine all clay-banks, gravel and sand-pits, etc., with 
the idea of discovering precisely what they contain, in quality and quantity. 
Many Western North Carolina localities contain titaniferous magnetites of 
much interest and many possibilities. There is a Henderson County town 
named Zirconia after the mineral zircon. The very minerals Buckman and 
Pritchard found in the Florida sands came largely, it is thought, from North 
Carolina hills, in which more of them remains.. Intelligent and persistent 
prospecting and exploration would certainly result in a great increase in the 
production of mineral wealth. 

It will be noted, however, that these two men were equipped to know a clue 
as well as to follow one; that they acted vigorously and independently on 
positive evidence. That is quite another matter from those in North Carolina 
who are still seeking oil — not on evidence, but on hope; not in pursuit of the 
positive, but in stubborn disavowal of all negative indications. 


Two of the State's greatest highways bear 
names that make them forever memorials of 
the World War and the part taken therein 
by North Carolina troops. 

One is the <>ld Hickory l formerly the Cen- 
tral) Highway, which extends from the Ten- 
nessee Line to Asheville, passes the Swan- 
nanoa Gap, and proceeding via Salisbury. 
Greensboro, Raleigh, Goldsboro, and New 
Bern, has its terminus al Beaufort, X. C. 
i ( 'out inned on page 2 l 



«'arl I. Peterson, district forest warden of 
the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey, is in charge of the Hre-prevei 
work in the counties of Madison, Buncombe, 
Henderson, Polk, Clay. Cherokee, Swain, B 

wood, and Transylvania. All of these Coun- 
ties cooperate under the law In maintaining 
a fire-prevention service, in all of them and 
in the noncooperating counties of Graham, 
Jackson, and Macon, where the survey has 
wardens, Mr. Peterson's job i^ thai of super- 
i Continued on page •". ■ 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Guard the National Forests 

National Forests in North Carolina 
now comprise an area of 400,000 acres, 
which will be more than doubled in course 
of orderly development. What this means 
to navigable rivers, to water powers and 
stream flow is conceded theory. What the 
forests themselves mean in preservation of 
mountain beauty, in public satisfaction 
and enjoyment, and in the utilization of 
lands that otherwise would be sacrificed to 
heedless exploitation is increasingly borne 
in on all having opportunity to observe 
the methods followed in their administra- 
tion. It is in every way important to the 
State that this national enterprise in con- 
servation be carried out, according to plan, 
as rapidly as necessary appropriations are 

In this connection it is just now impor- 
tant that there be recognized the distinc- 
tion between the National Forest and the 
National Park, because of the movement 
to set apart as parks certain areas in the 
Southern Appalachian region. With such 
a use of areas peculiarly adapted to park 
purposes there can be no logical quarrel, 
but the insidious danger is, that in order 
to gain a park we lose or embarrass the 
use of lands more properly included in 
the principle of tbe National Forest. Ad- 
vocates of National Parks in the Southern 
Appalachians are in danger of being led 
by their enthusiasm for the preservation 
of unique phenomena or scenic effects to 
overlook the peril of the suggestion that 
there be appropriated to National Park 
purposes areas already within or in the 
scope of logical development of the 
National Forest. 

Once an area is set apart as a park, its 
commercial use and economic development 
come abruptly to an end. Its utilization 
except as a museum piece is sternly lim- 
ited. It becomes a beautiful and inviolate 

By contrast, in the case of the National 
Forest the conservation is that of the 
saving to a use. The basis of its mainte- 
nance and protection is in the broadest 
sense economic. Subject to the definite 
purpose of protection of watersheds, the 
central idea is so far as possible to retain 
the land itself in the employments to 
which it is naturally suited. Its proper 
timbering provides raw products for in- 
dustry. Its grasses furnish range for 
stock. Its woods and streams, subject to 
State laws, are available for sport and 

recreation. In addition, although Federal 
property, its revenues are applied not only 
to the cost of maintenance, but to com- 
pensating counties for loss of taxes. 

There are in the Southern Appalachians 
several opportunities for National Parks 
within the exceptions of which the Yellow- 
stone is the great example. The Mam- 
moth Cave is one. The wonderful Linville 
Gorge might be considered another. But 
the National Forest is a concern from 
which it is important there be no distrac- 
tion. The public and the representatives 
of the South in Congress would do well to 
adopt as a policy the resolution of the 
North Carolina Forestry Association, that 
it is to their best interest "to emphasize 
the purchase program for National For- 
ests rather than to set aside areas for 
parks, and that there is no excuse for 
converting National Forests in the South- 
ern Appalachians, or any part thereof, 
into National Parks." 



Senator Simmons and Representative Aber- 
nethy have introduced in Congress a bill 
whereby historic old Fort Macon, now ordered 
sold by the War Department, would be turned 
over to the State of North Carolina for park 

These four hundred and ten acres of sandy 
land on and near Beaufort Inlet cannot pos- 
sibly realize for the Government at public 
sale any considerable sum. They do, how- 
ever, with the masonry of the old fort which 
figured conspicuously in the Civil War as one 
of the gateways of the Confederacy, consti- 
tute a historic survival of a value not to be 
measured in money. As a State Park, they 
would afford recreational facilities, and by 
establishing a park in the east to match the 
existing park at the summit of Mount Mitchell 
in the west prove a powerful argument for 
the development by the State of its own 
areas of peculiar interest for varied use and 



(Continued from page 1) 

The other is the Wildcat Highway, running 
from Asheville, to Charlotte, to Wilmington. 

These names are picturesque reminders of 
the Great War and some of its most stirring 
and important events. They recall the "Old 
Hickory" (30th) Division, composed of North 
and South Carolina and Tennessee troops, 
and the "Wildcat" (81st) Division, composed 
of troops from North Carolina and other 
Southern States. The first won deathless 
fame in the final assault upon the Hinden- 
burg Line, and the second saw action in the 
Argonne. Both were famous throughout the 
A. E. F. 

Beautification Plans 

A plan to further emphasize these everlast- 
ing highways as war memorials was recently 
started at Asheville by the Kiffen Rockwell 
Post of the American Legion, which proposes 

to institute and prosecute a State-wide cam- 
paign for their beautification with Wilson 
Oaks, as a memorial to the War President. 
The Rockwell Post, incidentally, is named 
after one of the first American aviators to 
give his life to the Allied cause, Kiffen Rock- 
well entering the flying service of the Allies 
before America entered the war, and having 
been shot down over the German lines shortly 
before the final break in diplomatic relations 
between the # Washington and Berlin govern- 

Beautification of the two highways was 
recently adopted as a policy by the Wilson 
Memorial Committee of the Rockwell Post 
of Asheville, at the suggestion of Colonel 
Joseph Hyde Pratt. The Rockwell Post will 
see to the planting of trees on the highways 
in Buncombe County and will at once start 
to press the movement for adoption by the 
American Legion of the State and seek to 
enlist the interest of counties, towns, cities 
and the public in every section through which 
they pass. Between the trees, to be known as 
Wilson Oaks, it is planned to plant dogwood, 
which in the spring will line the roadways 
with a glory of white blossoms. 

As to the advantages of the improvement 
of the scenic features of the highways, they 
are so manifest that their provision is only 
a matter of time. Soon or late its beautifica- 
tion will be a task incidental to the con- 
struction of every good road. Soon or late 
the present mania for roadside signs of the 
inclusiveness of a mail-order catalogue must 
be curbed. The practical way in which this 
can be done, and the method by which the 
sign will eventually become impossible on 
account of contrast, will be by providing all 
roads with a fringe of the natural beauty of 
trees and forest growth. With the example 
of two major mountain-to-sea highways sig- 
nificantly named and beautified, the impetus 
for similar treatment of the highway system 
generally should be compelling. 

Survey to Cooperate 

Answering the request of the Kiffen Rock- 
well Post. J. S. Holmes, State Forester, is 
offering the cooperation and advice of the 
forestry department of the N. C. Geological 
and Economic- Survey. When the time comes 
for settling upon definite planting plans, he 
will assist and advise in such matters as 
determining the location and species of trees 
best adapted to the purpose in view. For 
the greater part of the routes it is proposed 
to beautify, the white oak probably will be 
selected as the most appropriate and avail- 
able tree, on account of its appearance, its 
sturdiness and its exceptionally long life. On 
other portions, however, the soil is not suit- 
able for the growth of the white oak and 
for it other species will be substituted, includ- 
ing, perhaps, on certain stretches in Eastern 
North Carolina, the lovely and romantic 
water oak. 

While it is probable that some trees will 
be taken from original growth in native 
forests and planted along the highways, and 
though individuals will be given the oppor- 
tunity to subscribe for trees for memorial 
purposes, Mr. Holmes is already investigat- 
ing the possibility of securing adequate 
nursery stock. Owing to competition with 
other trees in the forest, the root systems of 
the white and other oaks make transplanting 
a matter of difficulty, and in ordinary cir- 
cumstances the nursery stock is considered 
likely to give better results. In a project of 
such magnitude there will also be other ques- 
tions which will call for expert counsel, but 
the plan in its essentials is expected to meet 
a cheerful reception and to provide a State- 
wide stimulus to the much needed scenic 
improvement of highways as a whole. 





Back of the woodshed in the "back yards" 
of a yesterday of more spacious living the 
complete householder generally maintained a 
more or less modest patch of luxuriantly 
growing and carefully tended mint. 

Although few real homes were complete 
without this garden product, a little of the 
fragrant leaf went a long, long way. Its 
uses were limited, if glorilied in song and 
story and fiction concerning Kentucky Colo- 
nels. A handful was sufficient to furnish 
forth juleps of a lavish hospitality. Even 
less served to garnish the spring lamb and 
provide flavor for other culinary triumphs. 
Mint was elegance and finish, the last touch 
to a self-contained home, the dernier cri! 
To suggest that it had a commercial status, 
that it might be an article of trade and barter 
like grosser agricultural necessities, would 
have been to belittle its poetic destiny. 

Although only the irreconcilables of the 
old order maintain a mint bed today — and 
then rather as a sentiment than for use — 
there is a North Carolina farm on which it 
has been demonstrated that a plant kept for 
a limited and now widely condemned use can 
be made a crop of large profits, for which 
there is an ever-present and eager market. 
Mint grown by the acre has been shown to 
return more in money than an equal amount 
of land producing thirty-five cent cotton. 

So far as known, the pioneer in the culti- 
vation of mint for other than purposes of 
housekeeping or hospitality is a Mennonite by 
the name of Slabaugh, who has established 
a rich truck farm in Currituck County, at 
Moyock, near Elizabeth City. Coming to 
North Carolina from the Middle West several 
years ago, this representative of an inten- 
sively agricultural sect found the rich soils 
ideal for his purpose and soon built up exten- 
sive truck and vegetable farms. Only re- 
cently he began experiments with mint as a 
crop, and now has in cultivation some ten 
acres from which he is said to have derived 
last year a net profit of $1,900. 

In the handling of the crop Mr. Slabaugh 
has established his own distillery for ex- 
tracting the essence of mint, which he sells 
immediately to candy manufacturers in 
Elizabeth City. The soil he finds particularly 
adaptable to its growth, and the plant thrives 
luxuriantly. With the success of the initial 
experiment and the wide demand for the 
product, it is thought likely that he will 
enlarge his production and that other land- 
owners in that section will follow his lead. 

To those who think of the "mint patch" as 
dedicated to a particular use that had some- 
thing about it in the nature of a rite, its 
cultivation as a money crop may seem to be 
profanation. But for one "Colonel" with a 
goatee who gloated over the frost-encrusted 
glass of amber fluid topped with a sprig or 
so of green, there are hundreds and thousands 
who find uses for mint in the flavoring of 
their sweets and candies, to say nothing of 
the militant army of the gum-chewers — nerv- 
ous battalions for whose satiety it is im- 
probable that all the potential mint lands of 
Eastern North Carolina would prove suffi- 

After preliminary tests, the N. C. Geologi- 
cal and Economic Survey is having further 
tests made at the U. S. Bureau of Minos 
laboratory at Columbus. Ohio, of clays found 
at Hot Springs. The specimens come from 
the Garrett farm and indications are that 
they are suitable for the making of face and 
hollow brick, and that they justify a good 
brick plant development. 



( ( '(ml biued from page l I 

vision on the ground, Investigation of tires. 
actual work in the field with organizations 

which from lime to lime number a total of 
hundreds of men. A glance al the map and 
a realization of the distances and character 
of the rough country in which the forests 
are situated and through which he iiiusl 
travel almost constantly make it clear thai 
Mr. Peterson, like all other fores! service 
men, does not need to take special exercise 
in order for his job to keep him busy. 

Like other very busy men, however, this 
particular forest worker has found a side 
line to his interest which is developing into 
.1 movement of greatest value and possibility. 
Loving his work, he is inspired with a desire 
to have it understood and appreciated, and 
in its educational phases has been centering 
upon the Boy Scouts. In addition to several 
troops in the city of Asheville, he has found 
this organization firmly established in Polk, 
Tryon, Transylvania, and Henderson coun- 
ties, at Brevard and Mills River. Seeking to 
instruct and interest them in the question of 
forests — what they are and mean, the neces- 
sity for their protection from lire, etc., he has 
been impressed with the fact that the subject 
has only to be suggested to find the Scouts 
becoming enthusiasts in the campaign. 

Scouts Forest Enthusiasts 

In his talks and conferences with the 
Scout troops in his territory, Mr. Peterson 
makes instant appeal with the history and 
story of Daniel Boone, who was a pioneer in 
the hills in which his work lies. He finds 
that to boys the great hunter still makes the 
call on their imagination that he did to their 
fathers and grandfathers. As the man of the 
forests, the seeker whose vision was always 
leaping toward some far horizon, as the 
wizard of woodcraft and the lore of out-of- 
doors, the famous trail blazer has bequeathed 
his spirit in full force to the present genera- 

With such an introduction, it is found that 
the Boy Scouts are avid for more intimate 
knowledge of the forests, in understanding 
of their secrets, their wild life, their uses, 
and what they mean to modern civilization. 
As producers of wood, the Scouts learn that 
the forests are more than the feeders of 
sawmills. Wood uses are outlined in their 
manifold developments. Paper-making is ex- 
plained, the manufacture of artificial silk 
from wood fiber. Economic possibilities are 
demonstrated and suggested. The habit of 
waste and the necessity of a use that will 
preserve the forest is eruphasized. What the 
forest means to the streams, to the fish and 
game, to wild life generally is pointed out 
by examples. The Scouts are made to realize 
that not only must wild life have forest 
lands in order to continue, but that when a 
lire breaks out. it destroys, along with the 
forest, the life the forest protects. Thus the 
spring lire destroys the nests, eggs and the 
young of all species of breeding birds. Small 
animals perish, together with their young. 
Larger animals are driven from cover and 
forced to leave their accustomed range. Food 
supplies are wiped out. and even if the fire 
does not destroy the timber, it renders the 
forest temporarily impossible as a home for 
ils natural inhabitants. When it is sug- 
gested that the Scouts study the ways and 
means of lire prevention anil the methods of 
lighting tires that have once broken out. the 
response proves instant. 

Tboops Gai - Si ■ o i 
Th<' work Mr. Peterson has Btarted among 

the BOJ Scowl- Of the counties under li is 

charge has been prosecuted with success in a 
number of Btates, The Pennsylvania For- 
estry Department ha a \>i<-ni of citations 
for services rendered by the Scouts In fire- 
prevention work. In Molilalia one famous 
Cores! Are found Boy Scouts working Inde- 
fatigably through long hours In acting as a 
volunteer commissariat to the men on the 
lines, in the Boy Scout .Manual there Is 
Instruction given in proper practice in the 
woods with regard to camp fires, and In what 
to do in the presence of for< si fires. This Lb 
emphasized ami amplified by experience and 
narrative, one of the Asheville troops some 
time ago turned out in a body, tackled a 
forest tire, and conquered It, practically "on 
their own." 

Mr. Peterson is interested in learning from 
his experience with the Boy Scouts that the 
in idem boy. while true to type in his 
of the woods and of animal life, does not 
think of the game In the way of something 
to kill. He is more interested in knowing 

the habits Of birds and animals and observ- 
ing them in their Dative surroundings than 
in securing them as a bag on the hunt or as 
trophies. Hunting and fishing, of course, arc 
still popular sports, and the rod and gun 
still hold high place in the boy'- affections, 
but he is becoming more and more a sports- 
man than a killer. 

Fine School i or Sentimen i 

The question of checking the destruction of 
timber and reforesting burned and cut-over 
areas will depend, of course, upon public 
opinion as it finds expression in the imme- 
diately ensuing generation. The work that 
must be done is one part legislative and nine 
parts educative. To the latter end no method 
seems more promising than that now beiug 
followed in a necessarily small and somewhat 
incidental way by Mr. Peterson. Boy Scout 
troops are a feature of every town. They 
are composed of the most virile and healthy- 
minded elements of the youth. With minds 
keenly receptive to normal sport and activity 
in the open, a very little attention as to the 
fundamentals of the relation that should 
exist between the public and the forests that 
mean so much to the public welfare should 
bring great returns in future understanding 
and accomplishment. 

The Boy Scout, properly instructed and led. 
exercises his character as he does bis body 
in the playing of a useful game. No better 
sport could be found for him than one 
founded on an appreciation of the value of 
forests and the necessity of protecting them 

against every species of wanton deed and 


Landowners in the Pantego Drainage DIs 
tricl of Beaufort and Hyde counties are pre- 
paring to organize a new district for the 
further drainage of their lands. 

The old district, completed before the war. 
has proved a success, ah assessments and 
indebtedness have been paid. The land Is 
fertile, producing large crops <A' corn, cotton 
and pea-. 

Engineers of the new project art' RespasS 

& Respass, of Washington, N. <". 



The North Carolina Committee of the 
Southern Exposition, to be held in New York 
in January, 1925, is finding that interest 
throughout the State is such that North 
Carolina will in all probability desire to use 
more space than will be available by allot- 
ment between the ten, and perhaps twelve, 
participating commonwealths. 

The committee, composed of N. G. Bartlett, 
secretary of the Eastern North Carolina 
Chamber of Commerce, chairman ; J. S. 
Kuykendall, Industrial Triangle Association. 
Winston-Salem ; C. W. Roberts, secretary 
Greensboro Chamber of Commerce ; Willard 
T. Kyser, Kinston Chamber of Commerce ; 
C. D. Matthews, horticulturist of the State 
Department of Agriculture ; Col. Joseph Hyde 
Pratt, first vice-president of the Southern 
Exposition, and representing Major Warren 
Hall, secretary, of Western North Carolina, 
incorporated ; Major William D. Harris of 
the N. C. Geological and Economic Survey, 
recently met in Raleigh to discuss methods 
by which the State could be represented to 
the best advantage at the exposition. 

The exposition, in the interest of which 
the president, William G. Sirrine, of Green- 
ville, S. C, holds an option on all four floors 
of the Grand Central Palace Building for the 
two weeks in January, will mark a concert 
of the Southern States in showing their 
products, manufactures and resources in the 
very heart of the world's largest market. It 
was the suggestion of Colonel Pratt that the 
floors be divided according to industries — 
each State to be represented on every floor, 
with an administrative booth for each of them 
at the head of the broad stairs leading from 
the street. Others of the committee were of 
the opinion that the exhibit of each State 
should be shown separately, lots to be drawn 
for location. 

Further discussion indicated that, instead 
of seeking to get particular companies to buy 
space for their special exploitation, better 
results would be obtained by interesting as- 
sociations, such as cotton, tobacco, the rail- 
roads, and the chambers of commerce of the 
various cities and towns. It was suggested, 
also, by Mr. Roberts, that emphasis should 
be given to North Carolina as a place to live 
in and prosper, rather than merely to the 
advertisement of things North Carolina pro- 
duces and manufactures for sale. 

Utmost confidence was expressed in Mr. 
Sirrine, the president of the exposition, and 
in his ability to make of the undertaking the 
success hoped for it. 

After discussion, motions were passed : 

First, that the North Carolina committee 
request the executive committee to allot 
North Carolina for rental purposes a mini- 
mum of 6.000 feet of space, initially, at the 
maximum rate of $3 per square foot. 

Second, that Mr. Sirrine, the president, .be 
requested to call a meeting of the executive 
committee, representing all the Southern 
States, to be held at Greensboro, N. C, 
March 18. 

Third, that the chairman of the N. C. 
Committee be authorized to write all mem- 
bers of the committee and all others affected, 
requesting an official notification to the chair- 
man by March 15 that they will pay 25 per 
cent of the cost at the time the apportion- 
ment is made. 

Fourth, that this allotment of space be 
made for the several sections of North Caro- 
lina as follows : Eastern North Carolina, 
2.000 feet: Piedmont, 2.500 feet; Western. 

1.500 feet, and that the same proportions be 
preserved in case the State is allotted addi- 
tional space. 



(Continued from page 1) 
profit, but is prevented from attempting to 
grow new timber on the land that he has 
denuded. As a result, thousands upon thou- 
sands of acres of timber land are prema- 
turely lumbered at a great sacrifice, and 
when once cut are practically abandoned. 
Taxes in any event being based upon values, 
all this loss in the sacrifice of timber at a 
time when it has not attained its best growth, 
and all this casting aside as waste land of 
acreages that should be kept continually 
growing forests falls directly upon the State, 
not only in the loss of the resources which 
the forests would create for the people and 
the industries they would stimulate and sus- 
tain, but of revenue which ultimately would 
have flowed into the State Treasury. 

Forests' Future With Owners 
There is much to be done by State and 
National agencies to establish the principles 
of forest conservation, both as a means to 
regulation of rainfall and stream flow in the 
benefit of rivers, and as the only hope of 
averting a positive lumber crisis whose effect 
upon general prosperity and happiness would 
be incalculable. But anything like govern- 
ment ownership of timber lands being as 
impossible of consideration as a denial of 
private ownership of any land at all, it re- 
mains true that if timber is to be provided 
and the forests saved, it must be accom- 
plished through the owners of private timber 
lands or of lands capable of growing timber 
in the future. It follows, therefore, that the 
solution is that of making the care of timber 
lands, the growth of timber and reforesta- 
tion after cutting practical as a policy to the 
practical man. 

Under a system whereby growing timber 
is progressively assessed for taxation at its 
value as it stands, any such policy on the 
part of a private owner is impossible except 
for purposes of demonstration. Timber 
grows surely but slowly. To let it mature 
means a long wait through a term of years, 
while the investment increases with accumu- 
lated interest charges and the risk of de- 
struction of the timber itself, by fire con- 
tinues. With this charge and risk, the addi- 
tion of a constantly advancing tax rate liter- 
ally forces the cutting for market and the 
subsequent abandonment of the cut-over land 
which constitute one of the most glaring 
examples of America's waste of the greatest 
of what once appeared illimitable resources. 
At the meeting of the association reform 
in the method of taxation of timber lands 
w r as recognized as fundamental to anything 
like a successful movement to conserve tim- 
ber resources. In the discussion, it was 
agreed that while the State was entitled to 
receive taxes upon the value of all timber as 
a factor entering into the assessment of the 
land on which it stands, the greater part of 
these taxes should be collected at the time 
the timber is severed, instead of being im- 
posed year by year in the period during 
which the timber is growing. Some method 
of taxing timber lands must be devised which 
will relieve the owner of the ruinous burden 
of too-heavy carrying charges, or else ordi- 
nary business caution will force him to cut 
his tax charges by cutting his timber ; and 
since taxes will prevent him from growing 
timber again, there will ultimately, and sooner 
than is generally appreciated, be no more 
timber to cut. 

Forestry Association Resolves 

Following the discussion, the North Caro- 
lina Forestry Association passed the follow- 
ing resolution : 

"Whereas it is impossible to grow forests 
profitably under present tax laws in North 
Carolina, be it resolved : 

"That the North Carolina Forestry Asso- 
ciation, through a special committee of five 
to be appointed by the chairman of its execu- 
tive committee in cooperation with the State 
Geological and Economic Survey and the 
United States Forest Service, make a thor- 
ough study of forest taxation and bring such 
recommendations as are deemed advisable to 
the attention of the Governor and General 
Assembly ; 

"That the State of North Carolina should 
enact such tax legislation as will shift part 
of the burden of taxation on timber from 
the time it is growing until the time the 
timber is severed from the land ; and be it 
further resolved : 

"That such recommendations as to a proper 
policy of forest taxation be given full pub- 
licity ; be it further resolved : 

"That the study of forest taxation shall 
include the study of Federal taxation affect- 
ing forests and lumbermen ; and that advisa- 
ble recommendations be forwarded to mem- 
bers of the Federal Congress from North 



Mention has been made in Natural 
Resources of the interesting work of Jack 
Miner of Kingsville, Ontario, Canada, in 
banding wild geese. During the season a 
number of the birds wearing his marks were 
shot in North Carolina waters, and by trac- 
ing them many interesting facts as to their 
lines of migration and their habits have been 

In a recent address to the Massachusetts 
Audubon Society, Mr. Miner suggested some 
striking possibilities in connection with the 
unique work he is carrying on. He began it 
a number of years ago by rescuing and tend- 
ing wounded wild geese, which he banded. 
These geese and their descendants returned 
year after year to his little farm, until now 
they arrive by the hundreds of thousands, 
spending two months there every year on 
their way to the Hudson Bay country. So 
important did this amateur work become 
that the Canadian Government took notice 
of it and established a reservation four miles 
square, sending 250 bushels of corn every 
year for the feed of the visitors. 

Miner bands on an average of 150 geese 
a year, requesting notification by sportsmen 
or others who shoot or otherwise capture the 
banded geese. In this way he is building up 
a mass of information of great value. A 
map he has made of the postoffices from 
which the bands are returnee} shows that 
many come from Eastern North Carolina. 

What Miner has done in developing his 
hobby is full of valuable suggestion for this 
State. Eastern North Carolina at many 
points is the ideal resort for waterfowl. The 
multiplication of shooting clubs, however, the 
interruption of feeding, and the violation of 
the Federal laws tend to drive away millions 
of valuable birds which would otherwise be 
regular visitors to the State. On great 
reaches of the coast marsh lands, which are 
unsuitable for agriculture and are lying prac- 
tically at waste, constitute a veritable para- 
dise for these birds, and could at small effort 
and expense be made into both preserves to 
attract and public hunting grounds for the 
taking of game that could be brought back 
to its former state of plentitude. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Voi,. 1 


8o. 24 



Stream pollution in its first suggestion 
brings to the mind a water course from which 
supplies of drinking water have been pro- 
cured, which is filled with disease-producing 

This, of course, is the natural conception 
of what is meant by the term and the first 
thing to be guarded against. It is the dan- 
ger generally recognized and, in the case of 
practically every city and town, now gener- 
ally guarded against, either by care of the 
watershed from which water for public use 
is obtained or by treatment of such water for 
its purification in a reservoir before it is 
turned into the mains. The question of health 
is the first, but by no means the most difficult 
of the problems raised by stream pollution in 
its broader sense. 

For in the broader sense stream pollution 
involves not only the question of sewage, but 
of industrial wastes. Industrial wastes in 
their turn affect the quality and use of the 
stream not alone in matters directly affect- 
ing health, but in its utilization for the pub- 
lic benefit. And along with this form of pol- 
lution is involved the broad question of ex- 
panding industry in connection with social 
life. We cannot have large industry without 
waste, nor waste without its disposal, nor, in 
general, disposal without a stream into which 
to empty it, cither directly or through the 
sewerage system. Yet it is increasingly evident 
that the increase of industrial waste threat- 
ens to be a nuisance, not only in spoiling once 
beautiful streams for natural enjoyment, but 
in killing fish and even seriously interfering 
with the measures taken by municipalities for 
the purification of the water they use. 

Nature's Purifier 

In the case of pollution in the sense of 
sewage, the first and greatest purifier is Na- 
ture. Immediately the organic matter enters 
the water, bacteriological action sets up for 
its destruction, and the remains the 
more thoroughly it is disposed of. The longer 
it remains, also, and the greater the relative 
volume of water in which it is carried, the 
greater the dilution, until within a relatively 
short while the polluted water is once more 

From the point of view of the public health, 
therefore, the first inquiries have to do with 
the capacity of the stream to take care of 
and eliminate naturally the sewage intro- 
duced into it, and hence the distance below 
the intake of the source of pollution at which 
it is permissible to draw again on the stream 
for a public water supply. 

For instance, the sewage of the town of 
Hickory is emptied into the Catawba River 
and the water supply of Charlotte, lower 
down, is taken from the same stream. The 
Catawba, however, carries a large volume of 
water and Hickory is many miles away, so 
that by the time it is drawn upon for the 
(Continued on page 2) 



Today a powerful locomotive hauls as many freight cars as a generation ago 
it would have taken ten trains to handle. 

Automobile trucks whisk from city to city burdens that a few years ago 
could have been moved laboriously only by an army of men and beasts of 


. From the dimmest ages the effort of man lias been forced to engage the prob- 
lem of increasing the volume of work and output while decreasing the number 
of human units per operation. Every part of the world demands of every 
other part the contribution of its products. Corollary to this demand is cheap 
transportation; and transportation is cheap in proportion to the size of the 
load and the swiftness with which it is carried. 

For the heavy train there is required a solid roadbed and heavy rails and 
roomy terminals. For the miracle of the modern truck there must be a hard- 
surfaced road of enduring construction. Essential to the use of the heavy 
load is the means of handling it. 

What has happened on land is happening even more dramatically on the 
seas. An ancient fleet coirid be literally packed away in one compartment of 
a modern liner. A single cargo vessel takes on one voyage as much merchan- 
dise as the old line of packets carried in a season. The crew of a modern 
commercial vessel must do proportionately per man as much and more in the 
handling of the load as that of the freight train or auto truck. But jusl 
the efficient train depends on roadbed, rails and terminal, there can be no 
efficient roadway for ships without adequate depth of water and sufficient port 

North Carolina has one large port, but while "Wilmington ranks seventh in 
commerce handled among the ports of the Atlantic Coast, only one vessel 
drawing 27 feet was able to call there last year. Vessels drawing over 26 feet 
have to wait for favorable conditions of tide. Meanwhile the drafts of cargo 
vessels continues to increase. A vessel of 10,000 tons gross register will draw 
27 feet in salt and 28 in fresh water. What is happening to Wilmington and 
the State is made clear by the fact that in 1920 Shipping Board vessels draw- 
ing 26 feet and over numbered 194. 

To date, the United States Government has spent on the Cape Fear at and 
below Wilmington a total of $7,200,000 to provide a channel 26 feet deep and 
300 feet wide. When Wilmington asks for a channel 30 feel deep and 400 
feet wide, it is merely advising action to fit the road for the load. It is ask- 
ing no more than that the Government complete the job. 


No term, accurate in itself, is perhaps so 
susceptible to popular misunderstanding as 
"center of population." 

The first vision suggested by the words is 
sonic teeming Ghetto in a crowded metropo- 
lis. Reflection, however, shows that this is 
far from true, necessarily, if the unit is an 
area considerably larger than the city. The 
next thought is that by center of population 
(Continued on page 8) 



The farm boy who "catches" an owl asleep 
and makes a race of it for bis gun, the hunter 
or fisherman who "gets a .rack" at a hawk. 

adds a sense of virtue to the innate Joy of 

killing something wild. 

No telling what harm this bird of prey has 
been guilty of I what hen roosts it" has 

robbed, hew many "partridges" it has de- 
stroyed. Hawk and owl — both readily iden- 
i i 'eniinued on page 41 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Tea Pot Dome and Muscle Shoals 

The cumulative scandal of Teapot 
Dome has done more than a decade of Red 
propaganda to weaken confidence in gov- 
ernment, and yet it is doubtful if the 
values disposed of to Doheny as the result 
of supposedly corrupt influence on public 
officials represent a tithe of the value of 
the monopoly the House of Representa- 
tives recently voted to bestow on Henry 
Ford in the lease of Muscle Shoals for the 
term of a hundred years. 

Teapot Dome is an oil reserve upon 
which the Navy might or might not have 
called in time to come. It may or may 
not have been depleted by drainage into 
other fields owned by independent oper- 
ators, the excuse given for its leasing. 
But there is nothing debatable about the 
fact that it was disposed of in a corner, 
under highly suspicious circumstances, to 
interests that stand to make millions out 
of its exploitation. Teapot Dome will 
rank for a long time as the complete ex- 
pression of venality in politics. 

In the case of Muscle Shoals and the 
proposal to turn it over to Mr. Ford, the 
gift would be far greater than anything 
the Dohenys could have hoped to realize 
from Teapot Dome. The proposed lease 
would take the greatest water power in the 
Southern Appalachians and put it under 
the control of one man, to do with as he 
and his heirs please for a full century. 
It would endow the Ford family with a 
natural resource which is in the second 
decade of its development and the poten- 
tialities of which baffle the imagination to 
catalogue or conceive. It would use the 
waters of navigable rivers in the control 
of the Government in the creation of a 
private monopoly under Government sanc- 
tion such as the country has never 
dreamed. It would divert from North 
Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama waters 
of streams sorely needed to augment their 
supply of hydro-electric power to the dis- 
cretionary employment of an individual. 
And to do this it would grant a special ex- 
emption to Mr. Ford from the provisions 
of the Federal Water Power Act, which 
limits the life of water power leases to 
fifty years and makes it certain that the 
power developed shall be distributed 
equitably to the public on terms and for 
rates regulated by governmental authority. 
In effect, the lease of Teapot Dome and 
the proposed letting of Muscle Shoals are 
on all-fours. 

In principle, the difference is that one 
rested on a corrupt consideration, while 
the movement for the other is founded on 
a widespread admiration for Mr. Ford, 
assiduously cultivated by an immense busi- 
ness organization loyal to its master and 
inspired to an unquestioning faith in his 
purpose and power to bestow blessings 
which he himself has never promised. 
Natural as such propaganda and its result 
may be, its assumption that an individual, 
who however highly endowed and moti- 
vated has only a brief expectancy of life, 
can be safely trusted with a great public 
property through three generations is as 
dangerous as fantastic. 

In the result, the difference between 
what has been done and what it is pro- 
posed to do with the public's right and 
property stops at the value of the gift, 
fraudulent in one case and unthinking in 
the other. 

And there is every indication that 
Henry Ford stands to get many times as 
much for nothing as the Dohenys pro- 
cured for a corrupt consideration, the 
amount of which is yet to be determined. 



(Continued from page 1) 

Charlotte water supply, natural agencies will 
have practically destroyed every dangerous 
element of the Hickory pollution. The water 
so taken contains organic matter, if any sur- 
vives, in a very large dilution, and with filter 
plants that are 95 to 98 per cent efficient the 
water is pure and potable. 

Industrial Complications 

Industrial waste, the volume of which is 
everywhere rapidly increasing, presents an- 
other problem and sets up a condition which 
fends first to prevent the natural action of 
the stream in self-purification and, second, 
weaken the efficiency of the purification plant 
of the city. This is because the acids in the 
waste are fatal to the bacterial life which 
neutralizes the sewage, as well as to the fish 
which tend to eat it in the stream. In the 
reservoir, the main reliance is upon the set- 
tling basin and the filter for precipitating 
impurities and upon natural bacteria for 
their elimination. When waste kills the bac- 
terial life, the efficiency of the plant is im- 
paired and a greater load put upon it. This, 
in addition reacts upon chlorine used as a 
purifier to produce the familiar bad taste 
generally attributed, though erroneously, to 
"too much disinfectant." 

Although much study has been given the 
question of stream pollution in a number of 
states, nothing has been done in an authori- 
tative way in that connection in North Caro- 
lina. Several communities, among them Dur- 
ham, Burlington, and Mebane, have started 
suits for damages against corporations which 
by putting waste into streams from which 
water supplies are taken have injured their 
purification plants' efficiency. The Board of 
Health has the power, by injunction or man- 
damus, to protect streams against dangerous 
contamination with disease-bearing filth, but 
there has been little or no attention paid to 
the basic questions of stream pollution: how 
far it is done away with by dilution : the 

effect of bacteriological activity! how much 
natural purification there is under given con- 
ditions, etc. Nor is there any legislation deal- 
ing with industrial waste pollution in its as- 
pect of a nuisance, or provision governing 
conditions under which corporations might 
be required to treat their own waste before 
emptying it into public streams. In certain 
classes of waste it has been demonstrated 
that it can be neutralized in such a manner 
as to save by-products of a value which 
sometimes equals the cost of necessary 
plants ; in other cases the cost of its treat- 
ment is so heavy as to be prohibitive of the 
economic operation .of the plant. But with 
the multiplication of textile and chemical 
plants, dye-works, etc., some system of regu- 
lation and prevention is indicated for the 
very near future, if streams in general are 
to be preserved in any measure of natural 
beauty and pleasure-giving quality if fish 
are to live, and public water supplies remain 
easily obtainable. How far this one indus- 
trial incident reaches is shown by the in- 
jurious effect it has on hydro-electric plants 
to whose machinery the corrosive action of 
industrial wastes is particularly hurtful. 

Expert Studies in Progress 
_ As a modest beginning of what will become 
in time a highly important public function, 
the University of North Carolina has begun 
an investigation of specific effects of stream 
pollution on Moccasin Creek, a stream into 
which is emptied the sewage of the town of 
Zebulon, in Wake County. Two students are 
engaged in making tests of bacteria, of pro- 
tozoan, etc., fortnightly during the vear so 
as to secure annual data from which to get 
authoritative annual averages. The stream 
in question enters a mill pond and then 
emerges from it, giving opportunitv for tests 
at different points upon dilution, bacterial 
activity, etc. In connection with these ex- 
periments the N. C. Geological and Economic 
Survey is cooperating by securing data in 
connection with stream flow — which is neces- 
sary in studies as to pollution on account of 
the difference in degree of dilution due to 
the greater or smaller volume of water. 

In an industrial age the point comes in 
almost any development when there is empha- 
sized the need of the conservation of some 
natural resource necessary to that develop- 
ment in the use, but which, used thought- 
lessly, the dependent industry tends to de- 
stroy. North Carolina could not have its 
hundreds of textile mills without its hydro- 
electric power. It could not have its power 
plants without its streams. There could be 
no pulp or bleaching mills without the water 
of these streams. More than all. this water 
must be capable of being safely utilized for 
domestic use in a form both harmless and 
pleasant. Everybody must use the water of 
the streams, but everybody should have a 
care to minimize the degree in which its em- 
ployment unfits it for the use of others. 
Whether a particular industry is of more 
benefit than the stream it pollutes; whether 
it is possible or impossible for it to neutral- 
ize its wastes ; at what point the waters of a 
stream polluted by sewage have been so di- 
luted and self-purified as to justify their use 
again as a source of domestic water supply — 
these are only some of many questions in- 
volving difficult equities between necessary 
industries and the public health, convenience 
and pleasure. In this respect, as in the case 
of forests, public utilities, the use of water 
powers and other matters intimately con- 
nected with the public interest, sane regula- 
tion by a State agency capable of arriving at 
and applying expert opinion is a matter that 
cannot longer be ignored with safety. 




(Continued from page 1) 

is meant that point from which In all direc- 
tions the number of inhabitants would be 
equal. It happens, however, thai this con- 
jecture is as essentially Inaccurate, as the 

term is used by tin 4 United Stales Census, as 
the first one. "Center of population" does not 
mean so much the number of people as their 
theoretical avoirdupois and equally theoreti- 
cal influence in beeping the country on an 
even keel and in no danger of tipping over. 

In a recent bulletin issued by the Bureau 
of the Census on "Center of Population and 
Median Lines, and Centers of Area, Agricul- 
ture, Manufacture, and Cotton," the distinc- 
tion between the fact as used in statistics 
and as carelessly accepted in the popular 
mind is stated as follows: 

"A somewhat technical significance, differ- 
ent from that frequently given to it, attaches 
to the term 'center of population' as used in 
census publications. The center is often un- 
derstood to be the point of intersection of a 
north and south lino, which divides the popu- 
lation equally, with an east and west line. 
which likewise divides it equally. This point 
of Intersection is, in a certain sense, a center 
of population; it is here, however, designated 
the median iK>int to distinguish it from the 
point technically defined as the center. 

"There are points different in character 
which may he termed 'center of population,' 
but at each census the term 'center of popu- 
lation' has been applied to the point which 
may be considered as the center of gravity of 
the United States: in other words, the point 
upon which the United States would balance, 
if it were a rigid plane without weight and 
the population distributed thereon, each in- 
dividual being assumed to have equal weight 
and to exert an influence on the central point 
proportional to bis distance from the point. 
The pivotal point, therefore, would be its cen- 
ter of gravity and is the point referred to by 
the term used in the census as 'center of pop- 
ulation.' " 

As an illustration of the difference between 
"center of population," as used in the census, 
and the "median point" which fills the public's 
idea of what that center is, and a median 
point east of Minnesota, a million persons 
could move from Minnesota to Oregon with 
out affecting the location of that point, while 
the movement of 500 people across the north 
and south line would affect it materially. 

Pacific Coast "Heavy" 

The present center of population of the 
United States is in southwestern Indiana, 1.!) 
miles west of Whitehall, Clay Township, and 
8.3 miles south-southwest of Spencer, Wash- 
ington Township. During the decade 1010 
1920 the center of population moved west in 
degrees, 55 min., approximately 0.N miles, the 
smallest movement the center has ever shown 
and about one-fourth of its western move- 
ment in the decade 1900-1910, while its north- 
ern movement was only min.. or approxi- 
mately two-tenths of a mile, the great in- 
crease in the population of New York, 
Pennsylvania and certain other States north 
of the thirty-ninth parallel having balanced 
the increase in Texas. Oklahoma and south- 
ern California. The advance toward the west 
is due to a large extent to the increase in 
population of the Pacific Coast states, their 
distance from the center giving it much 
greater weight than an equal increase in the 
populous slates of the east, which are nearer 
the center. The cities of Seattle, San Fran- 

cisco, and i. os Angeles, with a combined pop- 
ulation of i.:;os.o<;i. excri a greater influence 

on the center of population than the cities of 

Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland, Phila- 
delphia and Pittsburgh, with a combined pop 
illation of 5,197,624. The westward movement 
in the decade 1910-1920 was dm- principally 
to I he increase of over 1,0(10,000 in the popu- 
lation of the state of California, Individuals 
in the states on the Pacific Coast exerting an 
influence on the center of population propor 
tional to their distance therefrom. At the 
first census in 1790 the center of population 
was a point approximately -'■', miles east of 
Baltimore and has since moved west, but 
with diminishing speed, the total movement 
being 567 miles. The closeness "with which 
the center has clung to the thirty-ninth paral- 
lel has been remarkable, a shift to the north 
following the Civil War having been soon 
c pensated by another change southward. 

Chatham, N. C, Center 

In North Carolina the center of population 
is now in Chatham County, three miles S. W. 
by S. of Mount Vernon Springs, and has re- 
mained within a few miles of the same spot 
since the first census on this point in 1880. 

As to the actual center of the United States. 
the point on which the surface of continental 
United States would balance if it were a 
plain of uniform weight per unit of area, this 
point is located in northern Kansas, ten miles 
north of Smith Center, the county-seat of 
Smith County. 

The geographical center of North Carolina 
is. like the center of population, in Chatham 
County and not far therefrom, being a point 
ten miles northwest of Sanford. 

Negro Population Shifting 
The new center of negro population shows 
a reversal of the usual progress that had ob- 
tained from 1700 to 1010. In 1700 the center 
of negro population was in Dinwiddie County, 
Virginia, and in 1880 (no computations in in- 
tervening censuses) had moved to northwest- 
ern Georgia, 10.4 miles east of Lafayette. 
From 1S80 to 1800 the southwest ward move- 
ment of negro population continued, the cen- 
ter advancing 20.1 miles to a point in Walker 
County, Georgia. In one hundred years it 
bad moved southwest 40.". miles, an average of 
1(i miles for each decade. From 1800 to 1900 
its movement was greatly retarded and it ad- 
vanced only 10.1 miles southwest across the 
Alabama-Georgia line, and in 1010 the center 
was at a point 5.4 miles northeast of Fori 
Payne, Dekalb County, Alabama, the move- 
ment South having been slowed by the migra- 
tion of negroes to the northern and eastern 
states. As shown by the census of 1020. how- 
ever, the center of negro population has re- 
versed the old rule and is now shifting back 
upon its own track, northeast. Its location in 
1920 at a point i.S miles north-northeast of 
the town of Rising Fawn. Dade County, 
Georgia, the eastern movement having been 
!>. 1 and the northern 10.4 miles in the decade 

of course, this northeasterly movement 
was due principally to the great increase in 
the negro population of Massachusetts. Con- 
necticut. New York. New Jersey. Pennsyl- 
vania, West Virginia, Ohio. Indiana, and 
Michigan. The total increase in the negro 
population during the last census decade was 

(;."..">,.'!(!'.). and of this the Increase in the north- 
ern states was .""><> per cent of the total. 

It is interesting to observe on the census 
maps the retrograde movement of this special 
center of population as confirmatory evidence 

of the serious nature of the negro heu'ira from 
the farm lands of the South to industrial 

employment elsewhere, a migration thai 

seems to be still in progress. 




The town of LaGrange, in Lenoir County, 
has recentlj embarked on a policy that eould 
he followed in principle by cities, towns, 
counties and communities with the certainty 
not only of adding greatly to their own at- 
tractiveness, but of setting an example of un- 
told \ able tO the State. 

Proud of the approaches to the town upon 
a hard-surfaced highway, progressive La- 
Grange citizens conceived the idea of beauti- 
fying them with roadside trees of their own 
planting. On both sides oi the concrete road, 
for a distance of half a mile on ea<i, side of 
the municipal Limits, they have planted for 
an avenue of pine tree-, setting them out to 

the number of several thousand plants. The 
enterprise has the greater interest of an ex- 
periment well worth watching because the 

tree selected for transplanting wa- the long- 
leaf pine, whose wide spread destruction 
when in virgin forest and the later ueglecl 

preventing its regrowth have made an almost 

poetic tragedy. It is easy to understand He- 
sentiment governing it- -election as a road- 
side tree, hut whether it will thrive under 

the circumstances is a question which time 
alone can answer. 

In the case of the long-leaf pine, it is gen- 
erally agreed that its reproduction follow- 
best where it is given the chance to reproduce 
itself under natural condition- without arti- 
ficial aids other than protection from tire and 
the depredations of roaming hogs. Trans- 
planting, a comparatively easy practice with 
other varieties of trees, was for a long time 
considered impractical in the case of the long- 
leaf pine, on account of its distinctive root 
system. When the seed matures, this pine 
first does most of its growing in a downward 
direction, instead of upwards. Native to dry 
and sandy land- in which there i- a modicum 
of moisture, its early development is. so to 
speak, artesian. Deep it strike- it- Long tap- 
root, with relatively few- lateral branches, 
seeking for water, iii the tir-t stages after 

seed germination this root is several times 
the Length of that portion of the plant which 
is above ground. For a while the future long- 
leaf pine consists of a few needle- an Inch or 
-o above the earth and a much Longer and 
well-defined root beneath it. Later on the up- 
ward growth is reiativeh more rapid, but at 
loin- or five years of age, when the tree above 
ground is some two feel in height, there i- 
at least an equal length of tap-root beneath 

the soil. The transplanting of such a tree, 

therefore. Involving Injury to the vital tap- 
root and the difficulty of habituating it to 
new surroundings, i- a very delicate opera- 
tion. Yet the transplanting in the LaGrange 
venture ha- been of tree- of considerable age 
anil size, a circumstance that will make the 
outcome all the more instructive. 

Transplanting of Long-leaf pine-, even of 

considerable size, has been successfully car- 
ried out at Pinehurst. however, and it has 
been demonstrated that the great need i- 

uothing more than the difficult excess of care. 

Where it is possible to dig Up the entire tap- 
root and leave a bodj o\' its native -oil about 
it and the relatively few root laterals, the 
young tree thrives in new suroundi'ngs. In 
the case of tree- of considerable growth, it 

ha- been shown at Pinehurst that, with tin- 
aid of a special invention for removing tree 

and earth together, oven ihc\ can be SUC 
fully tran-planted. 

i < 'ontinued on page 1 | 




(Continued from page 1) 

titled — are veritable Ismaelites of the air. 
Against them every hand is raised. For their 
protection there is no closed season. They 
are outlaws, to be shot where found. In the 
game laws of many counties there is a bounty 
offered on their heads. 

And yet. though they are birds of prey, all 
of them, it is utmost folly that they should 
therefor be denounced as legitimate prey for 
man. First should be considered what is 
their prey, and when that is ascertained it 
generally is found that the food for which 
they seek is for most part vermin of which 
the men who persecute them find it most diffi- 
cult to be rid. The hawk, in other words, and 
also the owl, is far more the friend than the 
enemy of man. Yet against these graceful 
and interesting species warfare is perpetual, 
for no better reason than a bad name given 
by one or two vicious examples of a numer- 
ous species to a harmless and even highly 
useful majority. 

Few Hurtful Hawks 

Of all the hawks common to North Caro- 
lina, for instance, there are just three that 
deserve the wide-spread reputation that has 
been given the hawk species generally as 
poultry and game raiders. 

One of these is Occipiter velos (Sharp- 
shinned Hawk) resident in the mountains 
and a winter visitor elsewhere in the State. 
It is a small, blue-grey bird of rare speed 
and ability to pursue its prey and feeds en- 
tirely on birds, including quail. 

Cousin to the sharp-shinned hawk is Occi- 
piter cooper i (Cooper's Hawk; "Chicken 
Hawk"; "Blue-tailed Hawk") which is larger 
but with the same general blue-grey color 
and grace and speed in flight. It, also, feeds 
on birds, but is likewise the source of the 
fable, when generally applied, of hawks as 
chicken killers. Present over the whole State, 
this free-booter swoops down like a flash of 
light, bold and daring, into the hen -yard, 
trusting to its nerve and swiftness for safety 
and apparently taking a delight in the au- 
dacity of its raids. The farmer is justified 
fully in taking any pot shot at the "Blue 
Darter" and can congratulate himself on his 
marksmanship if he manages to bring it 
down ; the trouble is that in exasperation at 
the real culprit he often deludes himself, 
after the slaying of a hawk that was really 
working with instead of against him, into the 
belief that he has bagged quite another crim- 

Mistaken Identity 

Chief sufferers from this wrong impression 
are the much larger Ituteo hawks — errone- 
ously called "Chicken Hawks." "Hen Hawks," 
etc. These are the Red-shouldered and the 
Red-tailed hawks, both formidable-appearing 
birds, but content to feed almost entirely on 
mice, snakes, lizards, crawfish, insects, etc. 
As to the Red-shouldered hawk, Pearson and 
the Brimleys declare that there is no record 
of one of them ever having killed a bird of 
any kind ! 

Another hawk whose large size gives it a 
wholly undeserved reputation for evil is Cir- 
cus Jmdsonius (Marsh or "Rabbit Hawk"). 
This bird, often seen flying with slow and 
measured strokes over low grounds, is seek- 
ing its favorite diet of mice. So far from 
being harmful, it is one of the best friends 
and assistants in the destruction of vermin 
that the farmer possesses. 

As to the sparrow-hawk, the most com- 
monly known and often semi-domesticated 
of the species, it has been known to catch 
mice and occasionally small birds, but the 
main source of its diet is grasshoppers, a 
good riddance. But, even this manifestly 
harmless Lilliputian is made to pay the pen- 
alty of its miniature likeness to the bird of 
prey by being so-called fair game for any- 
body with a gun who makes of it a wanton 

Most Owls Useful 

As with hawks, so with owls. With one 
exception, all the night birds that occur in 
North Carolina are interesting or useful, 
rather than harmful. 

Whether it be the Long-eared, the Short- 
eared, the Barred (or Hoot) or the "Monkey- 
faced" Barn Owl, the food of these birds of 
darkness, whose queer ways and evil name 
and mysterious silent flight make such a 
powerful appeal to superstition, is almost 
entirely rats and mice. Occasionally the Hoot 
Owl may catch poultry roosting in trees, but 
since chickens are housed at night, its depre- 
dations in this respect are negligible. Most 
owls — even the weirdly wailing Screech Owl 
— will occasionally catch small birds, but as 
a rule they are far more useful than destruct- 
ive. The exception is Bubo virginianus, or 
Great Horned Owl. 

Twenty-two inches long, with conspicuous 
ear tufts two inches in height, with enormous 
yellow eyes, and fierce aspect, there is no 
mistaking the Great Horned Owl for any- 
thing but what he is, once he is seen, either 
at rest or in flight. His habits, too, justify 
his appearance. He is a terrible enemy to 
many kinds of game, to chickens and poultry 
generally, a scourge of the wild life of field 
and forest. In spite of his fine appearance, 
he alone of the owls can be said to have for- 
feited any right to protection by his mis- 
deeds. The pity is that, as is the case of 
hawks, any large-sized owl is apt to be shot 
on sight on the presumption that he is a 
Great Horned (or "Big" Owl). 

When the time comes to revise, codify and 
provide for the proper administration of the 
game laws of the State by a central author- 
ity, not the least important provision will 
have to do with protection of the hawks and 
owls now the victims of common slander 
arising out of ignorance of their habits. 

As things stand, it is true with these birds 
as it too often is with individuals, that rules 
prescribed for the punishment of the truly 
guilty fall most hardly on those of essential 
innocence. Like the human criminal, the 
bird of truly predatory habit is ingenious in 
acting in a manner that will minimize the 
danger of being made to pay the penalty. 
The Great Horned Owl, for instance, is rarely 
seen. Silent as darkness in flight, working at 
night and laying close in the day, he senses 
fully the perils his manner of getting a liveli- 
hood entails. In like manner the truly pred- 
atory hawks, swift and subtle, rarely get in 
range of the gun's vengeance. The mortality 
among these species is very largely that of 
innocent by-standers. careless as it were in a 
consciousness of virtue, and sacrificed to ig- 

To shoot any hawk on sight, to kill any- 
thing that looks like an owl, simply because 
one or two of the species are destructive is 
about as intelligent as assuming that every 
man in cap and sweater is the latest out- 
lawed thug for whom reward is posted at the 
courthouse door. 



(Continued from page 3) 

Towns and cities, all of which are now ex- 
panding and in many instances wisely plan- 
ning for future growth could not do better 
than to make place in the scheme for some 
organized recognition of forestry, or at least 
the systematic planting of trees for streets 
and highways. No provision of a park should 
in future fail to take into account the munici- 
pal forest, on a large or a small scale. An- 
other need for which provision would not only 
be a great civic asset but an incidentally 
profitable venture is a tree nursery, a plan 
just now being suggested to Raleigh and 
worthy of consideration by every city. Be- 
fore it can be hoped to have the system of 
State parks, forest and game reserves of 
which the necessity will be apparent in time, 
interest in forests, trees and the practical use 
and beautification to which they lend them- 
selves will have to come into general indi- 
vidual recognition. The way to this is, of 
course, easiest through community action, of 
which the LaGrange experiment is a signifi- 
cant indication. 

But it should not be forgotten that in tree- 
planting, rather more than in other enter- 
prise, a knowledge of facts and scientific 
methods is a first necessity. What kinds of 
trees are suitable, where they may be best 
obtained, when they should be set out, and 
where, are questions to be answered only by 
expert and exact knowledge. These facts the 
State Forester of the Survey is at all times 
ready to furnish on request. Every town 
should look to tree planting as a policy ; but 
it should be embarked upon only after pro- 
viding against every kind of preventable risk. 



While there have been a number of bills in- 
troduced in Congress recently which provide 
for National Parks in the East and. particu- 
larly, the Southern Appalachian region, none 
has been reported out of committee and it is 
not likely that any will be until it has the 
recommendation of the Department of In- 
terior. Meanwhile Secretary Work has ap- 
pointed a commission which will investigate 
the Southern Appalachians with a view of 
reporting on possible National Park sites. 

National Parks have been established on 
the principles, first of preserving particularly 
superb natural scenery ; second, retaining 
important examples of natural or plant life 
in absolutely natural conditions, for scientific 
study ; third, as out-door museums in which 
unique bits of nature may be saved from de- 
struction. In these parks any and all utili- 
tarian or commercial enterprise is prohibited ; 
there is no cutting of timber, no diversion of 
streams for any purpose, no hunting or trap- 
ping. Parks are chosen for accessibility, and 
when not accessible it is the policy to make 
them so and to provide them with roads, 
trails and inns for visitors. 

In North Carolina two sites are suggested 
as possible National Parks — Linville Gorge 
and Roan Mountain. The first has every ad- 
vantage required by the demands of a Na- 
tional Park. It- is heavily timbered land on 
both sides of a river that tumbles and sweeps 
through a succession of falls and rapids and 
wild gorges, presenting a wide variety of 
scenic surprises. It is in the heart of a much 
visited section and readily accessible. 


A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 

Vol. 1 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C., APRIL 5, 1924 



It is an axiom that a year of high prices 
for any crop produced annually means an 
increase in the acreage planted to that crop 
for the next season. 

It is so much a part of experience as almost 
to have become an axiom that when that 
happens, the resultingly large crop sells at a 
smaller price per unit of value. There have 
been years when the prosperity due to a high 
price for cotton or tobacco meant wide-spread 
bankruptcy the year following, due to over- 

There is one crop, however, the price of 
which has more than doubled in the last 
decade which fails to respond to the rule. 
That crop is timber. It is the greatest crop 
by far in acreage and value that we possess. 
Its value is constantly enhancing. Yet, while 
its harvesting goes on with little attention 
to the replenishment of the supply, acreage 
and production are constantly falling in vol- 
ume. As timber becomes more and more 
valuable we hasten to cut the forests and not 
only take no practical steps to replace them, 
but so mismanage timber tracts that the 
cut-over lands are denied the privilege of 
naturally reforesting themselves. 

Taking the production of lumber as a basis 
of what is happening to North Carolina tim- 
ber, it is found that the peak of production 
in North Carolina came in 1914, when it 
reached a total of 2,227,851,000 board feet. 

By 1920 this production had fallen to 
1,246,700,000 board feet, a decrease of 44 per 
cent, in spite of the fact that prices of lumber 
had more than doubled in the meanwhile. 

Already, by following the wasteful practice 
of cutting out the cream and paying no atten- 
tion to reforestation we had reached the 
point where we could produce for twice the 
money per thousand feet scarcely half the 
number of thousand feet we had sent to 
market six years before. The price of lumber 
f. o. b. mill in 191G, when lumber production 
was 2,100,000,000 feet, was $15.32 per thou- 
sand, as against a price of $38.42 per thou- 
sand feet in 1920 ! 

Two-tiiihds Timber Area 

To realize the importance of the crop the 
State has been wasting as it cut over its 
forests without means of reproduction or 
protection, dropping from fourth to ninth 
rank among timber-producing states, it must 
be recalled that of all the lands in the State 
two-thirds are potentially timber lands. 

That is to say. that two out of every three 
acres of area are either in timber of a mer- 
chantable sort, in young growth, "woodlots," 
etc. — or are idle and unproductive in any 
sense because they have been denuded of 
their natural growth and have been left so 
unprotected from fire or the ravages of hogs 
and cattle as to prevent their reforestation. 
(Continued on page 2) 

■!»■ ID ,11 III III III III! II. II. ,11 






General Bowley'a recent attack on Bolshe- 
vists did not uncover a sufficient number of 
North Carolina "pinks" to give the outcry 
against him more than a passing interest. 
His attempt, however, to eliminate the Cum- 
berland County grey fox as an inhabitant of 
the Fort Bragg reservation finds more re- 
spectable opposition. In fact, a judge of the 
Superior Court, Henry P. Lane, president of 
the North Carolina Fox Hunters Association. 
threatens to take the matter up with the 
War Department. If he does so, it will be 
discovered that the grey fox has behind him 
an army of tine citizens whose sentiment has 
been touched in a tender spot. 

(Continued on page 4) 

The total land area of North Carolina is 31,190,000 acres, of which 
21,500,000 acres are in potential timber lands. Two out of tin*'- acres, in 
other words, must now and for a long time to come grow timber or nothing. 

Of this timber area 7,380,000 acres are in merchantable timber; 11,580,000 
are producing more or less young growth, and 4,200,000 acres are lands which 
have been deforested, neglected and burned over until they are no better than 
a drag to their owners and to the State. 

To these four and a quarter millions of useless lands we add slowly by the 
willful or careless burning of 500,000 acres of timber lands annually, at an 
annual estimated money loss of $1,893,000. 

In other words, at the present rate we are burning over every forty years 
an area equal to that of the entire present potential forest lands of the State. 

Meanwhile the timber on these lands decreased from a total of 45 billion 
board feet in 1918 to 30 billion board feet in 1923, and this fifteen billion 
deficit is being added to by an annual cut that exceeds growth by a billion 
and a half feet a year. At the present rate, it will not be more than twenty 
years before we shall have for cutting only the amount of timber that we grow. 

What this means is emphasized by the decline in the production of lumber 
from the peak of 2,227,851,000 board feet in 1914 to 1,246,700,000 board 
in 1920. 

The meaning is clearer when it is realized that the value of this timber 
f. o. b. the mills increased from $15.32 per thousand in 1916 to $3S.42 in 1920. 

For this condition, which already has reduced North Carolina from fourth 

to ninth place as a timber producer within six years and caused a 44 per cent 

I decrease in production in spite of a doubling of the price of merchantable 

■ timber, the only answer is more growth and a redemption of idle lands to their 

I only economic employment. 

1 Yet for the protection of forests from a practice that costs 21,000,000 acres 
I of forest lands worth billions of dollars every tree generation, the State of 

North Carolina now expends for forest fire prevention $25,200 — or 1 con; 
I ten acres! 




Deserved publicity has been given the ex- 
periments conducted on the great reservation 
of Fori Bragg in practical conservation, re- 
forestation ami the planting of eucalyptus — a 
Crank venture, bur one of the more interest 
because of the doubl attaching to it. Of very 
real value is the treatment of the thousands 
of acres formerly covered by longleaf pine in 
a manner to bring them back to their original 
growth. Control of the ranging heirs and 
Indiscriminate grazing of cattle, prevention 
of tiros, ami education against the disastrous 

practice of burning over the land in the spring 

and fall an- matters thai make a splendid 

example to landowners generally, from whom 

i Continued on page 3) 




Published at Chapel Hill. N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Giant Slaves of the Switchboard 

There are prophets in plenty to predict 
that 1924, being a Presidential year and 
off to the had start of a series of oil scan- 
dals, is to suffer a reaction from a quicken- 
ing business and industrial prosperity. 

It is pointed out that politics breeds un- 
certainty. Prices on the stock markets 
reflect the timidity of capital and enter- 
prise. Washington scandals breed a lack 
of confidence in the faith of government, 
and there follows a fear that destroyed 
confidence will impair credits and bring 
inactivity in the world of men who do the 
world's work. There are fifty portents, 
all significant of the trend to those whose 
prophecy is that of the pessimist. 

One tremendously significant but popu- 
larly obscure fact has been overlooked by 
the seeker of signs. It is the amount of 
electrical output. 

The output of electricity has this year 
reached new high figures. In the United 
States, according to the U. S. Geological 
Survey, the output daily during January 
was 167 million kilowatt hours. 
What does this mean ? 
First, that the energy represented by 
this kilowatt measure was the equivalent 
of the work of 250,000,000 men for an 
eight-hour day ! 

Second, that the energy of more than 
twice as many men as there are people in 
the United States was being constantly 
exerted in business and industry, without 
waste or loafing, on the work that electric 
power was being called on to do. 

For, in the case of electricity as nothing 
else, production is simultaneous with con- 
sumption. There is no over-production 
for storage. There is no production in a 
weak market to wait upon the demands of 
a strong one. As the switch is turned, not 
only is the power turned on, but the energy 
is produced to meet the demand. Ordi- 
nary strikes do not affect it. So consistent 
is the response of the production of elec- 
trical energy to the need for its use in 
industry that it is being widely adopted as 
the true "barometer of the business trend." 
According to this barometer, politics is 
finding business in better health than 
usual, and Teapot Dome is giving off too 
much steam to threaten anything like a 
real explosion. 

In North Carolina, also, all records of 
electrical production are being broken. loss from these fires is $1,893,000. and on this 
In January the daily output, taking an | count alone we are permitting the destruction 

average of the thirty-one days, was 4,440,- 
356 kilowatt hours. 

That is to say, we were using in North 
Carolina industry every day in that month 
energy equivalent of 6,660,524 able-bodied 
men, all on the job every minute of an 
eight-hour day. 

For the time of these ideal producers of 
energy, working only when wanted and 
paid for no idle time, North Carolina 
was paying a wage of something like one- 
tenth of one cent_ per hour ! 




(Continued from page 1) 

The total geographical area of the State is 
::i,190,000 acres. 

Acreage in merchantable timber, hard and 
softwoods, is 7.380.000. 

There is young growth on 11.580,000 acres. 

There are 4,200.000 acres, once timbered, 
which are now unproductive, and in many 
cases practically denied the possibility of 
reforesting themselves for all time — a great 
empire of land that remains as a monument 
to folly, an economic drag on both its owners 
and the State. 

How It's Going 

At present it is estimated that there is 
standing on potential forest lands a total of 
timber of all kinds of thirty billion board 
feet as against a total of 45 billion board 
feet in 1918. so that the available timber of 
all kinds in the State has been reduced in six 
years by a total of 15.000.000 board feet. 

Meanwhile there is growing, estimating the 
rate at 200 board feet per acre per year, an 
annual total of four billion board feet ; while 
there is being cut. of timber of all kinds, a 
total of five and a half billion board feet 

The over-cut is thus about one and a half 
billion feet annually, or fifty board feet per 
acre per year more than the average acre 
is producing of all kinds of timber. 

It must be kept in mind that of this poten- 
tial timber land of, roughly. 21.000,000 acres, 
only about one-third is in timber at present 
merchantable for lumber. "On this the excess 
of cut-over growth is naturally far greater 
than the average for the entire acreage of 
something like 17.000.000 acres on which 
rimber of any and all kinds is growing. 
Unless there is a radical reform, it will not 
lie long before North Carolina not only drops 
lower in rank as a producer, but will face 
the necessity of importing her timber, from 
the Pacific Coast, for instance, where the in- 
dustry is now centered. What this would 
mean, not only in the loss of industry and 
employment, but in the price of timber bur- 
dened with a transcontinental freight rate, 
the imagination is taxed to estimate. 

of an amount of timber that, in forty years, 
would be sufficient to cover an area equal to 
the present potential forest lands of the 

Some Cheap Insurance 

For fire prevention the State of North 
Carolina now spends approximately $25,000, 
with $21,000 more contributed by the co- 
operation of the National Government. To 
this sum the twenty-four counties in the State 
that are cooperating with the forestry divi- 
sion of the Survey contribute a few thousand 

Work of the fire wardens in these twenty- 
four counties shows that by prompt sup- 
pression of fires and controlling their spread, 
there is an annual saving of hundreds of 
thousands of dollars. 

There is an inestimable but even greater 
saving resulting from education and the 
teaching of better forest practice, through 
which the number of fires is kept down. 

Yet the fact remains that only one-fourth 
of the counties of the State have organized 
protection, even against the destruction of 
such timber as remains to them, to say noth- 
ing of no organized and systematic instruc- 
tion and practice for the encouragement of 
timber growth. 

For the preservation of what has been for 
generations the State's greatest resource, but 
is now well started toward a decline that 
spells rapid extinction, there is a total of 
official insurance from all sources of about 
two cents per ten acres ! 




Burning Ix stead of Growing 

In the face of this situation, not only is 
there small practical encouragement given to 
reforestation, not only is the vast total of 
unproducing timbfer lands being added to by 
leaving them free to the unrestricted range 
of hogs and cattle, but there is being burned 
over annually, either by careless forest fire, 
or willful setting out of fall and spring fires, 
a minimum of 500.000 acres annually. 

At the lowest estimate the annual monev 

A correspondent from the Sandhills writes 
anxiously to know whether there is a law 
which protects the life of the English spar- 
row. The owner of a pear orchard has found 
that these birds have been devouring the 
buds of his trees, until he is almost ready to 
give over his venture in disgust. 

It may be said that there is no law to pro- 
tect the life of the English sparrow from any 
who may wish to take it, by any means. 
This bird, in fact, is excepted from all game 
laws of the State and is not included in the 
national game law. He is, in fact, an orni- 
thological outlaw. The owner of the orchard 
in question can proceed against the raiders 
in any manner he sees fit. either with powder 
and shot, traps, nets, or poison, and the 
law will be complacent. 

Considering the English sparrow, his quali- 
ties and habits, this is as it should be; for 
whatever else may need protection, the Eng- 
lish sparrow does not. 

In the first place, it is among the birds a 
veritable Hun for fecundity. Each pair of 
sparrows normally produce several broods of 
six birds each during a long mating season 
lasting from early spring to late summer. 
Here is "sex instinct" to the Nth degree! 
Nor does interference with the nests or de- 
struction of eggs or young act as a deterrent. 
Tear away a sparrow love-nest and the pair 
begin to build again in the same spot with 
the utmost persistence. Repeat the process 
several times and the site of the home is 
merely moved to a spot less likely to be 
molested and the raising of a new family 
prosecuted with speed and vigor. So abhor- 
rent is the idea of race suicide to the sparrow 
philosophy that it is probable that the num- 
ber of the species bred from the few pair 
(Continued on page 3) 




According to (lie report of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey on the Deep River Coal Field, 
there has heen demonstrated the presence in 
a small part of the held itself a total of 
67,000,000 tons of recoverable coal. 

It also lias been demonstrated that this 
coal is suitable for the production of high- 
grade coke and is rich in by-products, includ- 
ing two per cent nitrogen, which could he 
obtained in the form of ammonium sulphate. 
There could also he obtained a large yield 
of gas and as much as twenty-two gallons 
of dehydrated tar per ton of coal. 

Should the Deep River Coal be processed. 
it would be possible to utilize the ammonium 
sulphate for agricultural purposes, the tar 
for its many chemical uses, and with the gas 
either to generate electric power for trans- 
mission, or lay down transmission pipes for 
the gas itself. 

The indicated industrial community possi- 
ble through the development for mining the 
minimum estimate of 67,000,000 Ions of coal 
in this held, from which 1,000,000 tons would 
be produced annually, would consist of 1,000 
workers and their families, or 5,000 people — 
this not taking into consideration the develop- 
ment of by-product industries. 

At present the three mines open in the 
Deep River Field are: 

The "Cumnock Mines" (Erskine Ramsey 
Coal Company), employing 100 men and pro- 
ducing 100 tons per day. 

Carolina Coal Tympany, 100 employees, pro- 
ducing from 100 to 125 tons per day. 

Deep River Coal Company, recently organ- 
ized, employing 20 men and producing 10 tons 
per day. 

Recently there was made from these mines 
a single shipment of a train-load of eighteen 
cars. 50 tons to the car, for the use of the 
Norfolk Southern Railroad, which is a regu- 
lar user of the Deep River coal and has 
found it, satisfactory. 

Although these coal fields have heen known 
and sporadically worked for several genera- 
tions, it is recognized that their period of 
economic use is just, beginning. This is due 
to the rapidly increasing expense of mining 
and then hauling coal for long distances for 
distribution. More and more the price of 
coal tends, on account of this factor of cost 
and freight charges, to become prohibitive 
except near the mines. More and more it is 
being realized that in order to conserve coal 
supplies and extract from them the maximum 
of power, coal must be processed at the mines, 
converted at central power stations into 
hydro-electric lines, and managed with the 
central thought of capturing by-products. 

In these respects the great economic value 
of the Deep River Field probably will be 
best realized. It yields a high-grade coke. 
with several easily obtained and valuable by- 
products, as stated. It is near available 
water supplies, which could be utilized in 
steam plants for which recovered wises could 
be utilized as fuel for the production of elec- 
tric power. Meanwhile its nearness to the 
State's industries should make its coal and 
coke popular on account of the cheaper cost 
of delivery. 

Deep River coal is. of course, as yet in its 
infancy, and only beginning to be organized 
to meet its future. Its possibilities, how- 
ever, are being constantly enhanced as the 
question of fuel — and power — becomes con- 
stantly more acute. 




i < iontinued from page l > 

any real success in checking a progressive 
limber shortage must come. 

On a smaller scale, but highly suggestive 
and stimulating, is the policy being pursued 
in the Sandhills section in which are grouped 
the now famous winter resorts of which 
Southern Pines and Pinehurst were the pio- 
neers. With the central idea of at once 
beautifying his extensive; grounds and keep- 
ing his resort in character with its native 
appeal, Leonard Tufts has been Looking to 
the cultivation of pines and evergreens, trans- 
planting them by the thousands, ami doing a 
work of landscape gardening cunningly de- 
si sed at one and the same time to control 
and simulate nature. Everywhere he has set 
out evergreens, including both the short and 
longleaf pines, holly, cedar, etc.. with splen- 
did results, and to the production of line 
effects. To this end he maintains a nursery 
in which seedlings of pines, holly, cedar and 
magnolia are srown, and from which the 
young plants are taken in a thriving condi- 
tion. The new thins that this work has 
demonstrated, however, is the possibility of 
handling the longleaf pine successfully in 
transplanting, even after the tree has at- 
tained considerable size. 

Owing to the peculiar manner in which the 
longleaf pine grows, sending down a long 
taproot, and for the first few years growing 
with relatively great slowness above ground, 
it was thought that reforesting with this 
I ree could only be accomplished by protect- 
ing the seedlings as they sprouted naturally. 
Removing the seedling without injury to the 
delicate taproot was a ticklish operation, and 
where the tree had attained any considerable 
growth the process was considered all but 
impractical. But during some twenty years 
of experiment. Mr. Tufts has so far perfected 
bis methods thai transplanting, even of this 
species, is successfully accomplished in a large 
proportion of instances. 

The idiosyncrasies of the longleaf pine, 
however, are very strongly marked anions the 
trees which have been set out under Mr. 
Tufts' direction. For instance, there is a 
marked dissimilarity in the rate of growth 
between different trees, all transplanted ap- 
parently under the same conditions. Some 
grow in a flourishing and even rapid manner: 
others, while they remain alive, are practi- 
cally stunted. As a general rule, however, the 
longleaf pine grows above ground with ex- 
ceeding slowness until it has reached the age 
of four or live years, after which its increase 
in size is more rapid. 

"Log" oi a Ti;i i 

It is of interest in view of the movement 
to reestablish the longleaf pine to quote from 
what might be termed the "log" of one of 
the species transplanted at Pinehurst, the 
first date being that on which it was planted: 

April 16, 1907 5 feet 9 V> inches 

February 15. 1908 8 " 

April 1 1. 1909 9 " 

April 11, 1910 11 •• 1 

April 18, 1911 13 " 1 

April 5, 1912 11 " 6 

April IT, 1913 16 " 7% 

April 9. 1914 19 " 2 

April 20. 1915 21 " V. 

April 16. 1916 23 " 3 

April 23, 1917 „... 26 " 2 

April 23. 1918 28 " 3 

May 3. 1919 29 " 9 

May 7. 1920 31 " 

The total growth of one of these trans- 
planted trees win be seen to have i . « -* - 1 j 25 
feet, -'•_• Inches in thirteen years, not quite 
two feet per year. 

Organizations in the Sandhill region have 

followed Mr. 'lull-' lead in transplanting to 
native trees, and grounds generally have been 

greatly beautified and a movement definitely 
started for tin- beantification of the high- 
ways between Southern Pines Pinehurst, 
Aberdeen, etc. Active in this Latter work are 
the Sandhills Kiwanls Club, lie- Southern 
Fines Chamber of Commerce, Pinehurst and 
Knollwood, Inc. It is also significant thai in 
this region there is a sound sentiment against 

the prevalent habit of disfiguring highways 
with roadside -i-ns. with the result that there 
is less of this disfigurement than is -ecu on 
any other stretch of much traveled roads in 

the State 




(Continued from page '-' I 
that were mistakenly brought to this coun- 
try in the seventies now amounts to two or 
more billions. 

Apart from the ability to multiply rapidly 
into a horde, the next great poinl "( safety 
of the sparrow is his choice of environment 
In this it shares instinctively the domesti- 
cated philosophy of the far less prolific 
pigeon, choosing to live in cities and amid 
large populations, and thus gaining an un- 
willing but necessary protection from people 
who cannot hurt it without hurting them- 
selves. The sparrow has learned that there 
is no place quite so safe for him to live in 
as the human hives in which lie is generally 
considered a pest. 

Other reasons for the English sparrow's 
immunity in spite of the fact that its destruc- 
tion is rather a legal virtue than a crime are 
omnivorous habits in feeding and the posses- 
sion of a self-assertion that carries to ulti- 
mate development the quality that in the 
human being is termed "unmitigated gall." 
Any one who raises chickens has daily evi- 
dence of this lad in the swarm of sparrows 
that descends promptly to claim a share 
whenever grain or other food is put out in 
the yard. 'Like the famous little girl, of the 
English Sparrow it can always he --aid that 

Caim to the party, and ate just as hearty 

l.v if he'd i" i a r< '///.// invito </. 

The Devil's Dm - 

Giving the devil his dues, however, it may 
be said for the English sparrow thai at cer- 
tain times and in certain places lie plays a 
beneficent role. Liking a meat as well as a 

vegetable diet, and always hungry, he is 

keenly insectivorous. Sparrows have been 
noted running down cabbage rows and gob- 
bling worms with wild enthusiasm. They 
have been known to clean a tobacco patch 
with equal gusto. They do their part in 

helping keep down insect life on trees. 

The English sparrow has also been slan- 
dered by the assertion, generally believed. 
that it drives off native birds. This is largely 
a fable, due to the fact that towns and cities 
which once knew the native birds suddenly 
found that none but sparrows were among 
I hose present. This was due. not to the Eng- 
lish sparrow so much as to the former habit 
of the small boy with sling-shot and rifle, and 
the lack of the quietness, space and proper 

nesting places the native birds require With 
(Continued on page 4 > 




(Continued from page 1) 
For some time there have been murmurs 
that the administration of the big Govern- 
ment reservation was not all that it should 
be with respect to Reynard of the Sandhills. 
It was whispered that the grey fox was being 
shot, poisoned and trapped — all crimes of the 
direct sort against the sportsmanship that 
has been taught in the fox-hunting sections 
of the State through generations. Lately, it 
has been charged directly that soldiers at 
the Fort have trapped and otherwise killed 
in a manner other than the chase upwards of 
400 foxes, and devotees of an ancient sport 
are up in arms. 

Held in Affection 

Readers of Kipling's "Stalky and Co." will 
remember how the English schoolboy hero 
of those tales won the affections of the neigh- 
boring Squire by denouncing to him, as one 
indignant gentleman to another, the act of a 
game-keeper in shooting at a vixen. The 
fictional incident is true, not only to English 
life, but to the sentiments of many of the 
native stock in North Carolina and Virginia. 
For the fox has held a peculiar place in the 
affections of the sportsman. He is game, 
cunning, when being pursued by hounds even 
something of a sportsman himself in the 
manner in which he plays the game. His 
devices, the fertility of his resources, the 
tricks and surprises by which he matches 
wits, give him rank and appreciation held 
by no other wild thing that is subject of the 
hunt. The style in which he was hunted in 
the Sandhills, also-, was unique and socially 
wholesome. Long before the day of the 
modern woman with her shrill insistence on 
equal rights and the privilege of enjoying 
mannish activities, many a moonlight night 
saw women riders dashing across country 
and taking fences — on side-saddles — to be in 
at the kill with the forefront of the hardest 
riding of the seasoned males. And to one 
who has felt a good horse quiver beneath 
him at the first authentic cry of the pack ; 
who has known the tingle of the chill night, 
seen the landscape clear and yet softened in 
the light of the moon, caught the exhiliration 
of the chase and after hours of violent exer- 
cise won the brush at the end of the run, 
the idea that the small but hardy animal 
that was the crux of such a contest is to be 
potted with a shotgun, caught in a steel trap, 
or lured with poisoned meat, is utterly repug- 
nant ! 

Protected by Laws 

That this sentiment in the State is wide- 
spread is shown by section 2110 of the Con- 
solidated Statutes, in which the fox is given 
the benefit of a closed season, from the mat- 
ing period in early spring until well past 
frost, the act applying to a number of coun- 
ties. In Cumberland County a special act of 
the Legislature of 1923 prohibited the taking 
of any fox by means of a trap. It is largely 
in Cumberland County — one of the centers of 
the fox-hunting tradition — that Fort Bragg 
and its fox-baiters are located. Those who 
protest against the practice point out that it 
is repugnant to the general policy of the 
Government with respect to National Forests 
and other protected areas. Except for the 
particular use, it has been the custom in 
administering these areas to let the laws 
governing them conform as much as possible 
to the laws of the State in which they are 
located. Thus, the rules of the National 

Forests are made to conform to the game laws 
of the State in which the lands are situate ; 
and even when it is desired to create on 
Government land a Government game pre- 
serve, the concurrent authority of the State 
is sought. At Fort Bragg, therefore, the 
converse policy seems to be true — the foxes 
being killed in spite of game laws by which 
they are sought to be protected by the State. 

Called Game Destroyer 

On behalf of General Bowley's Fort Bragg 
policy, it is pointed out that, since no hunt- 
ing is permitted on the reservation, the foxes 
have not only multiplied to an alarming 
extent, but that they have become a grave 
menace to other game, either natural to the 
area or sought to be established there. Ac- 
cording to this view, it has become a question 
of quail, for instance, as opposed to foxes ; 
and it is a known fact that the fox is a 
predatory animal, so far as small game is 
concerned. He hunts with the same cunning 
in catching his dinner as he shows in the 
effort to save his own brush when the pack 
is in pursuit. Nevertheless, it remains true 
that when foxes were most plentiful in the 
Sandhills, there was no lack of quail, and 
that real scarcity of game and wild life of 
all sorts results not from the natural warfare 
of different species hunting for the means 
of living, but from injudicious hunting by 
men. It was the netting of quail, then pot- 
hunting, then the excessive bag due to repeat- 
ing shotguns, and the great areas it was 
possible to cover in a day with the aid of the 
automobile that resulted in the alarm lest 
"Bob White" became a memory. Foxes eat 
quail, but prefer rabbits ; and, like the great 
majority of predatory animals, they kill in 
any event only for food, and not to satisfy 
wanton desire. If foxes have managed to 
survive through the scores of years during 
which they have been hunted affectionately 
with the hounds, it is because the sport 
of which they were the object has always 
been intelligent enough not to follow them to 
the point of extermination, as has happened 
so frequently in other instances. 

Horse Also Involved 

While the right of a fox to a place in the 
wild life of the State is being considered on 
account of his contribution to sport, it is not 
amiss to weigh his influence on an important 
means of recreation, sport and industry 
threatened by modern economic development. 
The horse is in dire peril from the motor 
age, and though we sometimes hear of the 
monstrosity of fox-hunts in which the hounds 
are followed in flivvers, it still is necessary 
to have a horse with which to hunt the fox. 
In fact, fox-hunting is one of the few activi- 
ties in which the once popular horse is con- 
sidered an essential. Take away the fox, 
let the pack degenerate into the mongrel 
melting pot, and the horse takes another step 
toward an undeserved oblivion. 

In spite of the prevalence of the automobile, 
thinkers realize the economic importance of 
the horse. They know that horse-breeding- 
can be abandoned only at a great loss, and 
even peril to the national safety and the 
maintenance of character. They know that 
with the horse there are opportunities for a 
wholesome acquaintance with nature and out- 
of-doors which, from an automobile, are 
largely so many non-intimate panoramas. To 
keep the horse worth while in modern life, 
he must be well bred to good blood strains, 
just as an automobile must have the latest 
developments in motor, ignition, and tires. 
And though the sporting farmer frequently 
joined the old-fashioned fox-hunt astride a 

trotting mule, it is the blooded horse that 
counts in the chase of the true-blue fox. 

Fort Bragg has become nationally famous 
as a great area in which worth-while things, 
from longleaf pine trees to buck privates, are 
conserved to a better and stronger growth. 

It were paradoxical should it become 
known as a great official endorsement of the 
nasty habit of using shotgun and trap upon 
a creature that for centuries has held the 
proud place as man's best-loved quarry. 




(Continued from page 3) 

the control of indiscriminate bird-nesting, 
shooting, etc., the lawns of every city now 
show the robin abundantly, and, where there 
are suitable trees and shrubs, a convincing 
variety of song and other native birds and 
migrants that worry about the English spar- 
row not at all. The English sparrow may 
steal for his nest a box intended for a more 
attractive guest, but when it comes to con- 
flict, he is not the fighter his reputation makes 
him out to be. The bluebird, for instance, 
can whip many times his weight in sparrows, 
and the writer recently marked a mocking 
bird feeding in a holly tree and preserving 
his right of occupation by driving off a dozen 
sparrows who from time to time ventured to 
attempt a place at the feast ! 

But Here Forever 

Advice as to the English sparow would 
seem to be confined to killing him when it 
seems desirable, uptil one tire's of the endless 
exercise or finds the cost of the labor too 
heavy for the return. The sparrow is an 
outlaw according to the statutes, but, like the 
crow with the wisdom of the serpent, he 
bears his death sentence lightly, knowing it 
cannot be executed. 

But whereas the crow matches wits, scorns 
traps, and looks cock-eyed at the most tempt- 
ing poison bait, the individual sparrow dies 
almost enthusiastically, seemingly comforted 
by the knowledge that to such a man of 
family the question of posterity is an easy 
oyster ! 


Natural resources as the basis of North 
Carolina prosperity will be the idea dominat- 
ing the exhibit the North Carolina Geological 
and Economic Survey will have at the East- 
ern Carolina Exposition in Kinston, April 

Forestry, especially in relation to the lum- 
ber industry, is a matter of vital concern to 
the eastern section of the State, and will 
accordingly be featured. Drainage projects 
have in many instances vastly benefited 
Eastern Carolina. Sand, gravel and clay are 
natural resources, long neglected, but now 
being more and more utilized in building up 
a balanced prosperity. These will be shown 
and another feature will be an instructive 
chart of the hydro-electric systems of the 
State, defining their relation to and possible 
utilization by Eastern North Carolina in- 

If there is to be a National Park in the 
Southern Appalachians there is one area in 
North Carolina which contains almost every- 
thing in the way of scenery and natural inter- 
est that such a park should have. When the 
commission views Linville Gorge, its quest 
should have reached its end. 



A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 


Vol. 1 

CHAPEL IfTLL, N. C, APRIL 19, 1924 

No. 26 




The development of Deep River from a 
point one mile northwest of Jamestown, 
through Guilford and Randolph counties, to 
the Randolph-Moore county line and thence 
to Moncure al its junction with the Haw in 
the formation of the Cape Fear as a single 
power unit for industrial efficiency! 

The economic utilization of practically the 
whole of the water power available on 114 
miles of a river long given over to cotton 
mill manufacture, heretofore embarrassed by 
lack of power and operation on part time, due 
to drought and the rapid clogging of ponds 
with silt ! 

Linking of a total power more than doubled 
in quantity and largely regulated by storage 
reservoirs with a central steam power plant 
with coal from the newly opened Deep River 
Coal Field at its doors for fuel! 

A pooling of interests of independent in- 
dustries in an enterprise which by intercon- 
nected hydro-electric lines would supply the 
power needs of each, as and in the amount 
needed, and provide power for additional and 
diversified industry ! 

Two-tear Investigation 

Although Deep River in the present state of 
development i>s far from affording such a 
picture, the picture itself is anything but 
fanciful. Instead, it is drawn from conclu- 
sions based on a two-year study of the entire 
power and industrial situation and possibili- 
ties of the river, its existing plants and de- 
velopments, and the adjacent coal field. This 
study, conducted by the hydraulic department 
of the Survey, is now complete, along with 
comprehensive tables, maps, details and esti- 
mates, and has been submitted to the in- 
terests concerned. It shows what the river 
is capable of producing, what power can be 
reasonably expected to be industrially avail- 
able, what can he accomplished. In the light 
of the growing necessity of so utilizing all 
available water power as to meet industrial 
needs whose rapid expansion threatens soon 
to exceed the supply of hydro-electric energy. 
the study and report are significant of a new- 
practice of beneficently revolutionary char- 
acter. So far as known it is unique, in that 
it contemplates the coordination of the entire 
power possibilities on a river and their de- 
velopment in a manner to make of the stream 
and its industries a single power unit ! 

The plan for the visualization of Deep 
River in this aspect was born of a brief field 
reconnaisance of the Deep River power situa- 
tion made by Thorndike Savillo. hydraulic en- 
gineer of the Survey, in company with Major 
Warren E. Hall, until recently district engi- 
neer of the U. S. Geological Survey. Follow- 
ing their report, (he Survey called a meeting 
of the Deep River power interests in Greens- 
boro in August. 1922, as a result of which it 
was agreed that the Survey should conduct 
the detailed study and prepare the report for 
(Continued on page 4) 




A great public utility company recently purchased outright an old and 
still profitable cotton mill at a price reported a- $500,000. 

Its purpose, however, is not remotely that of entering on the manufacture 
of cotton as a side line. Instead, it will scrap the mill and its very con- 
siderable plant, in order to make room for a greater and more comprehensive 
development of its own. The purchase price was merely a species of liqui- 
dated damages for the flooding out of an area necessary to extract from the 
stream on which the mill is located Its utmost potential economic power. 
Needless to say, the resulting increase in hydro-electric energy will make 
possible the turning of many more spindles than those thus sacrificed to the 
need of expansion. 

In this issue of Natural Resources is an account of a unique survey of a 
North Carolina stream, from the premise of its use as a single power unit. 
It now supports a number of independent manufacturing plants, which alto- 
gether utilize less than half the power which the stream is capable of provid- 
ing. A scientific study of the geography, stream flow and existing and poten- 
tial development of this small river suggests a plan by which present manu- 
facturing enterprise can be conducted at a great increase in efficiency and 
saving in expense and a considerable new T source of hydro-electric power 
brought into existence for the creation of an intensive industrial district. 

Deep River is only one of a number of relatively small North Carolina 
streams on Avhich the power possibilities have been only partially realized. 
There are others on which developments like that of the mill to be scrapped 
interfere with or prevent the use in the ultimate sense of this great natural 
resource. In the case of naA'igable rivers the Federal Government is careful 
so to scrutinize proposed power projects as to make their output available to 
the public and prevent partial development inimical to their maximum em- 
ployment. It is a recognized principle that water, the one natural resource 
with the quality of motion, is associated with a common public interest supe- 
rior to unregulated control through riparian rights or owuership. Is it not 
time the State took steps to assure the equitable handling of all it- -t reams 
from the point of view of efficiency and economy so wisely adopted by The 
private interests of the Deep River area '. 

Very shortly North Carolina industry will require hydro-electric po ei 
far beyond the capacity of public utility companies to produce within our 
borders. To see that every stream capable of power production gets a scien- 
tific treatment to protect its ultimate development to the maximum is on.- of 
the outstanding governmental duties of the immediate futun . 




The North Carolina Drainage Association 
moots this year. April 29-30, at I'.olhaven, 
near which are located some of the mo»i 

brilliant examples of success in the redemp- 
tion oi swamp lands to agriculture. Within 
a ten-mile radius of Rolhavon there have 
been completed a half dozen or more projects 
which embrace a total of more than 200,000 
acres of land of black soil of extreme rich- 
ness. Formerly worthless and listed, if at 
(Continued on page 2) 




Whereas it used to be a question bow to 

maintain in a few principal North Carolina 

cities a hotel in which a fair proportion of 

the rooms were equipped with baths, the 
problem now is to build million dollar hOStel- 

ries fast enough to accommodate patronage 
constantly awaiting its turn in front of the 
This building *<f skyscraping monoliths of 

commercial hospitality, which began OS mark- 

( Continued on page 3* 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit 

Character and Resources 

We think of a people as something dis- 
tinctive. There is the impress of the pre- 
dominant race. There is the influence of 
history, success, hardship, tradition. In- 
bred ideals find their unconscious but au- 
tomatic expression in habit, judgment, 
belief. Climate does its part in the fixa- 
tion of temperament. It is a people stern 
or laughing. Flint or responsive to senti- 
ment. Poetic or practical. Generous or' 
acquisitive. A people is as personal as a 

That is to say, the determination of 
the distinctive quality that runs through 
a people, that distinguishes its govern- 
ment, its practical and spiritual reactions 
is dependent upon the two factors of 
character and environment. The one is 
born ; the other, so far from being mere 
chance, is development and reflection. 
The first" measure of a people is what they 
Avish themselves to be — and that is char- 
acter. The next is the things with which 
they do their work and are theirs to use 
and develop — and that is natural re- 
sources. If character is what one wishes 
to be, it is clear that as the things he has 
to use remain or are wasted, so will char- 
acter itself be sustained and enlarged, or 
twisted or weakened in its development. 

No people have greater reason than 
North Carolinians to keep the central 
thought of this relationship between what 
they are and wish to be and what their 
environment holds for them in the way of 
natural resources. So far our character 
has crystallized uniformly. We came of 
a strong and sturdy stock, generous in the 
best sense of a free-handed willingness to 
share the fruits of thrift and effort. Our 
ancestors came from lands in which 
forests grew and streams flowed freely. 
The motive of their migration was rather 
to seek adventure than to avoid hardship. 
In a new land they made friends of it and 
its natural riches. In part, perhaps, it 
was just because their land was so rich 
that ISTorth Carolinians remained, for so 
long a time, relatively so poor. Under- 
neath a virtue of simplicity and modesty 
that became a part of the character in 
which we believe, there may. have been a 
hint of laziness encouraged by the abund- 
ance of that which waited for our work 
to take. 

The North Carolinian of today would 
be stupid indeed if he did not recognize 

that he has bravely overcome his isola- 
tion and the complex of lack of confidence 
that went with it. The world is telling 
him what he has done. Applause is sweet 
in his ears. His wealth has increased by 
leaps and bounds. His will to do and 
achieve persuades him of a brilliant des- 
tiny for his children. Just now no effort 
of the intelligence will pay him better, 
materially and otherwise, than that of 
taking stock of the resources left to him 
with which to do the larger things em- 
braced in his expanding plans. 

Such a survey will show him that the 
resources of the forests which so con- 
tributed to his civilization have been 
greatly depleted. He will see that not 
only has he wasted timber in the past and 
prevented its renewal, but that he has 
failed to make intelligent use even of that 
which he rescued for sale. He will see 
not only the necessity for reforesting 
waste areas in order to support future en- 
terprise; not only the obligation to peo- 
ple the land with men fitted to agricul- 
ture; not only the duty of setting about 
the economic use of his undeveloped coal 
and the maximum realization of the hy- 
dro-electric miracle of the streams. 

He will see in all this duty of conser- 
vation not only the means of organizing, 
speeding and perpetuating the new pros- 

If he be wise, he will see that there is 
involved in this duty not only the preser- 
vation of natural resources in terms of 
their widest possible use and development, 
but the conservation and development, 
also, of that character which grew out of 
the things he had, which are the things 
he must keep if he would hold it true to 
the past and sure of the future. 




(Continued from page 1) 

all, for a nominal price for taxation, these 
binds are now on the hooks at from $100 to 
$150 per acre and are, practically speaking, 
not purchasable. Their yields are rich, not 
only in prolific crops of corn, but in grasses 
which are rapidly building up the extensive 
cattle business recognized as one of the chief 
economic needs of the State. 

In many respects the drainage districts 
around Belhaven, with their 150 miles of 
canals from 24 to 40 feet in width and the 
contrast, illustrated by their profitable de- 
velopment, with the swamps out of which 
they have recently been created, are the 
Q. E. D. of the drainage principle as applied 
through legislation. The drainage law of 
North Carolina, passed in 1909, is a model 
that has been widely approved and copied, 
but not yet improved upon except in detail in 
any quarter. Under its operation a total of 
approximately a million acres of swamp and 
overflow lands have been reclaimed to agri- 
culture, chiefly in Eastern North Carolina, 
but to a considerable extent in the Piedmont 
as well. Capital, the interest on which is 
assured of collection as by a tax levy, is 

secured by the lands themselves, and the 
bonds thus authorized have found a warm 
welcome in the markets. While there are yet 
vast areas of swamp lands which could be 
drained, the feasibility of this kind of recla- 
mation is so well established that it only 
needs efficient planning and cooperation to 
bring any particular swamp or overflow area 
to productivity. 

A few figures in rough will give an idea of 
the magnitude of the work and results pos- 
sible in Eastern North Carolina, not only 
through drainage, but reclamation in the 
broader sense. And though drainage has 
been the principal and first step, its end is 
reclamation, to embrace ultimately not only 
lands rendered waste by water, but those 
which have been cut over and left idle. Of 
lands unreclaimed in this broader sense, there 
is an estimated total in Eastern North Caro- 
lina of 2.370,000 acres. Of these a half 
million are not deemed suitable for agri- 
culture in anything like the immediate 
future, and an additional 200,000 acres are in 
peaty lands, themselves potentially valuable 
as fuel producers, but not to be considered 
from the point of view of the farm or land 
settlement. There is. therefore, an acreage 
of something like 1,500,000 which constitutes 
the material with which State reclamation, 
through drainage districts and analogous 
legislation of the future, has to deal. There 
must also be deducted from this total many 
thousands of acres of cut-over land which can 
be redeemed to forests and which it is needed 
be put to growing the timber so essential to 
sound agricultural practice. 

As to drainage, the percentage of failures 
that marks a general success in the average 
project has emphasized in experience the mis- 
take of confusing hope with mathematics. 
A thorough survey and preparation, careful 
cost estimates, close contracts and sound en- 
gineering skill and judgment are necessities. 
These having become the rule, the drainage 
district, the bonds of which are always sound, 
can be depended upon to be a dividend-payer 
for its owners. 

In reclamation in the broader sense the 
problem is more closely related to land set- 
tlement. Lands suitable for agriculture are 
available in quantity. Men to buy and work 
them properly are lacking. Capital is not 
available for proper preparation. Here is in- 
dicated a need for legislation to create in the 
case of such lands a sound policy of credit 
and finance, such as the drainage law has 
proved to be practicable. 

At the meeting of the Association in New 
Bern last April one of the most interesting 
discussions had to do with the extension of 
the Federal Reclamation Act for irrigation of 
arid lands in the West to the redemption to 
agriculture of swamp and cut-over lands in 
the South. The condition of the lands in the 
South and their right to equality of treat- 
ment with those of the West was described 
by F. H. Newell, then chief of the United 
States Reclamation Service. Senator Sim- 
mons and Representative Abernethy also de- 
clared themselves as in favor of the South 
asserting its rights in this respect. 

In sight of and with opportunity to inspect 
prosperous lands as exhibits of what reclama- 
tion means, the Drainage Association and its 
visitors will be in a position for effectively 
visualizing what reclamation in the sense of 
utilizing economically available idle lands 
can be made to mean to North Carolina, the 
South and the Nation. 






(Continued from page 1) 

ing iin epoch in civic pride, is now a practice 
rapidly assuming the proportions of mass pro- 
duction. The lohhy of brass and onyx, the 
marbled corridor, the luxurious mezzanine 
floor, the ice-water spigot in every room, the 
palm and roof garden, the plush-roped arena 
Of the dining-room, the objects d' art, the 
monogram on the accessories have become 
things as matter-of-fact as the old village 
pump. No sooner has a campaign sold its 
bonds and reared one such glittering cara- 
vanserai, than it settles into a routine "I' 
every room occupied ; and another, like to it 
as one pea is bigger than another in its pod, 
is found necessary to take care of the sur- 
plus travel it seems to have stimulated. 

Those who remember the old days when 
the first-class house held its head stubbornly 
for a straight two-dollar rate, and made a 
point that the local paper made an "item" of 
every registered guest can measure a past 
isolation by the ant-like appearance of all 
these metropolitan adaptations to a new era. 

The difference, of course, has been brought 
about by good roads. Every hotel is a ter- 
minus for the travel over a dozen teeming 
highways. And travel, after all, is no more 
than a means to a terminus. Given a place 
to stop, travel in this age of easy locomotion 
stops only to begin again in a never-ending 
pilgrimage. For precipitating the wealth that 
Ibis restless tide sweeps up and down the 
country, the million-dollar hotel is a veritable 
sluice-box of business. It is merely one, if 
a very important, dividend of sound highway 

For the Man in Motion 

It must not be forgotten, however, that the 
million-dollar hotel is for the utilization of 
(/cutis homo in motion. It is a lodging for 
the night for the road-hungry — gilt, and eider 
down, tessolatod, luxurious, formal and ex- 
pensive, but for all that a camping spot in 
transitu. In the last analysis, valuable as 
it is ;i civic asset, it is merely a part of road 

What the million-dollar hotel is doing for 
the transient life of the cities, the resort 
centers are doing for an almost equally nu- 
merous and constantly increasing periodic 
tide of tourists. Particularly in the moun- 
tain section, there is a constant shortage of 
accommodations for the thousands who fill 
every hotel, boarding house, camp and resort 
that is available. The Sandhill resorts have 
become nationally famous. The seashore 
counts as surely on its "runs" of humanity 
as of fish, and the former are far more cer- 
tain than the latter. This demand, too, is 
founded on the roads, and means that what 
once was a special and sporadic enterprise is 
rapidly assuming the proportions of an in- 
dustry that in turnover is already rivaling 
the larger manufactures. 

What the million-dollar hotel and the 
resort emphasize, however, to a thought of 
what the good roads mean beyond their self- 
evident aid to commerce, travel and property 
values, is that neither one nor the other con- 
tributes much, if anything, to a great service 
the highways should do the State. Both in 
essence cater to people who are making high- 
way and camp of the State itself. Those 
who use the million-dollar hotel for a night 
or who gather at a resort for a week or a 
month hold fast to the locality from which 
they come. They are glad to use and pay 

liberally for what they are served in the way 
of entertainment or novelty. They contribute 
vastly in the mass to the sum total of "busi- 
ness." They support one big Industry di- 
rectly and contribute materially to a bun 
dred other enterprises. Bui they arc not the 
feeders to the Stale of the permanent interest 

which the roads should and can be made to 


Need i >istin< i ive Bostelbies 

In the matter of hotels, what reaction mak- 
ing North Carolina distinctive <loes the trav- 
eler from the North get out of a pause at a 
hotel which is a small edition of the Vandcr- 
bilt, I'.iltmore or Ritz, with all its standard- 
ized luxury, cuisine and service? Even ad- 
miration in such a case is touched with pat- 
ronage. It never is, "What a wonderful 
hotel !" but, "Remarkable that such a small 
place should have a hotel so much like that 
of the city!" The million-dollar skyscraper 
serves its good end, hut it does not meet the 
need every region has of giving something of 
its real self to those who might exercise for 
it a natural selection of similar tastes. 

For instance, there used to be scattered 
throughout the towns and cities of the South 
hotels with no particular claim to excellence 
of equipment which nevertheless became thisj- 
tive lures for patronage. Such places held to 
and applied the ancient spirit of "Mine Host." 
They managed to inject into service the eager- 
ness of hospitality. They held to an origin- 
ality of treatment as inimitable as lack of 
self-consciousness always is and will be. Not 
on parade, void of pretense, they reached 
back toward the ideal of a home, and the 
welcome was that of a host to a visitor. 
There is a loss in the passing of these places 
of the older fashion for which the million- 
dollar achievement of the Chamber of Com- 
merce is far from complete compensation. 
Xtiil less is their place taken by the feeble 
imitations in fashion of service into which 
so many of them have degenerated — a differ- 
ence as between honest liomespun and 
"nobby" shoddy. 

Adopt "Old Order" 

Almost every North Carolina town and 
city remembers one of these hotels of the 
older sort and misses something definite by 
its passing. There is room everywhere for 
their reestablishment in principle. Why is it 
not possible to equip with a full share of the 
ordinary luxuries and conveniences of modern 
life scores on scores of small hotels carrying 
old the policy of the older order — which was 
no more nor less than an invitation to rest 
among surroundings which made resting a 
leisurely pleasure and gave to departure 
something of a pang that fostered memory ? 
Such hotels would not be architecturally given 
over to the cubism of the skyscraper. They 
would not be a little bit of New York in the 
center of the local White Way. They would, 
on the other hand, be built for the climate, 
according to the best North Carolina habit 
and tradition; they would feature North 
Carolina food and reflect in every detail 
home manner, custom and tradition. Here 
I be traveler on the road would have a chance 
to see and understand more Of the region 
through which his way lay than the moving 
panorama of the roadside. Here he would 
find a hint by which to gauge I be realities 
behind the shifting scenes of the journey. 
Here he would get the real thrill and interest 
that attach to really wise travel the appre- 
ciation of the new thing among others 
through tin' understanding that everywhere 
binds like to like. 

Our roads that precipitate dollars in the 
sluice-boxes id' business and industry have 



The s"'iie_' "fire season," beginning roughly 

about I be middle of February and. in the 
mountains, not safely over until May 15th, i- 
reported to have been so tar of about the 
average intensity, in the mountain region 
there were near the last of March several 
days of highly dangerous weather extreme 
dryness accompanied by high wind-, a- a 
consequence all the mountain region was 
spotted with numerous tire-, some of which 
were quite near Ashoville. 

in spite of this fact, those counties in which 
the fire prevention work i- organized 
favored by effective practice in tire control 
on the part of the wardens and the DOSSeS 
they summoned to their aid in the emer- 
gencies that arose. As a result, while the 
number of fires was Impressive, the average 
acreage burned over was perhaps smaller 
than ever before — this, of course, being the 
test of fire prevention efficiency. 

The most destructive lire reported from tie- 
mountains occurred recently in Rutherford 
County, on Cherry .Mountain. Large tracts, 
including thousands of acres of valuable tim- 
ber, were burned over and the lire continued 
for several days with little organized effort 
at its control. Several farms suffered the 
burning of buildings and the damages result- 
ing to timber and otherwise amounts to a 
large sum. 

Rutherford County had not been cooperat- 
ing with the Survey and the Federal Govern- 
ment in Forest Fire Prevention, and was 
without the aid of any county organization. 
The disaster at cherry Mountain so aroused 
public sentiment, however, thai the commis- 
sioners have just voted an appropriation of 
$0>00 to enable the county to avail itself of 
the benefits of the work. 

As at present organized, the cooperative 
tire prevention work is now at work in 
twenty-four of the one hundred counties in 
the State. Rutherford having joined and 
Fender County, in the Eastern District, hav- 
ing discontinued, of these counties nine are 
in the Western District, where it is hoped to 
organize an additional county: -i\ in the 
Central District, where there is opportunity 
for one other county to organize and. at 
present, nine in the Fa-tern District, with 
opportunity open for twelve. 

not done the measure of possible service if 
they fail to bring us from the tide- of trav- 
elers a percentage of more or less conscious 

seekers. Cor a people to be distinctive does 

not mean that they are peculiar or exclusive 
In every State there are truly potential North 
Carolinians people in whose character-. 
tasies and natural activities there are p 
bilities of sympathetic union. We cannot 

consciously seek these i pie. any more than 

they, going on a journey, would contemplate 
permanent residence with us. For them our 

roads can be made a lure only a- what we 

provide on and near these road- expresses 
ourselves at our best So pausing, entertained, 
Intrigued, many will find through good roads 

and the hotel characteristic rather than emu- 
lative the way to a mutual and lasting cor- 






(Continued from page 1) 

a scheme of unified development of the 
river, the cost to he divided between the Sur- 
vey and the Ave cotton mills and three power 
companies participating. An agreement also 
was entered into with the county commis- 
sioners of Moore County for a cooperative in- 
vestigation of its water powers, and the 
commissioners have thus also cooperated in 
the investigations considered. 

Doubles Primary Power 

The survey of the river was begun at the 
junction of the east and west forks about a 
half-mile above the highway bridge on the 
Greensboro-High Point road. Levels of the 
water surface were taken for the entire 
course of the river and a traverse run from 
which its course could be plotted. The pro- 
file and traverse indicate the location of and 
fall at all developed water powers on the 
river and at all undeveloped sites recom- 
mended by the report, and the general fall 
of the river surface. The total fall from the 
crest of the proposed dam at Jamestown 
(drainage area 55 square miles) to the mouth 
(drainage area 1,345 square miles) is 612 
feet, in a distance of 114 miles. The fall 
now developed is only 302 feet, and of the 
present undeveloped fall of 310 feet the 
scheme of development outlined in the report 
would utilize 247 feet. The remaining 63 
feet is used up in short falls between exist- 
ing dams or in allowance for backwater or 
in short stretches not susceptible of economic 
development. In recommending suggested 
developments, the report in some instances 
takes into account flooding of highways, the 
cost of which would not be commensurate 
with results, and hence disregards certain 
possibilities on this score. But by the scheme 
outlined the river is practically developed 
completely by the utilization of 90 per cent 
of the total fall. 

Whereas at present 16 developments utilize 
254 feet fall, the scheme proposed would 
necessitate only seven new developments to 
utilize 275 feet fall now undeveloped. Pres- 
ent developments utilize an average of 15.85 
feet fall each ; whereas the proposed new de- 
velopments would utilize an average of 39.4 

Deep is "Flashy" Stream 

The Deep River area, as it happens, lies in 
the trough of the lowest rainfall in the State, 
and the river itself is what is called a 
"flashy" stream, fluctuating between very low 
and very high discharges. For this reason 
the primary power, or power which can be 
supplied constantly even in periods of lowest 
stream flow, is very low. Of greatest interest 
to operators of present and future water- 
power development on the river, therefore, 
are methods by which this low-water flow 
can be increased. The report therefore 
recommends storage reservoirs at Jamestown, 
Randleman and Howard's Mill, where dams 
of 40, 50 and 60 feet, respectively, can be 
constructed. Details concerning these sites 
and their effect in regulating the flow of the 
river, which are given in tables, show that 
whereas the primary low water flow of the 
river is about 0.12 cubic feet per second per 
square mile, the regulated flow available in 
dry seasons from these reservoirs varies 
from 0.45 to 0.3 cubic feet per second per 
square mile. The low water discharge, and 
consequently the primary power, at these 

sites is therefore increased between 150 per 
cent and 276 per cent. There is, of course, a 
cumulative increase at each storage site due 
to storage above, all of which is also shown 
in tables. 

To develop any such "flashy" stream as 
Deep River to its maximum economic capac- 
ity, involves the use of steam power to sup- 
plement the water power during periods of 
deficient flow. This is true in spite of the 
fact that considerable regulation by storage 
is possible. At present existing installations 
are far in excess of primary power available, 
and as a consequence nearly every mill has a 
steam plant for this purpose, and in several 
instances the plant runs entirely by steam 
power during dry seasons. With the river 
fully developed, it is estimated that there will 
be available for about seven months of the 
year 6,241 24-hour or 14,980 10-hour horse 
power over and above the 7,900 primary 24- 
hour power. To utilize this for industries of 
public utility service requiring all-the-year 
power a steam auxiliary capable of produc- 
ing an equal amount would be necessary. In 
other words, to develop the river to supply a 
constant demand for about 14,000 24-hour or 
34,000 10-hour H. P. would require steam 
capacity of only 6.240 or 14,990 H. P., respec- 
tively. The steam capacity would, moreover, 
have to be utilized only about one-third of 
the time. 

Link with Coal Field 

The general scheme as outlined is a plan 
whereby the Deep River can be completely 
developed by a combination of hydro-electric 
and steam-electric power plants to provide 
14,139 continuous 24-hour power, or about 
25,200 continuous 10-hour power. The actual 
amount of horsepower to install would de- 
pend upon the character of the load and 
probably lie somewhere between these figures. 
In addition, secondary power would be avail- 
able for about one-third the time. This power 
total is made up of (1) 1,087 H. P. primary 
water power and 3,400 H. P. steam power 
now installed; (2) 1,715 H. P. added to ex- 
isting developments by virtue of increased 
flow due to storage; (3) 5,096 H. P. at six 
new hydro-electric developments; (4) 2.841 
H. P. at new steam stations. It is pointed out 
that the new developments would, by virtue of 
increasing the flow, contribute about 5,100 
primary water power by themselves, making 
a total addition to the primary water power 
on the river of 6,815 H. P., which would alone 
serve the normal growth in power demands 
for some time. 

To effect a proper distribution of this 
power among existing plants and new indus- 
tries attracted by cheap power a local super- 
power plant will be necessitated for the 
region. All present and new water power 
and steam plants would be interconnected by 
transmission lines and feed into these lines, 
from which all present plants and new in- 
dustries would take their power. Fortu- 
nately the major parts of the necessary trans- 
mission lines to effect interconnection of 
plants and industries are already constructed 
by existing power companies and the building 
of 27 miles of transmission lines, with slight 
changes in the lines already existing, would 
be sufficient to link together all the seven- 
teen plants now on the river. There is al- 
ready installed at Gulf in the Deep River 
coal field a modern steam plant which could 
lie readily enlarged to meet all auxiliary 
power requirements of the project as a whole. 

' Cooperative Plan Suggested 

The report closes with the suggestion that 
the plan of construction and operation could 



Suncrest Lumber Company is the name of 
a large lumbering corporation with interests 
in Haywood County and, with the exception 
of the Champion Fibre Company of Canton, 
the largest dealer in spruce in the borders of 
the State. Its general orders to its employes 
on the subject of fire-prevention are therefore 
of distinct importance to the public interest 
and a potent example to other commercial or- 
ganizations that deal in the forests. It is 
with satisfaction, therefore, that Natural 
Resources has read its executive orders to its 
organization and noted the high ground on 
which it bases its policy, which is not only to 
preserve its own property but to aid the State 
in its efforts at fire prevention generally. In 
a general order to its employes this company, 
under date of February 7, says in part : 

"We want to call the attention of all fire 
wardens on the company's payroll to the fact 
that their responsibility is not only to this 
company, but also to the State of North Caro- 
lina, and that the same thing applies to any 
one who is handling equipment of any kind 
that might set out fire. 

"We try to provide the very best equip- 
ment money can buy to prevent fires getting 
out and place this equipment in your hands 
with instructions and trusting that you will 
at all times see and know that it is in per- 
fect condition. 

"We want you to know it is the instruc- 
tion of this company and their desire that 
you stop your trains, or any other work at 
any time, to put out a fire that may have 
started in the woods, and this applies not 
only to this company's property, but to fires 
on any adjoining property that might endan- 
ger the woods that are in our charge. 

"No man will be discharged, but rather his 
action will be welcome to the company, if he 
refuses to operate any equipment that might 
throw fire and endanger the woods. 

"We have about thirty days to get ready 
for the dangerous season, which is during 
early spring, before the green vegetation 
sprouts, and it is both our instruction and 
request that all equipment be put immedi- 
ately in first-class condition and kept so, and 
it is the duty of every foreman to see that 
this policy is carefully carried out." 

The fire prevention work of the N. C. Geo- 
logical and Economic Survey, in cooperation 
with a number of counties, is of course di- 
rected to the task of saving standing timber 
and preventing the destruction of new growth 
from the point of view of the public rather 
than any private interest. It is recognized, 
however, that the efficiency of such a State 
agency may be very greatly impaired on the 
one hand or helped on the other by the atti- 
tude taken by the large commercial interests 
dealing with timber lands. The instructions 
of which the above is a part are encouraging 
and stimulating and should aid greatly in fix- 
ing the necessary public sentiment in favor 
of better forest practice. 

probably be best carried out by the forma- 
tion of a holding company by the various 
interests along the river. 

It is also pointed out that the logical de- 
velopment would be a similar treatment of 
Haw River, practically paralleling Deep 
River and capable of being connected with it 
in an enlarged unit. 



A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 


Vol. II 

CHAPEL HILL, N. O, MAY 3, 1924 

No. 1 




At the spring meeting of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, held in Atlanta, 
Georgia, April 9 and 10, it was significant 
that a great part of its discussions was given 
over to the technique of wafer power develop- 
ment and public policy to Insure its utmost 
service being realized. 

These representative engineers keenly 
sensed (he growing importance of water 
power development industrially and in con- 
nection with public relations. It was recog- 
nized that the greatest public benefit may be 
derived from water power resources only by 
a wise public policy affecting them, not only 
in regulating their exploitation by public- 
control, but by seeing to it that State gov- 
ernment safeguards a Stale's interest in such 
regulation instead of surrendering such rights 
by default of action to a growing tendency 
for Federal control. 

As to North Carolina and its large and 
growing problem of water power and hydro- 
electric development, discussions were par- 
ticipated in by the former and present Direc- 
tors of the Survey and by its hydraulic 

It was also highly significant that the 
meeting went unanimously on record as op- 
posed to the leasing of Muscle Shoals and 
its power to any person or corporation except 
under conditions applying in all other water 
power leases imposed by the Federal Water 
Power Commission. 

In view of the economic importance of 
water power developments and the interstate 
character of hydro-electric lines, it is felt 
that States should lose no time in enacting 
proper legislation to conserve their peculiar 
interests in their own streams. Under the 
Federal Water Power Act, the commission 
has authority to exercise control over develop- 
ment of streams which are either themselves 
navigable or which affect navigable streams. 
It will bo seen that there is here the oppor- 
tunity for an extension of Federal power in 
almost unlimited degree, since there is no 
stream which cannot, by a stretch of con- 
struction, be held to have an effect upon a 
navigable river. Water powers let alone by 
the States in which they arc located are thus 
constantly exposed to the exertion of a cen- 
tralized governmental regulation such as has 
been applied by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission to railroads, to the practical 
exclusion of any right on the part of the 
States to regulate even such roads as lie 
entirely within their own borders. 

It must be noted, however, that the Federal 
Water Power Act bestows this power on the 
commission only in cases where the States 
have not excited their own inherent powers. 
It is therefore peculiarly emphasized that 
there is an obligation on the part of the 
States to recognize and act promptly for the 
intelligent conservation of these powers, on 
which their future industrial advancement so 
largely depends. 

(Continued on page 4) 

— . . >+ 



There is not an intelligent layman who does not recognize the dramatic 
extension of the "Commerce Clause" of the Federal Constitution. Originally 
devised, perhaps, to prevent the anomaly of discriminatory tariffs between the 
several States of a single sovereignty, the authority of Congress now applies 
so completely to all railroad activities that State regulation is no longer even 
a respectable fiction. 

While it may be true that modern rail transportation has its interstate 
features regardless of the physical termini of respective roads, recognition 
of the fact by the courts and the authority assumed by Congress constitute 
such a step in centralization of power as almost to work a definite change in 
our form and theory of government. With Congress and the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission supreme in this respect, the example has set in motion a 
concentration of government tending not merely to take away paramount 
State rights, but to deny the survival of State privilege. 

The prospective extension of interstate commerce, and therefore of central 
authority, relates to water powers. Under the Water Power Act, the Federal 
Commission may now regulate and control the development of all navigable 
rivers and those rivers and streams which affect navigation. By analogy the 
Federal Power Commission of today is the Interstate Commerce Commission 
of twenty years ago. Unless the States act promptly to conserve and develop 
their own water powers for their own best interests, the hydro-electric industry 
in a short while may be as independent of and as thoroughly divorced from 
State control as any State-chartered railroad. 

The Federal Power Commission has not as yet begun to test the limits of 
its power. Where a State exercises control of its own power streams, there 
is as yet no attempt to impose the Federal authority. But the danger is clear 
and to be averted only when the States, recognizing the inherent public 
interest in their streams, take action to safeguard their development in tin- 
widest sense of public benefit. 

Needless to say, what has happened to. the railroads should be, in the case 
of water powers, a double warning. It is economically and politically impor- 
tant to avoid in their case the fate of centralization. But it should be remem- 
bered that when the Federal Government finally seized the entire railroad 
fabric, its action had been all but compelled by a species of State regulation 
selfish to the point of madness. Each State should regulate and control its 
water powers to the end of their maximum profitable development considering 
private and public interest. For control in practice is synonym for wisdom 
in action and generosity in purpose. 



Perhaps a public sentiment peculiarly slow 
to take interest in or feel concern at the 
progressive destruction of forests and the 
weakening of Iheir allied Industries can get 
an inkling of (he seriousness of the situation 
when it can be shown to increase the taxes 

paid by the Individual, wherever he lives and 

without regard to bis direct interest in tim- 
ber, commercially or from sentiment, 
i Continued on page 3) 


The accounf recently published iii Natural 
Resources of the novel departure of a Men- 
oonite farmer, Mr. Slabaugh of Currituck 
County, in the cultivation and sale commer- 
cially of mint essence lias aroused wide inter- 
est in the possibilities of converting many 
North Carolina lands to the production of a 
product in constant and Increasing demand 
al a highly remunerative price, 

(Continued on page 2) 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. 0„ by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

Ugliness as Legal Nuisance 

The value of the legal principle of the 
"police power," which is frequently irri- 
tating and even dangerous in application, 
is that its very indefiniteness makes possi- 
ble under its authority practically every- 
thing that the public opinion, taste or 
conscience conies to consider desirable. If 
the courts are not yet ready to appraise 
mere beauty as one of the ends it can 
enforce, it is because the public is not yet 
sufficiently suffused with beauty as an 
ideal. Yet let it appear that the public 
really values beauty and, under the police 
power, ugliness will cease to be a personal 
or a property right. 

Asheville, with an ordinance against un- 
sightly bill boards, is now preparing to 
see to what extent the courts of North 
Carolina are prepared to recognize the 
existence of an aesthetic sense in a form 
more practical than conversation or ap- 
peal. The issue is frankly in doubt and 
the authority sought to be imposed a ques- 
tionable one under legal precedents, but 
the mere attempt is stimulating. It means 
that ultimately no man will be able so to 
deface his property as to offend the public 
taste, any more than he now has the right 
to maintain upon it a nuisance offensive 
to the public health. And, though the 
idea is slow of general acceptance, is there 
more reason for offending the eye than 
the nose? 

Apart from the legal outcome of the 
Asheville experiment, there should be en- 
gendered by it a most wholesome discus- 
sion and examination of an abuse whose 
removal would be of great public benefit 
in many respects. Not only is there hope 
in a more general appreciation of the 
ugliness of the gross advertising which 
relies on bill boards for its effectiveness, 
but there is the even better hope that out 
of such an agitation may come the belated 
knowledge that, even as advertising, the 
day of its efficiency is past. Signs to this 
effect are not wanting. Several great 
corporations which have been in the habit 
of spending fortunes on signs have deter- 
mined to abandon them as having failed 
in getting results. Once let a great section 
of the public make its feeling known with 
respect to the signs, the purveyors of what 
the signs purport to sell will realize that 
an intelligence capable of being offended 
in its beauty sense needs a more intelli- 
gent advertising appeal. 

More striking even than in the city is 
the defacing of highways with flaring 

signs supposed to fix the attention of the 
motorist on all and sundry from liver 
pills to liverwurst. Their removal would 
not only relieve a positive offense, but 
would tend to encourage the alternative 
of beautification. There would come trees 
and shrubs in place of signs and bill 
boards. Highways, relieved of the com- 
mercial emphasis, would begin to serve 
more completely their secondary, but 
highly important, role of restful recrea- 
tional agencies. 



(Continued from page 1) 

The first distillation of peppermint, the 
flavor perhaps most widely used in pharmacy 
and in the making of sweets, candies, etc., is 
thought to have been by settlers in New 
England. It was first put to a commercial 
purpose by growers in Wayne County, New 
York, in 1816, but the primacy of that section 
afterwards passed to the present mint dis- 
trict in Indiana and Michigan, now the center 
of the industry, which attains an annual pro- 
duction of some 350,000 pounds of pepper- 
mint. Together with the peppermint there is 
a smaller production of spearmint — 75,000 
pounds annually. The market for the pepper- 
mint is a broad one, it being used largely 
in medicines and even more widely as a 
flavor ; while for spearmint the market is 
almost entirely restricted to purchases by the 
makers of the unique American tid-bit, chew- 
ing gum. 

The botanical name of peppermint is 
Mentha piperita; of spearmint, Mentha 
viridis. Though differing greatly in many 
respects and in price — peppermint brings an 
average of $3.50 and spearmint $2.50 per 
pound — the two plants are alike insofar as 
they grow best under identical soil condi- 

These are those soils which are deep and 
rich in humus, retentive of moisture but 
fairly open in texture and well drained, either 
naturally or artificially — such as drained 
swamp lands, as for cranberry, lettuce, celery, 
onions, etc., or it may be cultivated on well 
prepared upland soils, such as are suitable 
for corn and potatoes, and in loams of a 
sandy and graveled character of good texture 
and depth. However, it does not grow well 
in light, loose, dry soils, or in sticky clay. 

Other Essential Oils 

Other oils which are distilled in North 
Carolina for commercial use are oil of sweet 
birch and oil of wintergreen, which are iden- 
tical in chemical composition. The prevail- 
ing prices are $2.30 and $4.25 per pound, 

Both these oils are used for the same pur- 
pose in medicine, as a treatment for rheuma- 
tism and in the manufacture of salicylates 
for the treatment of the same disease. They 
also are utilized as a flavoring agent in soda 
drinks (root and birch beer) and in chewing 
gum. Tbere are consumed in the United 
States an estimated 75,000 pounds annually. 

There is also one plant at Greensboro, 
N. C, which distills oil of cedarwood from 
slabs and knots which are the refuse in the 
manufacture of cedar chests. The oil sells 
for about 26 cents a pound and is used for a 
perfume for scenting soaps, particularly in 
creating cheap violet perfume. The United 
States uses annually of this oil 200,000 

Nearly all of the 2.000 pounds of oil of 
pennyroyal, used in medicine as an enmenene- 
gogue, is distilled from the wild plants in 
North Carolina. Its prevailing price is $2.40 
per pound. 

Large quantities of the bark of the sassa- 
fras root are secured and sent to market 
from North Carolina. The annual production 
of oil of sassafras in the country amounts 
to 80.000 pounds annually, and it fetches an 
average price of $1.85 per pound. There is, 
however, no distillation of the oil of this 
plant in North Carolina at present. 

The business of producing oils, medicines 
and marketing medicinal herbs in the State 
is of a scope and magnitude little realized. 
For some reason manufacturers and dealers 
have tended to be, if not actually secretive, 
silent and uncommunicative. It is interesting 
to know that Mr. Vernon Kyser of the Uni- 
versity School of Pharmacy is at present 
engaged upon the preparation of a series of 
articles on these subjects which should prove 
of more than professional interest. 

Possibilities in the way of herbs, oils, 
essences, etc., are great in many parts of the 
State and the industry could be considerably 

As for mint, the nature of many lands, 
especially in Eastern North Carolina, is such 
as to hold out great hopes of its successful 
cultivation on a really large scale. 



Mining experts and students have become 
increasingly concerned with the constantly 
decreasing production, especially of precious 
ruetals, such as gold and silver. Constantly 
increasing wages and costs of materials plus 
the depletion of existing mines and the ab- 
sence of discovery of new ones, is bringing to 
pass a condition where it costs more to get 
gold and silver out of the ground than their 
recovery is worth. The situation is compli- 
cated by the fact that the consumption of all 
metals is rapidly increasing. To add to the 
difficulties of the mining industry, it is esti- 
mated that 95 per cent of all outcroppings 
have been discovered, and although it is 
thought there are immense quantities left in 
the earth, the question is the method of 
locating them. 

In the emergency a wider use is constantly 
being made of mechanical aids in discovery. 
Among these are the churn and diamond 
drill, jack-hammer extension drill, magnetic 
needles and balances, automobiles and even 
aeroplanes. All of these agencies have been 
used successfully in taking up the work of 
the old-time prospector who formerly roamed 
the hills with his hammer and pick and 
romance in his knapsack. 

More hopeful than these new tools of scien- 
tific prospecting, however, is the suggestion 
that the geologist and mineralogist lend a 
hand in discovering as well as testing and 
giving an opinion on ore veins already 
located. Oil geologists have demonstrated 
that they could look through a millstone as 
it were for thousands of feet and see the 
hidden lake of petroleum. Field geologists, 
it is now suggested, might undertake to map 
out known mining areas and structures, 
"transverse uplifts," "metallogenic provinces," 
mineral belts, etc. 

Thus informed in a general way of the 
region in which he should look, the pros- 
pector would have his hazard greatly reduced 
and be able to bring to and assemble at the 
area to be investigated every means which 
invention has discovered for tapping the 
earth's yet unrealized mineral wealth. 




(Continued from page 1) 

Perhaps the Individual who remains in- 
different to the tiros that repeatedly sweep 
through commercial limber tracts and areas 
in process of reforestation with young growth 
will listen to the fire alarm when it is made 
sufficiently clear that these very tires are the 
cause of a decrease in taxable values that is 
largely responsible for the increase in the 
rate of taxation, and therefore the sum total 
of bis annual tax bill. 

A citizen alighted from a train in bis borne 
town and started for bis ollice. Tbe fire 
department passed him with much clangor. 
"Going to the fire?" shouted an acquaintance. 
"No," was tbe indifferent reply, "I don't go 
to fires." "Well," replied the hurrying one, 
"it's your house !" 

How the forest lire and the fire that is 
set going to "burn brush" and thus destroys 
young growth is their own house on fire has 
been graphically shown to the people of New 
Hanover and Pender counties by a study of 
what effect forest tires in the past have had 
on the tax rate. The survey has been made 
by K. E. Kimball, district fire warden of the 
N. C. Geological and Economic Survey, and 
similar studies arc being undertaken in other 
Eastern North Carolina counties. Results are 
such as to demand reflection by the people of 
these two counties particularly, and by tax- 
payers everywhere, who can be certain that 
every lire in the woods writes its record on 
the tax receipt. 

Piling Ur Burden 

The history of forested States has repeat- 
edly demonstrated that forest destruction and 
the prevention of new growth have led to an 
increased burden of taxation. The reason is 
perfectly plain if one stops to think about it 
a moment. The revenues of any county, for 
instance, are derived from a tax levied on 
the total assessed property values in that 
county. In years past the assessed timber 
values have often exceeded the total of all 
other assessed value in many counties. The 
timber values, therefore, paid the greater 
part el' tbe total tax revenue. With a deple- 
tion of the timber wealth it became necessary 
to raise an increasingly larger part of the 
county revenues from the improved land, 
town property and corporate wealth. This 
has meant a rapidly increasing tax rate. The 
fact that county expenditures have also in- 
creased has aggravated the situation and 
blinded many to the tact that it is not so 
much the increased revenue as the decline in 
county values that has increased the tax rate. 
It will be asserted that the forest values were 
bound to decline, and that we could not expect 
to maintain them at their top level. This is 
true, but had the forested areas been prop- 
erly protected from lire new timber growth 
would rapidly have taken the place of that 
Which was being manufactured. It must also 
jie kept, in mind that timber wealth invited 
large investments in mills, machinery and 
transportation agencies, which were a source 
of tax revenues. Also the Lumber and tur- 
pentine industry gave employment to thou- 
sands who stimulated markets and business 
and were themselves a source of tax revenue. 
The decline of these industries and the migra- 
tion of population and capital has done much 
to reduce county wealth in addition to the 
loss of forest wealth. 

Two County Exam rues 

In Pender County, for example, the area is 
521,600 acres, of which 44.00:? is improved 

land. After making due allowance tor swamp 
and oilier areas not suitable for timber 

growth, there remains in excess of 4:>0,000 
acres of forest land. The asse sed value of 
the county is $11,386,000 and tbe county tax 

rate $1.25. This gives a eoiml.v revenue Of 

$142,325. Tbe wild land of the county is 
assessed at an average of $6 per acre, winch 

is abOUt all a large pari of il will stand wilb 

mil becoming tax delinquent. Tbe revenue 

derived from Hie 436,000 acres of wild land 
is only, in round numbers $36,000 or 25 per 
cenl of (he total county revenue, leaving 
three-fourths of the expenses of the county 
io be carried by the improved land, town 
property and corporate values. 

Now if the wild land bad been protected 
for the last twenty-five years il would have 
produced in that time in excess of live billion 
board feet of timber worth on tbe stump al 
least twenty-two million dollars. Deducting 
from this amount the present timber values 
in Hie county, there remains approximately 
nineteen million dollars worth of timber rep- 
resenting tbe value of the timber which has 
been destroyed or prevented from growing 
in render County during the last twenty-five 
years. If this value existed in the county 
today, as it or its equivalent ought to, and 
was added to the county's present assessed 
value, it: would be possible to raise the pres- 
ent revenues with a tax rate of 47 cents per 
$100 instead of $1.25 as at present. 

By a similar computation it can be shown 
that in New Hanover County 92 per cent of 
the county's expenses are carried by the 
property other than the county's 130,000 acres 
of practically idle land. It can be shown 
that New Hanover tax rate ought to be $1 
per $100 assessed value instead of $1.25 as at 
present. There is a general belief that taxes 
are so high that it will not pay to grow 
timber. Every acre in either Pender or New 
Hanover County should produce at least $2 
worth of timber per year. At the present 
rate of taxation this land would have to be 
assessed at $100 per acre before the tax 
would equal the annual increment of timber 
value alone. 

In all this computation no account has 
been taken of turpentine values, straw, light- 
wood, that could be obtained by thinnings. 
soil values, pasturage, or any other value 
except the timber values. 

Cost of Wild Lands 

The situation pictured is one which it is 
of tremendous importance to State and coun- 
ties to correct, the destruction of timber and 
young growth by forest tires. The wild lands 
of North Carolina should be yielding a tax 
revenue of $500,000 on annual timber incre- 
ment alone. Had the forests of the State 
been protected from tire for the last fifty 
years. Hie tax revenue from the timber alone 
would at least equal tbe present total tax 
revenue of the State from all sources for all 
purposes ! 

This is the toll of past fires. The future 
toll may be prevented and sharply limited 
only when the people recognize their respon- 
sibility to extend to forest lands the same 
care that is given other classes of property. 
During the years tbe forest department of 
tbe Survey has been preaching lire prevention 
and effecting an organization with limited 
funds, the people of Eastern North Carolina 
have been remarkably Indifferent. That there 
is a new sentiment, however, is shown by 
results during tbe first quarter of Hie present 
year. For, although more than twice as 
many tires have been reported, the area 
burned over is more than 4.000 acres less 
than in 102."!. Tbe damage iter lire is less 
than half and the amount expended for pro- 
tection has Increased. 

Once lei tin- "might-have-beens" and the 

■ m-bes" of timber in terms <<i taxes sink 

into the minds of the people gem rally, and a 

definite start will have been made toward 

till' recreation of our lost fore8tS. 



Eastern North Carolina as a land of fertile 

acres, \aiuable forests and natural i 
tor building materials, of productive fisheries, 
of quickened commercial and industrial enter- 
prise ami new Interest in education and public 
welfare was the exposition of the Bast Caro- 
lina chamber of Commerce, held al Kinston, 

April 7-12. 

Some of the outstanding exhibits were 
those of the Carolina Power and Light Com- 
pany, the Agricultural Extension Service, the 

Public Health Department, and the N. C. 
Geological and Economic Survey. 

Thousands of people from all over the 
(■astern section of the State visited these 
exhibits and learned of the strides Eastern 
North Carolina is making in the development 
of its agricultural, commercial and industrial 
possibilities, coupled with cultural and social 

The exhibit of the Survey was the object 
of considerable interest and commendation. 
The wise conservation and development of the 
State's natural resources wa- the lesson it 
emphasized, featuring the economic utiliza- 
tion of building materials, forests and water 
powers and of land reelaimable through 
drainage. Forest panels from the D. S. 
Forest Service told the story of forest fire 
prevention, of reforestation, of making the 
timber crop a profitable one for every farmer. 
and of Hie erosion resulting from forest de- 
struction. Samples of sand and cement clay 
and gravel furnished by the Standard Sand 
and Gravel Corporation of Lillington, and of 
granite, both block and crushed, by the 
Raleigh Granite Company, illustrated re- 
sources for building materials. A map show- 
ing all tbe hydro-electric lines in the State 
and bow they serve Eastern North Carolina 
attracted much attention. The Carolina I'.rick 
Company, of Kinston. contributed to tin' ex- 
hibit by building a handsome brick wall 
across part of the front of the Survey's booth. 

In general, the purpose of the exhibits of 
the stale Departments to stimulate the curi- 
osity and interest of the visitor-- and then to 
provide practical answers and information 
to those interested was well carried out. 

A model farm was displayed by the Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, showing the 
proper proportion for each crop, for live- 
stock, timber and recreational facilities. This 
was a splendid ex'hibit attracting much inter- 
est and approval. 

Numerous posters and illustrations descrip- 
tive of department work were particularly 

effective in "getting across" their message. 
This was QOtably true in the case of the dis- 
play of the Public Health Department 

".Natural Resources the Basis of Our 
Prosperity; Make Prosperity Permanent; 

Conserve and Develop Wisely." These were 
the words on the large banner flung aCTOSS 
tbe front of the Survey's booth. Similar 
banners urged tbe wise conservation and de 
velopment of the State's resource- in forests, 
water power, drainage and building material-. 





The crowd that always stands by fascinated 
while firemen work to control the flames sud- 
denly shouted its interest. Fingers pointed. 
There were mingled cheers and laughter. 
"Save him ! Save him !" 

On a cornice a small gray form could be 
seen creeping along cautiously in the glare. 
It stopped and looked this way and that — 
up and down. Everywhere was smoke and 
the red tongues of fire. The wise old rat 
was having his moment of agony and uncer- 
tainty. He gathered himself together. He 
was eloquent of desperate decision. He 
leapt out, far and wide, struck the pavement, 
recovered from an instant of shock and, 
every sense alert, dodged through the feet 
of the crowd to hidden safety. 

Other rats no doubt escaped in better time. 
Some few may have lacked the courage of 
the veteran who gave the crowd its thrill and 
thus perished, unconsidered victims of a 
larger calamity. But had the house been 
rat-ridden, none but a madman would have 
called on fire to serve as a riddance. 

Yet in many parts of North Carolina farm- 
ers who even repeat the adage that it never 
pays to "burn up the house to kill the rats" 
are practically doing an equal folly in the 
hope of getting rid of the boll weevil! 

At a tremendous loss in the incidental de- 
struction of timber and the uncounted waste 
of young growth, to say nothing of destroying 
the" land's fertility by burning humus and 
nutritive grasses, they are "burning the 
woods" in the delusion that they are thereby 
destroying an enemy that in thirty-two years 
has shown his ability to invade and infest 
the entire cotton belt. Perhaps a hundred, a 
thousand, a hundred thousand weevils are 
destroyed. What is that to a species which, 
if there were only two survivors, would have 
millions of descendants by the time frost 
issued a new call for them to hibernate 
through the winter! 

History of Weevil 

Thirty-two years ago the boll weevil either 
flew over the Rio Grande or was brought in 
in cotton seed — it matters not. Since then it 
has spread until within a generation there is 
practically no part of cotton growing terri- 
tory in the South that does not have to take 
him into account in the growing of a crop. 
By 1922 the weevil had spread over 614,213 
square miles of cotton lands. Only 13 per 
cent of the cotton belt remained uninfested. 
All but 5.1 per cent of the cotton produced 
in the United States came from weevil- 
infested territory. Today there remains only 
a narrow strip, negligible as a producer, 
along the northern edges of the cotton belt, 
which the weevil finds a trifle too cool for its 
taste. The presence of the weevil is an estab- 
lished incident of cotton culture ! 

How little burning up the woods can do 
toward keeping down the ravages of the pest 
can be gathered from the scientifically estab- 
lished life history of the invader. 

In the winter the adult weevil hibernates 
as a beetle. Following that instinct it seeks 
warmth wherever it can be found. It hangs 
in the mosses on trees. It snuggles in stumps. 
It burrows under brush and in grasses. It 
flies long distances. It invades barns and 
houses. It lodges over rafters. Woods are 
only incidentally among its places of refuge. 

A Geometrical Progeny 

In the spring the weevil's fancy "lightly 
turns" with lightning celerity. So soon as 
the squares begin to form and as long as the 
fruiting season of the cotton plant continues, 
the fecund female is busy laying her eggs, 
one to a spot, with an intensive breeding 
industry common to all war-like races and 

Nor does the egg lose time. In three days 
it has hatched into a grub which commences 
to feed upon the plant in which it finds itself. 
Seven to ten days of this fattening and the 
grub becomes pupa, a stage corresponding to 
the cocoon of butterflies and moths. Three to 
five more days, and, behold ! a new adult 
weevil, winged and ready for nuptial adven- 
ture ! 

In less than a month a pair of beetles have 
become grandparents to a horde, multiplying 
by geometrical progression every few weeks 
through six to nine months. 

Burn the woods ! Call out the fire bri- 
gades ! Put the community in peril ! To 
"kill rats." 

Folly of "Woods Burning" 

Woods have been burning all the way up 
from Texas, ever since the weevil made its 
first entrance into the country. For over 
thirty years State after State has tried out 
this costly experiment and found it lacking. 
To attempt a discredited practice in North 
Carolina is simply to refuse to profit by the 
plainest experience. 

There are many ways of controlling the 
depredations of the weevil. Enough has been 
discovered concerning it by thorough and ex- 
pensive government investigations and battle 
in the cotton fields to make it clear that the 
cotton industry will not fail on account of it. 
Once thoroughly infested, a State that grows 
cotton gets over its hysteria and begins to 
fight sanely and steadily. It passes the 
stage of panic and quits talking boll weevil 
for the sake of outside sympathy. Poisoning 
has been developed practically. Early plant- 
ing, early varieties, speedy picking and re- 
moval of stalks with ploughing of the fields 
give a real measure of control. Progress has 
been made with insect parasites which prefer 
the weevil for food. Many birds are fine ex- 
terminators. Cleanliness on the field, burning 
of brush, clearing out of ditches, care of fence 
corners — all these things mean pounds on 
pounds of cotton to the acre. Burning woods, 
on the other hand, is much like shooting a 
shotgun at a flea, so far as the weevil is 
concerned ; so far as the farmer is concerned, 
it is merely attempting to treat an irritation 
by inflicting a wound. 

Some time ago the Survey undertook a 
symposium of opinion from the departments 
of agriculture of weevil-infested States on the 
subject of burning as a remedy. Opinions 
unanimously to the effect that the practice 
did nothing to discourage the weevil and 
much to damage farm lands were received 
from those who had been through the mill 
and knew. Those who thus spoke by the 
book were the departments of Arkansas, Ala- 
bama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North and 
South Carolina, Tennessee. Texas, the Bureau 
of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, and the U. S. Forest Service. Extracts 
from their letters will be found in Circular 
No. 7, "Forest Fires and the Boll Weevil," 
by Fred B. Merrill, district fire warden of the 

In both Eastern and Western North Caro- 
lina numerous fires have recently been started 
which destroyed much timber, the cause of 
which was voluntary burning of woods, either 
on the mistaken notion that such a practice 
aided grazing by encouraging the growth of 

grass, or in pursuance of the fallacy of help- 
ing to rid the country of the boll weevil. In 
either case such fires are very apt to spread, 
to destroy valuable timber, to prevent re- 
forestation, and, where the lands of another 
are injured, to subject those who set them out 
to criminal prosecution under the State's fire 
prevention laws. 

The boll weevil doesn't mind. To such a 
wholesaler in propagation that strings its 
generations like beads in one season, a few 
casualties in the burning of trees it takes 
forty years to grow mean nothing. 

To the farmers who set these fires the 
meaning is a present willful injury to them- 
selves with no benefit and no excuse except 
the satisfaction of an exploded superstition. 

To the State it means further delay in 
acquiring the necessary crop of timber and 
acreage of forests we have wasted, in some 
instances to the point of destruction, every- 
where to the point of a growing and ever 
more intensified scarcity of one of the funda- 
mental necessities. 




(Continued from page 1) 

At the meeting of the engineers the discus- 
sion on this subject tended especially to point 
out the need of prohibiting improper delay in 
developing water powers by private corpora- 
tions in possession of available sites, and also 
to guard against regulation of an improperly 
restrictive character, either by State or Fed- 
eral agency. It was also clearly pointed out 
that there is a present and continuing need 
for thorough study and gathering of informa- 
tion and data concerning streams, such as 
stream flow statistics, location of undeveloped 
powers, the effect of storage, etc., and the 
duty of geological surveys to study, investi- 
gate and report upon such conditions. 

Considerable attention also was given to 
the discussion of a treatment of power 
streams as single units with the view of 
their development in a manner to make avail- 
able as nearly as possible their maximum 
power potentialities. 

In this connection much interest was evi- 
denced in the recent study completed by the 
survey of Deep River as a single power unit, 
one of the few, if not the first, plans for such 
a unit development ever made in the United 

The Survey also had on exhibition at the 
meeting its map of steam and water hydro- 
electric plants in North Carolina and several 
other States, which comprise the greatest 
super-power system in the East and by which 
power is linked for supply during emergen- 
cies of drought, etc., over a total of several 
hundred miles. 

President Coolidge favors the extension of 
National Forests as a sound measure of 
National Conservation. In his recent "key- 
note" address to the Democratic State Con- 
vention, Secretary of State Everett for the 
first time in North Carolina recognized forest 
fire prevention, reforestation and acquisition 
of forest lands as worthy of a State govern- 
mental policy. Abundance of controversial 
issues should save the question of preserving 
this great natural resource from becoming 
one of them. To check destruction of forests 
and bring back waste lands to timber is a 
vital popular issue which is truly "non- 
partisan" without any of the implications apt 
to be carried in the use of that over-worked 



A Bi-Weekly Publication of 
The North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey 


Vol. II. 

CHAPEL HILL, N. ('., MAY 17, L924 

NTo. 2 


The U. S. Geological Survey, Department 
of the Interior, has recently brought up to 
date its records of developed water powers 
in the United Slates. These are now utilized 
by a total of 3,200 water-power plants of 
100 h. p. or more, with a total capacity of 
installed water wheels of 9.086,958 h. p., 
which is an increase of 1,160,000 h. p., or 15 
per cent over the total of the previous esti- 
mate in 1921, when the installed water power 
was 7,926.958. Of the present total 81 per 
cent of the installed water power is used by 
public utility companies and 19 per cent in 
manufacturing plants. Corresponding per- 
centages in 1921 were 78 and 22. respectively, 
indicating a trend toward an increased pro- 
duction of hydro-electric power in the public 
utility plant for distribution to industry. 

Among the states the five leaders in in- 
stalled water powers are: 

New York 1.542,983 

California 1,451.830 

Washington 480,356 

Maine 473,188 

North Carolina 453,100 

Since the compilation of records in 1921, 
North Carolina has displaced Montana, which 
then ranked fifth in developed water power. 

In view of the rapid advance in the use of 
hydro-electric power, the estimates of poten- 
tial water power available are of particular 
interest. These estimates are based largely 
on reports that include only available sites, 
and therefore represent the potential power- 
that can be developed when a market is avail- 
able, and do not differ materially in essen- 
tials from previous estimates made in 1908. 
Allowing for the difference in assumed effi- 
ciency and lor the inclusion in the estimate 
of the United States' share of the potential 
power on the Niagara and St. Lawrence 
rivers, the present estimate of the potential 
power available 90 per cent of the time is 
about 21 per cent higher than the estimate 
of 1908, mainly because of the assumed use 
of stored water at: places where detailed ex- 
aminations and surveys have shown the ex- 
istence of good reservoir sites. For the same 
reason the estimate of power available 50 
per cent of the time is 4 per cent higher. 

In potential water power AYashington 
stands first among the States with Oregon, 
California and New York following in close 

High Per Cent Developed 

In the case of North Carolina, the estimates 
tend to show that the greater part of the 
available water power already has been de- 
veloped. According to the estimates there is 
in this Slate 540.000 h. p. available 90 per 
cent of the lime, and S16.000 available 50 
per cent of the time. By these figures, there- 
fore, there waits to be developed something 
less than 100,000 h. p. primary water power. 

These figures are somewhat below (hose 
given in Circular No. 6 of the N. C. Geological 
and Economic Survey. Mr. Sa villi 1 I ben- giv- 
( Continued on page 4) 

4». — «' 



A young doctor in Canada conceived the idea of using the gland of the 
pancreas in the treatment of diabetes. The results have rung his faun- around 
the world in a series of miracles by which living corpses were put upon their 
feet and returned to useful activity. Yet men of science are not so much 
struck with wonder at what insulin does as that the idea practically proved 
itself with the first experiment. 

To that extent insulin was a discovery rather than an invention. 
wonders in the realm of science, mechanics, engineering, electricity have been 
perfected in the majority of cases only after the idea had been through a 
thousand tests to yield to a research which counted failures and disappoint- 
ments so much routine. Of the vast number of industries and products 
founded on research today there are few in which the idea was not as much 
in the background as the germ animating the seed which has become the tree. 

America has lagged in research — the patient gathering of data which for 
years gave the Germans a false reputation for genius — chiefly because in tie 
abundance of natural resources we let mere ingenuity in their use have free 
play regardless of an incidental waste in the midst of plenty. That day has 
now passed. The era of high costs of production, together with the necessi- 
ties of the consumer, has forced attention to the by-products which science — 
research, study, the detective work questioning latent possibility — is con- 
stantly utilizing. Even more significant is the work of research when it 
comes to the far greater task of reconditioning and replacing those basic 
resources which our hit-or-miss methods have wrecked or destroyed. 

In North Carolina research is now introducing the pulp industry. It has 
discovered valuable products in such things as peanuts, sweet potatoes, and 
clays. It is pioneering in water power. An older example is the use of the 
cotton seed. There are a thousand fields in which chemists, engineers, plant 
specialists and scientific foresters are working patiently toward a far vision. 

The research work of which the State and the. South stand most in need 
today is that having to do with the treatment and redemption of the fori 3ts. 
Water power is bringing us textile mills. Second growth pine is to bring us 
paper-making. Are we to lose our furniture factories? Research workers 
can point the Avay. Intelligent public opinion aided by governmental encour- 
agement alone can set in motion the means of rescue and development. 


Who in the spectacled age has not yearned 
for the eyes of youth — not only the vision of 
rose through which he saw the future, but 
the physical eyes, keen as a blade, telescopic. 
even microscopic in their efficiency! 

These eyes of youlh, too. are led on by an 
interest apt to merge with the years into a 
commonplace acceptance that eventually be- 
comes a virtual blindness to the very wonders 
among which one walks. Eyes once percep- 
tive of every detail of the teeming life about 

(Continued on page 2) 



New interest in the use of loblolly pine as 
a basi.s for wood pulp in the making of craft 
paper lias recently been aroused by the In- 
vestigation and effort of Charles A. McKeand. 
general Industrial agent of the Seaboard Air 
Line railroad, who is communicating with 
northern manufacturers in connection with 

proposed mills in territory served by tin 1 

system. He was recently in conference in 
Raleigh With State Officials interested in 
forestry and conservation, including a repre- 
sentative of the Survey. 

i Continued on pag< 




Published at Chapel Hill, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Geological and Economic Survey, free on applica- 

Newspapers are invited to make use of contents, in 
whole or in part, and with or without credit. 

System in Camp Management 

There is no more wholesome fashion 
than that illustrated in the growing popu- 
larity of outdoor vacation camps for hoys 
and girls. Properly conducted, they 
bring to modern life the advantages of 
an acquaintance with nature and natural 
sport and recreation which were incidents 
of a simpler time, but largely impractical 
today without the aid of the camp system. 
They substitute for a vacation spent 
either in idleness or the sad state of the 
child at the summer resort a play time 
which introduces to youth a new music 
of body and of mind. 

In Western North Carolina a serious 
effort is under way to broaden and make 
more effective the work of the numerous 
camps which have become a feature of 
mountain life. To that end camp direc- 
tors are being urged and encouraged to 
cooperate to add to the advantages they 
offer a special physical, educational, moral 
and cultural development of their charges. 
It is suggested that they keep in touch 
with not only parents, but teachers, and 
report specifically at the end of the season 
upon the condition of the boy or girl as a 
result of the camp environment and 
activity. It is planned that these camps 
shall give real instruction in play and 
the sports, tennis, baseball, swimming, 
camping, field sports, etc. In addition, 
prominent men in various lines will be 
secured for lectures on subjects suggested 
by camp and surroundings : naturalists 
and game lovers on wild life ; a banker on 
thrift; a power expert on the use of 
streams ; a geologist to translate and give 
a new meaning to the formations, the 
rocks, the minerals; a historian to recon- 
struct the Indian period; an expert in 
manual training to teach the primitive 
uses of common material, a forester to 
talk of the woods, their uses, the infini- 
tude of things that go from them into 
everyday life. 

No section of North Carolina should 
have anything like a monopoly of the 
camp for boys and girls. There is 
scarcely a community near which there 
are not available sites lending themselves 
to a wholesome and varied outdoor expe- 
rience. Nor should the camp long con- 
tinue to be a luxury demanding consider- 
able outlay to enjoy. There is here an 
opportunity for civic investment with 
returns of immeasurable benefit. 

The "Western North Carolina idea of 
feeding the interest and directing the 

uniform development of the boys and 
girls seeking health and recreation is, 
however, an inspiration for education in 
its deeper aspects. There is no reason 
why the near future should not see a 
State-wide association of these camps, 
sharing instructors and lecturers and ex- 
changing benefits. There might be 
worked out, in fact, a system of exchange 
which would provide every camp a com- 
prehensive system of instruction and en- 
tertainment at a relatively small . cost to 


A little over a year ago the Survey was 
called on to mourn the loss to its personnel 
of Chief Forest Warden William Barrow 
Clark, whose untimely death caused genuine 
sorrow throughout the State, in which his 
skill, learning and enthusiasm had begun to 
catch the sympathetic interest of the people 
in the protection and restoration of forest 
lands and to make articulate the natural 
latent love of trees deep planted in our popu- 
lation. Mr. Clark, who was a graduate of 
the Tale School of Forestry, had been with 
the N. C. Geological and Economic Survey 
for over two and a half years, and had deeply 
impressed his ability and personality upon 
the people of all sections. The illness from 
which his death resulted was contracted in 
the line of duty while in the field. 

On Saturday, April 26, Mrs. Emma A. 
McFeely Clark, his widow, died at Chapel 
Hill and was buried in the local cemetery 
following funeral services held at the Chapel 
of the Cross. After the death of her hus- 
band Mrs. Clark had for a while clone cleri- 
cal work for the Survey, but more recently 
had been engaged as House Mother at one of 
the. dormitories for women students of the 
University. Like her husband she had dur- 
ing her residence in the village generally en- 
deared herself to its people by a character 
gentle, kindly and devoted, yet unswervingly 
strong in the performance of duty. 

Mrs. Clark was bom in Maryland and mar- 
ried in Pennsylvania fourteen years ago. She 
leaves an eight-year-old daughter who will 
hereafter live with her aunt, Mrs. Williams, a 
sister of Mrs. Clark. 



(Continued from page 11 
them fall victims to the routine of mental pre- 
occupations and so are blurred even beyond 
the limited capacity to observe. We not only 
cease in large measure to see. bu*" involve 
sight itself in a negligent atrophy. 

On the the other hand the normal boy to 
whom sharpness of vision is the common- 
place hastens the loss of the gift by lack of 
concentration and appreciation of what it is 
bringing him. He accepts too much, is curi- 
ous about too little. He may know by sight 
every species of native tree, every kind of 
bird as it comes along with the seasons. He 
knows wild flowers and plants, rocks and 
strata, bugs and beetles. He perceives colors 
almost as in a spectroscope. Yet all these 
things register but faint impressions on the 
sensitive plate of his brain. He is a spend- 
thrift of sight, and afterwards bewails his 
lack of thrift. 

If the hoy could be induced to let his sight 
arrest his interest, the man would see much 

more, and far more clearly. How influence 
him to sharpen his perception and make it 
informative? How lead him to apply the tool 
of sight and become skilled in its use? 

Seeing Self-taught 

One set of boys in North Carolina has 
acted on a hint of this possibility in a man- 
ner to help themselves effectively through an 
enterprise which holds much present pleasure 
and interest and possibilities of incalculable 
future usefulness. They come to the atten- 
tion of the Survey through a recent letter to 
the Director, as follows : 

"Dear Sir :— Am sending you some minerals 
by parcel post which I would like to have 
identified if possible. 

"No doubt you will be surprised to receive 
this letter, so I will attempt to tell you about 
our society. 

"When Dr. Pratt was in Charlotte during 
the Carolinas Exposition (first one) we went 
out to see the exhibit of the Geological Sur- 
vey. Dr. Pratt asked us why we didn't form 
an association for boys interested in geology, 
so we did, and at present we have about fif- 
teen members enrolled. 

"And thanking you in advance for your at- 
tention of our minerals, I am, 

"Yours very respectfully, 

"W. A. Harris, 
"Secretary Charlotte Mineral Asso., 

"229 Piedmont Building. 

"Charlotte, N. C." 

A Fine Example 

Needless to say the Survey saw to it that 
prompt examination and report were made 
of the specimens submitted, as is the case 
whenever a citizen wishes such information. 
The fact of this society of boys, however, and 
the interest they are taking in the charac- 
teristics of the land in which they live is an 
example which could be followed with in- 
spiring results in many different ways. 
Every normal boy who goes into the woods 
and frequents the streams and ponds knows 
how rocks and formations look. He picks up 
and is transiently intrigued by queer looking 
stones. He has acquaintance with gravel de- 
posits and clay banks of colored soils. He 
has his own knowledge of and names for 
pebbles. If he stops there, when the time 
comes for him to get out of the woods, these 
things remain simply incidents ever more 
vague and shadowy in an ever more vague 
and receding experience. If he goes on and 
finds out what the rock or stone is, what it 
is useful for, what the formations mean in 
the way of age— if he gets, in other words, 
some elemental geology in the natural course, 
he has already found a mine which in one 
way or other will pay him dividends through 

Geology is, of course, but one phase of the 
possibilities of applying this season of active 
leisure that is the treasure of the boy. There 
is an even wider field in forests and trees. 
Plant and bird and insect life all hold myste- 
ries that much learning is yet approaching 
with wonder, but many of which have been 
solved in a way none the less wonderful be- 
cause so simply demonstrated and understood 
when the clew is given. Every boy is a part 
of Nature, ready for a fuller kinship. Every 
boy become a man is in a material way 
numbed and disabled and stunted if he neg- 
lects to stop and examine and learn from the 
things the eyes of youth are constantly sug- 
gesting to his mind. 

North Carolina has few rivals in the range 
of variety of its minerals. The Charlotte 
Mineral Association has started something in 
connection with the understanding of them 
and other natural possibilities that should 
carry a long way. 



The consensus of opinion arrived at through 
free general discussion of the membership al 
the animal meeting of the North Carolina 
Drainage Association, Belhaven, April 29 and 
30, was that the promotion of drainage should 
be largely fixed <>n lands already occupied 
and without involving the land settlement 

With the experience of approximately 
600,000 acres of lands already drained 
through a variety of projects, and with the 
thought of an additional area of perhaps 
2,000,000 acres susceptible of being converted 
Into agricultural lands by drawing oil' surplus 
water, the participants in the discussions had 
a valuable practical background from which 
to draw conclusions from facts as opposed to 
theory. Following the set talks, which were 
evidently designed to elicit questions in detail 
from an audience concerned in drainage 
problems, valuable points were brought out, 
notably by State Senator P. H. Johnson, John 
A. Wilkinson, of Belhaven, and A. D. McLean. 
of "Washington, N. C, all of whom have had 
years of practical experience in the working 
out of a drainage policy under prevailing 

During the next few years, in the opinion 
of the association, the greatest economic con- 
tribution which promotion of land drainage 
can make to the State will be concentration 
on the improvement and extension of the 
cultivable area of lands which are already 
going concerns. This involves the necessity 
of more effective presentation of the ad- 
vantages of drainage to land owners, who 
must initiate such projects for themselves. 
Drainage as a means to immediate land set- 
tlement, in the opinion of the association, at 
present presents too many difficulties to be 
immediately realized economically. 

Another highly important phase of the 
drainage question was brought out in the 
discussion of the relation of land drainage to 
forestry. In the past there have been drain- 
age projects in which the development was 
achieved at an economically ruinous loss by 
reason of the treatment of timber as an 
obstruction to be removed when it should 
have been given consideration as an asset to 
be preserved. Timber lands on areas which 
can be drained are frequently of more poten- 
tial and even actual present value than the 
benefits which follow from drainage at a 
cost which, in their case, is, or should lie con- 
sidered, prohibitive. Where the timber is 
virgin, or in second or new growth, its loca- 
tion on land suitable to drainage gives it the 
advantage of more than average immunity 
from forest fires. Such lands, which even 
when drained could be prepared for agri- 
culture only at a heavy cost, must manifestly 
be considered from the point of view of their 
future as producers of a timber crop already 
matured or well started. It frequently will 
be apparent that drainage of such areas, 
even if successful in itself, could be carried 
Out only at an actual sacrifice, when it in- 
volves either waste of standing timber or 
prevention of new growth. Men who have 
had the greater experience with large drain- 
age projects in thi> East are convinced that 
the land settlement problem, so far as drain- 
age is concerned, will be solved by more 
complete development of smaller areas on a 
project designed to be ultimately a large one, 
rather than by partial development immedi- 
ately on a large scab 1 . A note of hearty 
optimism was characteristic of the men who 
have been through years of varying experi- 

ence in the largely developed Belhaven dis- 

Papers were read at the meeting Of the 

association by General E. P. Glenn, D.S.A., 

retired, Walter I.. Cohoon, and Colonel !•'. I-'. 

Langley, Q.S.A., retired. 
General Glenn, since hi- retirement from 

the Army, has thrown himself wholeheartedly 
into the Study of some of the economic prob- 
lems of bis native State, especially in con- 
nect ion with highly scholarly work as a mem 
her of the Land Settlement Commission. The 
subject of bis paper was "The Need of More 
Cultivable Land in North Carolina," and his 
handling made it a real contribution to this 
important economic fundamental of a suc- 
cessful drainage project. He emphasized the 
human problems encountered in land settle 
incut in a manner which challenged and di- 
rected constructive thought. 

Mr. Cohoon, who is principal attorney to 
the State Highway Commission, and whose 
professional experience has included projects 
both under the general drainage law and 
under the more recent amendments by which 
the Highway Commission may initiate a 
drainage project, made an address which was 
inspiring and full of sound information. 

Colonel Langley, who graduated from West 
Point and was for years in successful private 
practice after retirement from the Army, re- 
entered the Army and commanded an engi- 
neer regiment in France. Since the war he 
has had a remarkable series of important 
assignments in public health work, notably 
in various countries of Eastern Europe, and 
more recently in the Continent of Australia, 
lie is now sanitary engineer with Interna- 
tional Health Board under the Rockefeller 
Foundation. His thorough grasp of his sub- 
ject as applying to drainage work in North 
Carolina made his address of the utmost 
interest and value. 



(Continued from page 1) 

Natural Resources has several times 
called attention to the value of paper-making 
in Central and Eastern North Carolina, not 
only as a potential industry of economic im- 
portance, but as one which would go far to- 
ward giving a practical business incentive to 
the protection of lands in young timber 
growth and the ultimate reforestation of the 
large cut-over areas. In the use of the forest 
the pulp mill is much more catholic in the 
matter of the timber it utilizes than that 
which produces merchantable lumber. The 
process of selection is not nearly so strict. 
Trees of a much smaller size are taken. As 
a consequence, the cut-over area to be put in 
new growth can be used much more quickly 
for wood for paper-making than for mer- 
chantable timber. The turn-over is much 
quicker and the industry does not have to 
look so far ahead for practical results. In 
growing pine for paper-making, therefore, it 
should be possible for the owner of the mills 
to see to it that the lands on which he de- 
pends are worked in rotation for the pro- 
duction of periodic supplies in perpetuity. 

This practice is greatly aided in the pines 
suitable for paper -making by the fact that 
they are species which, as compared with the 
bard woods or the longleaf pine, are of very 
rapid growth. Second growth pines, loblolly 
or shortleaf. or "old field," all have this 
quality, and all make under modern methods 
satisfactory pulp for the manufacture of a 
variety of paper products. Therefore, when 

it is siM'ii that they can be grown to sufficient 
size for this purpose in a few years, a tre- 
mendous impetus should be given to protec- 

tion "i the cut-over land- against fires anil 
agaii tation by unlimited r 

for stock the two incidents of these lands 

that lor year- have operated to prevent what 
Otherwise WOUld have been their -]■• 

growth iii timber. Second growth pine 
prolific and almost universal in occurrence 
throughout Eastern North Carolina wherever 
it is given half a chance to get a Btart. There 
are. also, great quantities oi gum, which has 

a future in the manufacture of the liner and 

whiici- paper-, when combined with other 

pulp wood Papi b Mills 

Beside the large Canton company, which 
uses chiefly chestnut and oilier mountain 
woods, there are now in the State two paper 

mills which use the pine. Both of the-,- are 
at Roanoke Rapids, although others are in 
contemplation. The products manufactured 

have lor the most part been the eoar-er craft 

papers, board, etc., although some paper i 

finer grade, such as suitable for postcards, i- 

made by the Canton company, and experi- 
ments are in the making looking to the pro- 
duction of book paper, etc.. from material now 
Shipped to mills in other State-. The in- 
terests that Mr. McKeand has been in touch 

with are manufacturers whose supplies are 

becoming exhausted anil who are looking for 

new locations, win, the amount and general 
occurrence of many species of woods suitable 
for pulp in North Carolina there is no reason 
why the future of paper manufacture in the 
State should not parallel the history of the 
textile industry— the localization of bush 
at or in close touch with the source- of supply. 

As suggested, paper manufacture would be 

of a value to the State far beyond its inci- 
dental worth as a new industry creating 
values, giving employment, etc .\s almost 
nothing else, the question of supply would 
emphasize the care of lands generally. Fire 
and other protection, become a concern, would 
be the rule. The fallacy of thought that con- 
siders valuable potential timber lands a 
species of common ground for abuse as 
pleases the fancy of the careless and negli- 
gent would be done away with. Refon 
lion, not only for the growth of quick pulp 
woods, but for the more leisurely production 
of timber would be encouraged. Controlled 
practice on timbered land- would encourage 
effective, in lieu of indiscriminate, grazing 
and bring with it a needed cattle and dairy 
development. Thought of what timber anil 
the lands (hat grow it mean and need would 
give impetus to fairer and more practical 
laws as to taxation. The implications ,,f 
the paper mill need wide limit-. 

Si ash 1'im f| orm-itiNG 

Incidentally, reports to the State Forester 
of the Survey are very encouraging regard- 
ing the recently started experiment of plant- 
ing the slash pine of more Southern States 
This species has the rapid growing quality of 

the loblolly, shortleaf. and other pulp pine-. 
but is also a rich producer of turpentine. If 
it can be established that it will grow readily 
in Eastern North Carolina, it can he Intro- 
duced generally with relatively little i rouble 
and in time and with protection produce a 
supply of timber of infinitely rich uses. It 
could be used in